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Darren E Stewart, Victoria C Garcia, John D Rosendale, David K Klassen, Bob J Carrico
BACKGROUND: The proportion of deceased donor kidneys recovered for transplant but discarded increased steadily in the U.S. over 2 decades, from 5.1% in 1988 to 19.2% by 2009. Over 100,000 patients are waiting for a kidney transplant, yet 3,159 kidneys were discarded in 2015. METHODS: We evaluated trends in donor characteristics, discard reasons, and OPO-specific discard rates. Multivariable regression and propensity analysis were used to estimate the proportion of the discard rate rise in the 2000's attributable to changes in donor factors and decisions to biopsy and pump kidneys...
October 19, 2016: Transplantation
Laura A Siminoff, Gerard P Alolod, Maureen Wilson-Genderson, Eva Y N Yuen, Heather M Traino
Available literature points to healthcare providers' discomfort with donation after cardiac death (DCD) and their perception of the public's reluctance toward the procedure. Using a national sample, we report on the communication content of actual DCD and donation after brain death (DBD) approaches by organ procurement organization (OPO) requesters and compare family decision makers' (FDMs') experiences of both modalities. We recruited 1,601 FDMs using a validated protocol; 347 (21.7%) were of potential DCD donors...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
John Lunz, Lisa Hinsdale, Casey King, Robin Pastush, Magnolia Buenvenida, Michael Harmon
Since implementation, the new UNOS OPTN kidney allocation system (KAS) has drastically expanded the pool of available kidneys to candidates that may have previously waited extended periods for an organ offer. This is particularly true for highly sensitized patients. The changes to the KAS have had ramifications throughout the transplant process, including for organ procurement organizations (OPO) and local transplant hospital call centers. Here, we will examine the impact of the new KAS on the organ donation process and highlight the necessary interactions between the OPO and transplant centers to best match donor kidneys and highly sensitized recipients...
October 12, 2016: Human Immunology
R Sarlo, G Pereira, M Surica, D Almeida, C Araújo, O Figueiredo, E Rocha, E Vargas
Establishing an organization to promote organ donation and a good organ procurement team assure quality and improve performance on organ donation rates. Brazil's organ procurement structure is based on 2 models disseminated worldwide: the "Spanish model," based on in-house coordinators, and the "American organ procurement organization (OPO) model," with extra-hospital coordinators. In 2006, Brazil's Federal Government had formally introduced the in-house coordination model for every hospital equipped with a mechanical ventilator bed...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Lauren B Cooper, Carmelo A Milano, Melissa Williams, Wendy Swafford, Donna Croezen, Adrian B Van Bakel, Joseph Rogers, Chetan B Patel
BACKGROUND: Acute hypothyroidism after brain death results in hemodynamic impairments that limit availability of donor hearts. Thyroid hormone infusions can halt that process and lead to increased utilization of donor organs, but prolonged used of thyroid replacement has not been well studied. METHODS: We developed a 15 question survey regarding policies, procedures, and reporting of thyroid hormone use by OPOs. The survey was posted for five weeks on the Association of OPOs Portal...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
Yaping Shang, Jiangming Xu, Peng Wang, Xiao Li, Pu Zhou, Xiaojun Xu
The longterm stability of the laser system is very important in many applications. In this letter, an ultra-stable, broadband, mid-infrared (MIR) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a super-fluorescent fiber source is demonstrated. An idler MIR output power of 11.3 W with excellent beam quality was obtained and the corresponding pump-to-idler conversion slope efficiency was 15.9%. Furthermore, during 1h measurement at full power operation, the peak-to-peak fluctuation of idler output power was less than 1...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
Nurmemet Abdukerim, Lizhu Li, Martin Rochette
We report the first chalcogenide-based optical parametric oscillator (OPO) relying on pure parametric gain. The all-fiber OPO operates in the wavelength range of 2 μm and is tunable over 290 nm from the combined Stokes and anti-Stokes contributions. The gain medium is a 10 cm long chalcogenide microwire made from a high modal confinement As<sub>2</sub>Se<sub>3</sub> core with cyclo olefin polymer cladding, leading to optimized chromatic dispersion, high nonlinearity, and broadband transparency...
