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hormones and bdnf

A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes, however the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience
Rachel Puralewski, Georgia Vasilakis, Marianne L Seney
BACKGROUND: Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to men, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this sex difference are unclear. Previous studies in the human postmortem brain suggest dysfunction in basolateral amygdala (BLA) inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) function, specifically in females with MDD. METHODS: We investigated the effects of sex chromosome complement, developmental gonadal sex, and circulating testosterone on expression of 3 GABA-related and 2 BDNF-related genes in the BLA using three cohorts of four core genotypes (FCG) mice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Mounir Chennaoui, Pierrick J Arnal, Catherine Drogou, Fabien Sauvet, Danielle Gomez-Merino
Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R)...
September 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Sourav Kumar, Amal Chandra Mondal
Major depression is a life threatening neuropsychiatric disorder that produces mental illness and major cause of morbidity. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neuroprotective, neurotrophic and antioxidant potential of Bacopa monnieri extract (BME) on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced behavioral depression in rats. Behavioral tests were carried out for investigation of antidepressant like effects of BME, and potential mechanism was assessed by determining neurotrophin level and hippocampal neurogenesis...
August 10, 2016: Neurochemical Research
David P Gavin, Handojo Kusumo, Rajiv P Sharma, Marina Guizzetti
Prenatal alcohol exposure has profound effects on neuronal growth and development. Poly-ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) enzymes are perhaps unique in the field of epigenetics in that they directly participate in histone modifications, transcription factor modifications, DNA methylation/demethylation and are highly inducible by ethanol. It was our hypothesis that ethanol would induce PARP enzymatic activity leading to alterations in neurodevelopmental gene expression. Mouse E18 cortical neurons were treated with ethanol, PARP inhibitors, and nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor PPARγ agonists and antagonists...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
Liang-Liang Zheng, Xiu-Wen Tan, Xiang-Zhong Cui, Hong-Jie Yuan, Hong Li, Guang-Zhong Jiao, Chang-Li Ji, Jing-He Tan
STUDY QUESTION: What are the mechanisms by which the preimplantation restraint stress (PIRS) impairs embryo development and pregnancy outcome? SUMMARY ANSWER: PIRS impairs embryo development by triggering apoptosis in mouse oviducts and embryos, and this involves activation of the Fas system. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although it is known that the early stages of pregnancy are more vulnerable than later stages to prenatal stress, studies on the effect of preimplantation stress on embryo development are limited...
July 29, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Anna Martha Vaitses Fontanari, Angelo Brandelli Costa, Bianca Aguiar, Cíntia Tusset, Tahiana Andreazza, Maiko Schneider, Eduarda Dias da Rosa, Bianca Machado Borba Soll, Karine Schwarz, Dhiordan Cardoso da Silva, André Oliveira Borba, Andressa Mueller, Raffael Massuda, Maria Inês Rodrigues Lobato
Serum BDNF levels are significantly decreased in transsexual Brazilian women when compared to cis-sexual men. Since transsexual men are also exposed to chronic social stress and have a high prevalence of associated psychopathologies, it is plausible to inquire if BDNF serum levels are altered in transsexual men as well. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate differences in BDNF serum level of transsexual men when compared to cis-sexual men and women. Our sample comprises 27 transsexual men, 31 cis-sexual women and 30 cis-sexual men recruited between 2011 and 2015...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
P Barra de la Tremblaye, H Plamondon
Although it is well accepted that changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis may increase susceptibility to affective disorders in the general population, this link has been less examined in stroke patients. Yet, the bidirectional association between depression and cardiovascular disease is strong, and stress increases vulnerability to stroke. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the central stress hormone of the HPA axis pathway and acts by binding to CRH receptors (CRHR) 1 and 2, which are located in several stress-related brain regions...
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jodi L Lukkes, Nadja Freund, Britta S Thompson, Shirisha Meda, Susan L Andersen
Clinical and preclinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that juvenile males that are exposed to methylphenidate (MPH) show reduced risk for substance use later in life. In contrast, little is known about whether females have the same enduring treatment response to stimulants and how gonadal hormones influence their behavior later in life. Females received either a sham or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) microinjection in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at postnatal day (P)10. Subjects were then treated with Vehicle or MPH (2mg/kg, p...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Miklós Sárvári, Imre Kalló, Erik Hrabovszky, Norbert Solymosi, Annie Rodolosse, Zsolt Liposits
Estradiol (E2) robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER). Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc.) on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month) rats...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tatiana Barichello, Lutiana R Simões, Jaqueline S Generoso, Vladislav S Sharin, Lucas B Souza, Luciano K Jornada, Diogo Dominguini, Samira S Valvassori, Antônio Lucio Teixeira, João Quevedo
Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with a high mortality rate. In addition to causing severe neurological sequelae infectious diseases of the CNS can play a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study infant Wistar rats, postnatal day 11, received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or a Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension to a concentration of 1 × 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)...
