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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141102/statistically-optimized-ceftriaxone-sodium-biotransformation-through-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-strain-cef6-an-unusual-insight-for-bioremediation
#1
Ahmed Anan, Khaled M Ghanem, Amira M Embaby, Ahmed Hussein, Moustafa Y El-Naggar
The present study underlines a unique promising approach toward efficient biotransformation of ceftriaxone sodium (Ceftx), a highly frequent prescribed cephalosporin antibiotic, by a newly bacterium namely Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain Cef6 isolated from Ceftx contaminated raw materials in pharmaceutical industries. A three step sequential statistical-mathematical approach (Plackett-Burman design [PBD], Central Composite Design [CCD], and ridge-canonical analyses) was anticipated to optimize the biotransformation process...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139249/-clinical-features-analysis-of-qingkailing-injection-for-adolescent-patients-based-on-real-world-his
#2
Li-Zhen Chen, Yan-Ming Xie, Lian-Xin Wang, Yin Zhang, Qun Wang, Ping-Ping Jia, Bo Feng
To explore the clinical application features of Qingkailing injection for adolescent patients. This study was based on the information from the hospitalized patients in 1998-2011 in HIS (hospital information system) of 16 tertiary hospitals in China. 615 adolescent patients with Qingkailing injection were used to investigate the clinical characteristics of Qingkailing injection. Apriori algorithm was adopted to establish the model, and Clementine 12.0 was used for correlation analysis. The results showed that male patients (355 cases) were more than female patients (243 cases); the age of the most patients was under 14 years old, with an average age of 9...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136156/increase-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-emergence-of-major-international-high-risk-clonal-lineages-in-dogs-and-cats-with-urinary-tract-infection-16-year-retrospective-study
#3
Cátia Marques, Adriana Belas, Andreia Franco, Catarina Aboim, Luís Telo Gama, Constança Pomba
Objectives: To evaluate temporal trends in antimicrobial resistance, over 16 years, in bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with urinary tract infection (UTI) and the clonal lineages of bacteria harbouring critical antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted for 948 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI (1999-2014). Resistance mechanisms were detected by PCR, namely ESBL/AmpC in third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, mecA in methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and aac(6')-Ieaph(2″)-Ia and aph(2″)-1d in high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) enterococci...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133551/copper-ions-and-coordination-complexes-as-novel-carbapenem-adjuvants
#4
Karrera Y Djoko, Maud E S Achard, Minh-Duy Phan, Alvin W Lo, Manfredi Miraula, Sasiprapa Prombhul, Steven J Hancock, Kate M Peters, Hanna Sidjabat, Patrick N Harris, Nataša Mitić, Timothy R Walsh, Gregory J Anderson, William M Shafer, David L Paterson, Gerhard Schenk, Alastair G McEwan, Mark A Schembri
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are an urgent threat to global human health. These organisms produce β-lactamases with carbapenemase activity, such as the metallo-β-lactamase NDM-1, which is notable due to its association with mobile genetic elements and the lack of a clinically useful inhibitor. Here we examined the ability of copper to inhibit the activity of NDM-1 and explored the potential of a copper coordination complex as a mechanism to efficiently deliver copper as an adjuvant in clinical therapeutics...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129539/leptospirosis-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Jorge Luis Hidalgo Marroquin, Guy A Richards, Pravin Amin
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by a gram negative aerobic spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is acquired by contact with urine or reproductive fluids from infected animals, or by inoculation from contaminated water or soil. The disease has a global distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions that have a humid, rainy climate and is also common in travelers returning from these regions. Clinical suspicion is critical for the diagnosis and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a febrile hepatorenal syndrome in, or returning from endemic regions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125052/prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-bloodstream-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#6
Henrietta Abodakpi, Kai-Tai Chang, Ana María Sánchez Díaz, Rafael Cantón, Todd M Lasco, Katrina Chan, Amelia K Sofjan, Vincent H Tam
To improve prescribing of empiric therapy, the local molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) in bloodstream isolates of K. pneumoniae were evaluated. Isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins were screened phenotypically for ESBLs and carbapenemases, and subsequently confirmed by PCR for the presence of ESBL (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) and carbapenemase (blaKPC, blaVIM, blaNDM and blaOXA-48) genes. Hydrolytic activity (functional gene expression) was quantified using a nitrocefin degradation assay and correlated to ceftazidime or meropenem MIC...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117671/changing-trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bacteremia
#7
Miri Hyun, Chang In Noh, Seong Yeol Ryu, Hyun Ah Kim
Background/Aims: Klebsiella pneumoniae is second most common organism of gram-negative bacteremia in Korea and one of the most common cause of urinary tract infection, and intra-abdominal infection. Methods: We compared clinical and microbiological characteristics about K. pneumoniae bacteremia in a tertiary hospital between 10 years. Group A is who had K. pneumoniae bacteremia at least one time from January 2004 to December 2005. Group B is from January 2012 to December 2013...