September 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Luke Maidment, Peter G Schunemann, Derryck T Reid
We report a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on the new semiconductor gain material orientation-patterned gallium phosphide (OP-GaP), which enables the production of high-repetition-rate femtosecond pulses spanning 5-12 μm with average powers in the few to tens of milliwatts range. This is the first example of a broadband OPO operating across the molecular fingerprint region, and we demonstrate its potential by conducting broadband Fourier-transform spectroscopy using water vapor and a polystyrene reference standard...
September 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Delphine Descloux, Guillaume Walter, Erwan Cadiou, Jean-Baptiste Dherbecourt, Guillaume Gorju, Jean-Michel Melkonian, Myriam Raybaut, Cyril Drag, Antoine Godard
We report on a widely tunable synchronously pumped picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) combining an aperiodically poled MgO-doped LiNbO<sub>3</sub> crystal as a broadband gain medium and an axially chirped volume Bragg grating as a spectral filtering dispersive element. Translation of the Bragg grating along the beam axis enables wavelength tuning over 215 nm around 3.82 μm and provides spectral narrowing. Rapid continuous tuning over 150 nm in 100 ms is demonstrated.
September 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Manouela V Valtcheva, Bryan A Copits, Steve Davidson, Tayler D Sheahan, Melanie Y Pullen, Jordan G McCall, Krikor Dikranian, Robert W Gereau
Primary cultures of rodent sensory neurons are widely used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pain, itch, nerve injury and regeneration. However, translation of these preclinical findings may be greatly improved by direct validation in human tissues. We have developed an approach to extract and culture human sensory neurons in collaboration with a local organ procurement organization (OPO). Here we describe the surgical procedure for extraction of human dorsal root ganglia (hDRG) and the necessary modifications to existing culture techniques to prepare viable adult human sensory neurons for functional studies...
October 2016: Nature Protocols
Tonya Smith-Jackson, Rodney Middlebrooks, John Francis, Tiara Gray, Kaleb Nelson, Briana Steele, Kionda Townsend, Cedric Watlington
BACKGROUND: Open plan offices have proliferated for the past several decades with more and more workers being concentrated in office buildings. Several studies have identified a number of negative factors associated with open plan offices, and those include noise, speech interference, lack of privacy, and a perceived loss of control over work. While negative factors have been identified several times in the literature, many studies rely on either surveys or highly controlled environments...
August 12, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Christian Fries, Marco Weitz, Christian Theobald, Patric V Löwis Of Menar, Jürgen Bartschke, Johannes A L'huillier
Increasing data acquisition rates in metrology applications based on optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) can accelerate measurement processes. To achieve this, flash-lamp systems with low pulse repetition frequencies of 10-100 Hz used as a pump source for the OPOs could be replaced by diode-pumped solid-state lasers in the kHz range. We demonstrate a 969 nm pumped Yb:YAG ceramic laser yielding 21.6 W output power, 12.5 mJ pulse energy, and excellent beam quality. Fluorescence feedback control, developed from gain dynamics simulations in two operating regimes, allows stable operation at 6...
August 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Margaret Kathleen Menzel Ellis, Mitchell Brett Sally, Darren Malinoski
INTRODUCTION: Despite continuous advances in transplant medicine, there is a persistent worldwide shortage of organs available for donation. There is a growing body of research that supports that optimal management of deceased organ donors in Intensive Care Unit can substantially increase the availability of organs for transplant and improve outcomes in transplant recipients. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed, comprising a comprehensive search of the PubMed database for relevant terms, as well as individual assessment of references included in large original investigations, and comprehensive society guidelines...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Ruxia Feng, Hong Yin, Xianglei Kong
RATIONAL: In addition to proton affinity (PA), side chains may also have an effect on the structures of amino acid complex ions in the gas phase. A previous study showed that the most stable isomer of Pro2 H(+) favored a salt-bridged structure. Tryptophan has a PA close to that of proline, but a quite different side chain. Thus, it will be interesting to discover whether the salt-bridged or charge-solvated conformation is energetically more favorable for Trp2 H(+) in the gas phase. METHODS: The infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectrum of Trp2 H(+) was obtained using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer equipped with a tunable OPO laser...
