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Charlene J Crump, Stephen H Hamerdinger
Working with individuals who are deaf in mental health settings can be complex work, necessitating consideration for the difference in language abilities. These differences include not only the language differences of American Sign Language (ASL) and English, but also the range of heterogeneity within the Deaf Community. Multiple influences such as mental illness, medical conditions, language deprivation and the etiology of deafness can impact how a person acquires and uses language. This article will discuss how various causes of deafness create the potential for specific language dysfluencies with individuals who are deaf in mental health settings...
February 22, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
Wyatte C Hall, Leonard L Levin, Melissa L Anderson
PURPOSE: There is a need to better understand the epidemiological relationship between language development and psychiatric symptomatology. Language development can be particularly impacted by social factors-as seen in the developmental choices made for deaf children, which can create language deprivation. A possible mental health syndrome may be present in deaf patients with severe language deprivation. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify publications focusing on language development and mental health in the deaf population...
February 16, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
MacKenzie Wyatt, Emily A Berthiaume, Conor W Kelly, Samuel J Sober
Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter...
January 2017: ENeuro
Gojko Žarić, João M Correia, Gorka Fraga González, Jurgen Tijms, Maurtis W van der Molen, Leo Blomert, Milene Bonte
Reading is a complex cognitive skill subserved by a distributed network of visual and language-related regions. Disruptions of connectivity within this network have been associated with developmental dyslexia but their relation to individual differences in the severity of reading problems remains unclear. Here we investigate whether dysfunctional connectivity scales with the level of reading dysfluency by examining EEG recordings during visual word and false font processing in 9-year-old typically reading children (TR) and two groups of dyslexic children: severely dysfluent (SDD) and moderately dysfluent (MDD) dyslexics...
February 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Robbert Duvivier, Martin Veysey
Current tools for clinical assessment are tedious and time-consuming, particularly the dreadful long case. There is a need for novel instruments that incorporate other aspects of competence. We propose such a method, namely the Uh/Um Index. Our innovation paper describes the rationale for using speech dysfluency and occurrences of filler words such as 'uh' and 'um' as a proxy for competence. This appears to have won initial support from senior clinicians in our institution. Additional research is needed (non-restricted grants are welcomed) to establish rigorous standard setting and to fund our attendance at overseas conferences to make the Uh/Um Index the new buzzword in medical education...
December 2016: Medical Education
Ranit Sengupta, Shalin Shah, Katie Gore, Torrey Loucks, Sazzad M Nasir
Despite advances in our understanding of the human speech system, the neurophysiological basis of stuttering remains largely unknown. Here, it is hypothesized that the speech of adults who stutter (AWS) is susceptible to disruptions in sensorimotor integration caused by neural miscommunication within the speech motor system. Human speech unfolds over rapid timescales and relies on a distributed system of brain regions working in a parallel and synchronized manner, and a breakdown in neural communication between the putative brain regions could increase susceptibility to dysfluency...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
Naida L Graham, Carol Leonard, David F Tang-Wai, Sandra Black, Tiffany W Chow, Chris J M Scott, Alicia A McNeely, Mario Masellis, Elizabeth Rochon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Frank agrammatism, defined as the omission and/or substitution of grammatical morphemes with associated grammatical errors, is variably reported in patients with nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfPPA). This study addressed whether frank agrammatism is typical in agrammatic nfPPA patients when this feature is not required for diagnosis. METHOD: We assessed grammatical production in 9 patients who satisfied current diagnostic criteria...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Gitit Kavé, Mira Goral
We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies of word retrieval in connected speech in healthy aging and reviewed relevant aphasia research that could shed light on the aging literature. Four main hypotheses guided the review: (1) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to reduced output in connected speech. (2) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to a more limited lexical variety in connected speech. (3) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to an increase in word substitution errors and in pronoun use as well as to greater dysfluency and hesitation in connected speech...
September 1, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Lucia Ricciardi, Michela Ebreo, Adriana Graziosi, Marianna Barbuto, Chiara Sorbera, Letterio Morgante, Francesca Morgante
INTRODUCTION: Speech disturbances in Parkinson's disease (PD) are heterogeneous, ranging from hypokinetic to hyperkinetic types. Repetitive speech disorder has been demonstrated in more advanced disease stages and has been considered the speech equivalent of freezing of gait (FOG). We aimed to verify a possible relationship between speech and FOG in patients with PD. METHODS: Forty-three consecutive PD patients and 20 healthy control subjects underwent standardized speech evaluation using the Italian version of the Dysarthria Profile (DP), for its motor component, and subsets of the Battery for the Analysis of the Aphasic Deficit (BADA), for its procedural component...
