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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609510/a-comparison-of-coverbal-gesture-use-in-oral-discourse-among-speakers-with-fluent-and-nonfluent-aphasia
#1
Anthony Pak-Hin Kong, Sam-Po Law, Gigi Wan-Chi Chak
Purpose: Coverbal gesture use, which is affected by the presence and degree of aphasia, can be culturally specific. The purpose of this study was to compare gesture use among Cantonese-speaking individuals: 23 neurologically healthy speakers, 23 speakers with fluent aphasia, and 21 speakers with nonfluent aphasia. Method: Multimedia data of discourse samples from these speakers were extracted from the Cantonese AphasiaBank. Gestures were independently annotated on their forms and functions to determine how gesturing rate and distribution of gestures differed across speaker groups...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577876/a-preliminary-study-on-the-neural-oscillatory-characteristics-of-motor-preparation-prior-to-dysfluent-and-fluent-utterances-in-adults-who-stutter
#2
Anna Mersov, Douglas Cheyne, Cecilia Jobst, Luc De Nil
PURPOSE: Recent literature on speech production in adults who stutter (AWS) has begun to investigate the neural mechanisms characterizing speech-motor preparation prior to speech onset. Compelling evidence has suggested that stuttering is associated with atypical processing within cortical and sub-cortical motor networks, particularly in the beta frequency range, that is effective before speech production even begins. Due to low stuttering frequency in experimental settings, however, the literature has so far predominantly reported on fluent speech production in AWS...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572606/automated-screening-for-fragile-x-premutation-carriers-based-on-linguistic-and-cognitive-computational-phenotypes
#3
Arezoo Movaghar, Marsha Mailick, Audra Sterling, Jan Greenberg, Krishanu Saha
Millions of people globally are at high risk for neurodegenerative disorders, infertility or having children with a disability as a result of the Fragile X (FX) premutation, a genetic abnormality in FMR1 that is underdiagnosed. Despite the high prevalence of the FX premutation and its effect on public health and family planning, most FX premutation carriers are unaware of their condition. Since genetic testing for the premutation is resource intensive, it is not practical to screen individuals for FX premutation status using genetic testing...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450839/investigating-the-prospective-sense-of-agency-effects-of-processing-fluency-stimulus-ambiguity-and-response-conflict
#4
Nura Sidarus, Matti Vuorre, Janet Metcalfe, Patrick Haggard
How do we know how much control we have over our environment? The sense of agency refers to the feeling that we are in control of our actions, and that, through them, we can control our external environment. Thus, agency clearly involves matching intentions, actions, and outcomes. The present studies investigated the possibility that processes of action selection, i.e., choosing what action to make, contribute to the sense of agency. Since selection of action necessarily precedes execution of action, such effects must be prospective...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229314/understanding-etiology-of-hearing-loss-as-a-contributor-to-language-dysfluency-and-its-impact-on-assessment-and-treatment-of-people-who-are-deaf-in-mental-health-settings
#5
Charlene J Crump, Stephen H Hamerdinger
Working with individuals who are deaf in mental health settings can be complex work, necessitating consideration for the difference in language abilities. These differences include not only the language differences of American Sign Language (ASL) and English, but also the range of heterogeneity within the Deaf Community. Multiple influences such as mental illness, medical conditions, language deprivation and the etiology of deafness can impact how a person acquires and uses language. This article will discuss how various causes of deafness create the potential for specific language dysfluencies with individuals who are deaf in mental health settings...
February 22, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204923/language-deprivation-syndrome-a-possible-neurodevelopmental-disorder-with-sociocultural-origins
#6
Wyatte C Hall, Leonard L Levin, Melissa L Anderson
PURPOSE: There is a need to better understand the epidemiological relationship between language development and psychiatric symptomatology. Language development can be particularly impacted by social factors-as seen in the developmental choices made for deaf children, which can create language deprivation. A possible mental health syndrome may be present in deaf patients with severe language deprivation. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify publications focusing on language development and mental health in the deaf population...