June 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Erdinç Dursun, Merve Alaylıoğlu, Başar Bilgiç, Haşmet Hanağası, Ebba Lohmann, Irem L Atasoy, Esin Candaş, Ömür Selin Araz, Burak Önal, Hakan Gürvit, Selma Yılmazer, Duygu Gezen-Ak
Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone that shares a synthetic pathway with cholesterol. ApoE, which is involved in the transport of cholesterol, is the most significant genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Surprisingly, recent studies have indicated the presence of an evolutionary juncture between these two molecules. To demonstrate this possible relationship, we investigated serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25OHD) in patients with early onset-AD (EOAD; n:22), late onset-AD (LOAD; n:72), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n:32) and in healthy subjects (n:70)...
October 2016: Neurological Sciences
Şeref Şimşek, Salih Gençoğlan, Tuğba Yüksel, İbrahim Kaplan, Rümeysa Alaca
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol levels between children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) prior to treatment and healthy controls. In addition, the study aimed to assess any correlations between OCD symptom severity and BDNF, ACTH, and cortisol levels. METHODS: Twenty-nine children, aged from 7 to 17 years (male/female: 21/8) and diagnosed with OCD according to DSM-IV prior to treatment, were compared with 25 healthy control subjects (male/female: 16/9)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
C Savoy, R J Van Lieshout, M Steiner
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is estimated to affect one in twenty people worldwide. MDD is highly comorbid with cardiovascular disease (CVD), itself one of the single largest causes of mortality worldwide. A number of pathological changes observed in MDD are believed to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, although no single mechanism has been identified. There are also no biological markers capable of predicting the future risk of developing heart disease in depressed individuals. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a prothrombotic plasma protein secreted by endothelial tissue and has long been implicated in CVD...
June 1, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Seyed Morteza Shafiee, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Ali Rashidy-Pour
Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Qi-Min Wang, Gui-Lin Wang, Ze-Gang Ma
The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin, a natural flavonoid, on chronic stress-induced learning and memory deficits in mice. The mice were restrained daily 4 h/day for 21 days in well-ventilated plexiglass tubes without access to food and water. These animals were injected with myricetin or vehicle 40 min before each restraint stress over a period of 21 days. Then, spatial learning and memory of the mice were evaluated by the Morris water maze task...
June 15, 2016: Neuroreport
Archana Ashokan, Akshaya Hegde, Rupshi Mitra
Moderate levels of anxiety enable individual animals to cope with stressors through avoidance, and could be an adaptive trait. However, repeated stress exacerbates anxiety to pathologically high levels. Dendritic remodeling in the basolateral amygdala is proposed to mediate potentiation of anxiety after stress. Similarly, modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is thought to be important for the behavioral effects of stress. In the present study, we investigate if relatively short periods of environmental enrichment in adulthood can confer resilience against stress-induced anxiety and concomitant changes in neuronal arborisation and brain derived neurotrophic factor within basolateral amygdala...
July 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Tian Xia, Yu Fu, Shuang Li, Ruihong Ma, Zhimei Zhao, Baojuan Wang, Chune Chao
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the molecular pathway of BSTCR (Bu Shen Tiao Chong recipe) in retrieving diminished ovary reserve (DOR). METHODS: The DOR model was established through injecting cyclophosphamide and the effect of BSTCR was examined under this background. RESULTS: BSTCR was shown to restore depleted brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), CDC2, cyclin B, GSH1, and P38 levels as well as impaired oocyte maturation and the higher apoptosis induced in DOR...
June 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Anne Stephanie Mallien, Rupert Palme, Juliet Richetto, Chiara Muzzillo, Sophie Helene Richter, Miriam Annika Vogt, Dragos Inta, Marco Andrea Riva, Barbara Vollmayr, Peter Gass
The translational assessment of mechanisms underlying cognitive functions using touchscreen-based approaches for rodents is growing in popularity. In these paradigms, daily training is usually accompanied by extended food restriction to maintain animals' motivation to respond for rewards. Here, we show a transient elevation in stress hormone levels due to food restriction and touchscreen training, with subsequent adaptation effects, in fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations, indicating effective coping in response to physical and psychological stressors...
May 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Baoji Xu, Xiangyang Xie
Energy balance--that is, the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure--is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight...
May 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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