August 15, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Lingzhong Meng, Seunggu J Han, Mark D Rollins, Adrian W Gelb, Edward F Chang
The co-occurrence of primary brain tumor and pregnancy poses unique challenges to the treating physician. If a rapidly growing lesion causes life-threatening mass effect, craniotomy for tumor debulking becomes urgent. The choice between awake craniotomy versus general anesthesia becomes complicated if the tumor is encroaching on eloquent brain because considerations pertinent to both patient safety and oncological outcome, in addition to fetal wellbeing, are involved. A 31-year-old female at 30 weeks gestation with twins presented to our hospital seeking awake craniotomy to resect a 7 × 6 × 5 cm left frontoparietal brain tumor with 7 mm left-to-right subfalcine herniation on imaging that led to word finding difficulty, dysfluency, right upper extremity paralysis, and right lower extremity weakness...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Jan Rusz, Jan Hlavnička, Tereza Tykalová, Jitka Bušková, Olga Ulmanová, Evžen Růžička, Karel Šonka
OBJECTIVE: Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are at substantial risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) or related neurodegenerative disorders. Speech is an important indicator of motor function and movement coordination, and therefore may be an extremely sensitive early marker of changes due to prodromal neurodegeneration. METHODS: Speech data were acquired from 16 RBD subjects and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects...
March 2016: Sleep Medicine
Carole R Roth, Micaela Cornis-Pop, Woodford A Beach
BACKGROUND: Reports of increased incidence of adult onset stuttering in veterans and service members with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan lead to a reexamination of the neurogenic vs. psychogenic etiology of stuttering. OBJECTIVE: This article proposes to examine the merit of the dichotomy between neurogenic and psychogenic bases of stuttering, including symptom exaggeration, for the evaluation and treatment of the disorder...
2015: NeuroRehabilitation
Jeffrey R Mock, Anne L Foundas, Edward J Golob
Motor efference copy conveys movement information to sensory areas before and during vocalization. We hypothesized speech preparation would modulate auditory processing, via motor efference copy, differently in men who stutter (MWS) vs. fluent adults. Participants (n=12/group) had EEG recorded during a cue-target paradigm with two conditions: speech which allowed for speech preparation, while a control condition did not. Acoustic stimuli probed auditory responsiveness between the cue and target. MWS had longer vocal reaction times (p<0...
October 2015: Brain and Language
Eugenia I Gorlin, Bethany A Teachman
The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task...
July 2015: Behavior Therapy
Sheila V Stager, Frances J Freeman, Allen Braun
PURPOSE: This study presents data from 2 families with high incidence of stuttering, comparing methods of phenotype assignment and exploring the presence of other fluency disorders and corresponding speech characteristics. METHOD: Three methods for assigning phenotype of stuttering were used: self-identification, family identification, and expert identification. Agreement on which individuals were assigned by each of these methods was studied. Multiple measures of fluency and speech production were obtained...
October 2015: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Verena Risch, Anja Staiger, Wolfram Ziegler, Katharina Ott, Theresa Schölderle, Olena Pelykh, Kai Bötzel
BACKGROUND: Globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) can be an effective treatment for primary dystonia. However, speech disorders have previously been reported as a common possible side effect of the treatment. OBJECTIVES: To study possible deterioration of speech after GPi-DBS and describe this in different dimensions. METHODS: Speech was systematically evaluated in 15 patients with predominant torticollis and GPi-DBS. Each patient was tested twice within one day in two stimulation conditions: ON-DBS vs...
September 2015: Brain Stimulation
Amy Curran, Catherine Flynn, Stanislava Antonijevic-Elliott, Rena Lyons
BACKGROUND: Non-attendance and inappropriate referrals affect the effective and efficient running of healthcare services. Non-engagement with speech and language therapy (SLT) services may lead to negative long-term consequences for children in need of SLT intervention. Currently there is a dearth of research on non-attendance and non-engagement with SLT services. AIMS: To identify factors associated with (1) non-attendance and (2) parents' non-engagement with SLT services...
September 2015: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Ayoub Daliri, Ludo Max
Stuttering is associated with atypical structural and functional connectivity in sensorimotor brain areas, in particular premotor, motor, and auditory regions. It remains unknown, however, which specific mechanisms of speech planning and execution are affected by these neurological abnormalities. To investigate pre-movement sensory modulation, we recorded 12 stuttering and 12 nonstuttering adults' auditory evoked potentials in response to probe tones presented prior to speech onset in a delayed-response speaking condition vs...
April 2015: Brain and Language
Jan Rusz, Cecilia Bonnet, Jiří Klempíř, Tereza Tykalová, Eva Baborová, Michal Novotný, Aaron Rulseh, Evžen Růžička
Although speech disorder is frequently an early and prominent clinical feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), there is a lack of objective and quantitative evidence to verify whether any specific speech characteristics allow differentiation between PD, PSP and MSA. Speech samples were acquired from 77 subjects including 15 PD, 12 PSP, 13 MSA and 37 healthy controls. The accurate differential diagnosis of dysarthria subtypes was based on the quantitative acoustic analysis of 16 speech dimensions...
2015: Journal of Neurology
Michael P Caligiuri, Hans-Leo Teulings, Charles E Dean, James B Lohr
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder commonly associated with chronic exposure to antidopaminergic medications, which may be in some cases disfiguring and socially disabling. The consensus from a growing body of research on the incidence and prevalence of TD in the modern era of antipsychotics indicates that this disorder has not disappeared continues to challenge the effective management of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A fundamental component in an effective strategy for managing TD is its reliable and accurate assessment...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
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