June 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144622/the-effects-of-pitch-shifts-on-delay-induced-changes-in-vocal-sequencing-in-a-songbird
#7
MacKenzie Wyatt, Emily A Berthiaume, Conor W Kelly, Samuel J Sober
Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919003/altered-patterns-of-directed-connectivity-within-the-reading-network-of-dyslexic-children-and-their-relation-to-reading-dysfluency
#8
Gojko Žarić, João M Correia, Gorka Fraga González, Jurgen Tijms, Maurtis W van der Molen, Leo Blomert, Milene Bonte
Reading is a complex cognitive skill subserved by a distributed network of visual and language-related regions. Disruptions of connectivity within this network have been associated with developmental dyslexia but their relation to individual differences in the severity of reading problems remains unclear. Here we investigate whether dysfunctional connectivity scales with the level of reading dysfluency by examining EEG recordings during visual word and false font processing in 9-year-old typically reading children (TR) and two groups of dyslexic children: severely dysfluent (SDD) and moderately dysfluent (MDD) dyslexics...
February 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873409/is-the-long-case-dead-uh-i-don-t-think-so-the-uh-um-index
#9
Robbert Duvivier, Martin Veysey
Current tools for clinical assessment are tedious and time-consuming, particularly the dreadful long case. There is a need for novel instruments that incorporate other aspects of competence. We propose such a method, namely the Uh/Um Index. Our innovation paper describes the rationale for using speech dysfluency and occurrences of filler words such as 'uh' and 'um' as a proxy for competence. This appears to have won initial support from senior clinicians in our institution. Additional research is needed (non-restricted grants are welcomed) to establish rigorous standard setting and to fund our attendance at overseas conferences to make the Uh/Um Index the new buzzword in medical education...
December 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833009/anomaly-in-neural-phase-coherence-accompanies-reduced-sensorimotor-integration-in-adults-who-stutter
#10
Ranit Sengupta, Shalin Shah, Katie Gore, Torrey Loucks, Sazzad M Nasir
Despite advances in our understanding of the human speech system, the neurophysiological basis of stuttering remains largely unknown. Here, it is hypothesized that the speech of adults who stutter (AWS) is susceptible to disruptions in sensorimotor integration caused by neural miscommunication within the speech motor system. Human speech unfolds over rapid timescales and relies on a distributed system of brain regions working in a parallel and synchronized manner, and a breakdown in neural communication between the putative brain regions could increase susceptibility to dysfluency...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790240/lack-of-frank-agrammatism-in-the-nonfluent-agrammatic-variant-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#11
Naida L Graham, Carol Leonard, David F Tang-Wai, Sandra Black, Tiffany W Chow, Chris J M Scott, Alicia A McNeely, Mario Masellis, Elizabeth Rochon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Frank agrammatism, defined as the omission and/or substitution of grammatical morphemes with associated grammatical errors, is variably reported in patients with nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfPPA). This study addressed whether frank agrammatism is typical in agrammatic nfPPA patients when this feature is not required for diagnosis. METHOD: We assessed grammatical production in 9 patients who satisfied current diagnostic criteria...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583986/do-age-related-word-retrieval-difficulties-appear-or-disappear-in-connected-speech
#12
Gitit Kavé, Mira Goral
We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies of word retrieval in connected speech in healthy aging and reviewed relevant aphasia research that could shed light on the aging literature. Four main hypotheses guided the review: (1) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to reduced output in connected speech. (2) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to a more limited lexical variety in connected speech. (3) Significant retrieval difficulties would lead to an increase in word substitution errors and in pronoun use as well as to greater dysfluency and hesitation in connected speech...
September 1, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545684/speech-and-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-when-rhythm-matters
#13
Lucia Ricciardi, Michela Ebreo, Adriana Graziosi, Marianna Barbuto, Chiara Sorbera, Letterio Morgante, Francesca Morgante
INTRODUCTION: Speech disturbances in Parkinson's disease (PD) are heterogeneous, ranging from hypokinetic to hyperkinetic types. Repetitive speech disorder has been demonstrated in more advanced disease stages and has been considered the speech equivalent of freezing of gait (FOG). We aimed to verify a possible relationship between speech and FOG in patients with PD. METHODS: Forty-three consecutive PD patients and 20 healthy control subjects underwent standardized speech evaluation using the Italian version of the Dysarthria Profile (DP), for its motor component, and subsets of the Battery for the Analysis of the Aphasic Deficit (BADA), for its procedural component...