August 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Brian L Quick, Tobias Reynolds-Tylus, Ashley E Fico, Thomas Hugh Feeley
CONTEXT: Mature adults represent an important audience segment for organ donation practitioners. Despite their potential impact as organ donors, compared to other age demographics, their registration rates are much lower. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current campaign was to determine the most effective source and message strategy to promote organ and tissue donation among mature adults. METHODS: A 2 (states: Illinois and Iowa) by 2 (sources: government agency and organ procurement organization [OPO]) by 3 (taglines: Any age is the right age to share the gift of life, Don't rule yourself out, and Don't rule yourself out: Any age is the right age to share the gift of life) between-subjects design was used to test the effectiveness of direct mailings promoting organ donation to mature adults...
August 16, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
Vasyl Mytskaniuk, Fabrice Bardin, Hassan Boukhaddaoui, Herve Rigneault, Nicolas Tricaud
Laser scanning microscopes combining a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to duplicate the laser line have become available for biologists. These systems are primarily designed for multi-channel two-photon fluorescence microscopy. However, without any modification, complementary non-linear optical microscopy such as second-harmonic generation (SHG) or third harmonic generation (THG) can also be performed with this set-up, allowing label-free imaging of structured molecules or aqueous medium-lipid interfaces...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ibrahim Sadiek, Gernot Friedrichs
Cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) in the linear absorption regime is a well-established method for sensitive trace gas detection, but only a few studies have addressed quantitative measurements in the presence of a saturated sample. In fact, saturation is usually avoided in order to escape from the required complex modeling of the saturation process that depends on the characteristics of the absorbing species, its interaction with the surrounding gas as well as on the temporal and spectral characteristics of the cavity excitation...
August 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
N Apurv Chaitanya, S Chaitanya Kumar, A Aadhi, G K Samanta, M Ebrahim-Zadeh
We report on the first realization of an ultrafast Airy beam optical parametric oscillator (OPO). By introducing intracavity cubic phase modulation to the resonant Gaussian signal in a synchronously-pumped singly-resonant OPO cavity and its subsequent Fourier transformation, we have generated 2-dimensional Airy beam in the output signal across a 250 nm tuning range in the near-infrared. The generated Airy beam can be tuned continuously from 1477 to 1727 nm, providing an average power of as much as 306 mW at 1632 nm in pulses of ~23 ps duration with a spectral bandwidth of 1...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nadezhda Y Kostyukova, Andrey A Boyko, Valeriy Badikov, Dmitrii Badikov, Galina Shevyrdyaeva, Vladimir Panyutin, Georgi M Marchev, Dmitry B Kolker, Valentin Petrov
A BaGa<sub>4</sub>Se<sub>7</sub> nanosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) shows extremely wide idler tunability in the mid-IR (2.7-17 μm) under 1.064 μm pumping. The ∼10  ns pulses at ∼7.2  μm have an energy of 3.7 mJ at 10 Hz. The pump-to-idler conversion efficiency for this wavelength reaches 5.9% with a slope of 6.5% corresponding to a quantum conversion efficiency or pump depletion of 40%.
August 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Eric Kh Chow, Allan B Massie, Xun Luo, Corey Wickliffe, Sommer E Gentry, Andrew M Cameron, Dorry L Segev
Under Share-35, deceased-donor (DD) livers are offered regionally to candidates with MELD≥35 before locally to candidates with MELD<35. Using SRTR data from 6/2013-6/2015, we identified 1768 DD livers exported to regional MELD 35+ candidates who were transplanted at a median (IQR) MELD of 39 (37-40) with 30-day post-transplant survival of 96%. 1764 (99.8%) exports had an ABO-compatible candidate in the recovering OPO, representing 1219 unique reprioritized candidates who would have had priority over the regional candidate under pre Share-35 allocation...
July 26, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
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