November 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26498092/awake-brain-tumor-resection-during-pregnancy-decision-making-and-technical-nuances
#14
Lingzhong Meng, Seunggu J Han, Mark D Rollins, Adrian W Gelb, Edward F Chang
The co-occurrence of primary brain tumor and pregnancy poses unique challenges to the treating physician. If a rapidly growing lesion causes life-threatening mass effect, craniotomy for tumor debulking becomes urgent. The choice between awake craniotomy versus general anesthesia becomes complicated if the tumor is encroaching on eloquent brain because considerations pertinent to both patient safety and oncological outcome, in addition to fetal wellbeing, are involved. A 31-year-old female at 30 weeks gestation with twins presented to our hospital seeking awake craniotomy to resect a 7 × 6 × 5 cm left frontoparietal brain tumor with 7 mm left-to-right subfalcine herniation on imaging that led to word finding difficulty, dysfluency, right upper extremity paralysis, and right lower extremity weakness...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26459688/quantitative-assessment-of-motor-speech-abnormalities-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#15
Jan Rusz, Jan Hlavnička, Tereza Tykalová, Jitka Bušková, Olga Ulmanová, Evžen Růžička, Karel Šonka
OBJECTIVE: Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are at substantial risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) or related neurodegenerative disorders. Speech is an important indicator of motor function and movement coordination, and therefore may be an extremely sensitive early marker of changes due to prodromal neurodegeneration. METHODS: Speech data were acquired from 16 RBD subjects and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects...
March 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26409490/examination-of-validity-in-spoken-language-evaluations-adult-onset-stuttering-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Carole R Roth, Micaela Cornis-Pop, Woodford A Beach
BACKGROUND: Reports of increased incidence of adult onset stuttering in veterans and service members with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan lead to a reexamination of the neurogenic vs. psychogenic etiology of stuttering. OBJECTIVE: This article proposes to examine the merit of the dichotomy between neurogenic and psychogenic bases of stuttering, including symptom exaggeration, for the evaluation and treatment of the disorder...
2015: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26197258/speech-preparation-in-adults-with-persistent-developmental-stuttering
#17
Jeffrey R Mock, Anne L Foundas, Edward J Golob
Motor efference copy conveys movement information to sensory areas before and during vocalization. We hypothesized speech preparation would modulate auditory processing, via motor efference copy, differently in men who stutter (MWS) vs. fluent adults. Participants (n=12/group) had EEG recorded during a cue-target paradigm with two conditions: speech which allowed for speech preparation, while a control condition did not. Acoustic stimuli probed auditory responsiveness between the cue and target. MWS had longer vocal reaction times (p<0...
October 2015: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26163713/threat-interference-biases-predict-socially-anxious-behavior-the-role-of-inhibitory-control-and-minute-of-stressor
#18
Eugenia I Gorlin, Bethany A Teachman
The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task...
July 2015: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26126023/characteristics-of-fluency-and-speech-in-two-families-with-high-incidences-of-stuttering
#19
Sheila V Stager, Frances J Freeman, Allen Braun
PURPOSE: This study presents data from 2 families with high incidence of stuttering, comparing methods of phenotype assignment and exploring the presence of other fluency disorders and corresponding speech characteristics. METHOD: Three methods for assigning phenotype of stuttering were used: self-identification, family identification, and expert identification. Agreement on which individuals were assigned by each of these methods was studied. Multiple measures of fluency and speech production were obtained...
October 2015: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26002621/how-does-gpi-dbs-affect-speech-in-primary-dystonia
#20
Verena Risch, Anja Staiger, Wolfram Ziegler, Katharina Ott, Theresa Schölderle, Olena Pelykh, Kai Bötzel
BACKGROUND: Globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) can be an effective treatment for primary dystonia. However, speech disorders have previously been reported as a common possible side effect of the treatment. OBJECTIVES: To study possible deterioration of speech after GPi-DBS and describe this in different dimensions. METHODS: Speech was systematically evaluated in 15 patients with predominant torticollis and GPi-DBS. Each patient was tested twice within one day in two stimulation conditions: ON-DBS vs...
September 2015: Brain Stimulation
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