November 10, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116290/drug-resistance-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-fish-and-shrimp
#8
Marília Viana Albuquerque de Almeida, Ítalo Mendes Cangussú, Antonia Leonadia Siqueira de Carvalho, Izabelly Linhares Ponte Brito, Renata Albuquerque Costa
The present study aims to detect the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) by enterobacteria isolated from samples of fresh shrimp and fish obtained from the retail trade of the city of Sobral, Ceará State, Brazil. All bacterial isolates were submitted to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing using aminopenicillin, beta-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenem, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, and monobactam. Three types of beta-lactamases - ESBL, AmpC and KPC - were investigated...
November 6, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116037/patient-age-as-a-factor-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Alexander Garcia, Thierry Delorme, Payman Nasr
PURPOSE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A thorough understanding of the epidemiology and distribution of MRSA allows the development of better preventive measures and helps to control or reduce the rate of infection among the general population. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective survey was performed on 511 cases of MRSA infections from inpatient, outpatient and nursing home populations over a 12-month period...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116010/multi-drug-resistance-and-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacteria-from-chicken-meat-in-bharatpur-metropolitan-nepal
#10
Anil Shrestha, Anup Muni Bajracharya, Hemraj Subedi, Raju Shah Turha, Sachin Kafle, Saroj Sharma, Sunil Neupane, Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug resistance (MDR) and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producer Gram negative bacteria are considered as a major health problem, globally. ESBL enzyme hydrolyses the beta lactam ring of third generation cephalosporins, which alters the structure of the antibiotic. Due to the modification in structure of the antibiotic, bacteria show resistance to these antibiotics. Resistant bacterial strains are transmitted to humans from animals through consumption of uncooked meat, through contact with uncooked meat and meat surfaces...
November 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112974/impact-of-extensive-antibiotic-treatment-on-faecal-carriage-of-antibiotic-resistant-enterobacteria-in-children-in-a-low-resistance-prevalence-setting
#11
Per Kristian Knudsen, Petter Brandtzaeg, E Arne Høiby, Jon Bohlin, Ørjan Samuelsen, Martin Steinbakk, Tore G Abrahamsen, Fredrik Müller, Karianne Wiger Gammelsrud
We prospectively studied the consequences of extensive antibiotic treatment on faecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteria in a cohort of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and a cohort of children with cancer compared to healthy children with no or low antibiotic exposure. The study was conducted in Norway in a low resistance prevalence setting. Sixty longitudinally collected faecal samples from children with CF (n = 32), 88 samples from children with cancer (n = 45) and 127 samples from healthy children (n = 70) were examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112658/adding-azithromycin-to-cephalosporin-for-cesarean-delivery-infection-prophylaxis-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#12
Ashley E Skeith, Brenda Niu, Amy M Valent, Methodius G Tuuli, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of adding azithromycin to standard cephalosporin regimens of cesarean delivery prophylaxis by considering the maternal outcomes in the current and potential subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness model was created using TreeAge to compare the outcomes of using azithromycin-cephalosporin with cephalosporin alone in a theoretical cohort of 700,000 women, the approximate number of nonelective cesarean deliveries annually in the United States that occur during labor or after membrane rupture...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111435/pharmacodynamics-of-cefiderocol-a-novel-siderophore-cephalosporin-explored-in-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-neutropenic-murine-thigh-model
#13
Islam M Ghazi, Marguerite L Monogue, Masakatsu Tsuji, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Cefiderocol is a siderophore cephalosporin that displays potent in vitro activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. We aimed to describe cefiderocol's pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and 24-hour efficacy using dose-ranging methods in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model. METHODS: Infection was established in neutropenic mice (administered cyclophosphamide 150 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg 4 and 1 days prior to inoculation respectively) with 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (MIC range: 0...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110404/antimicrobial-resistance-trends-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-food-producing-animals-in-france-a-14-year-period-time-series-study
#14
C Boireau, É Morignat, G Cazeau, N Jarrige, É Jouy, M Haenni, J-Y Madec, A Leblond, É Gay
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacteria isolated from food-producing animals is a growing concern with implications for public health. AMR surveillance is essential to identify resistance trends and help in the design of effective and efficient control strategies. The aim of the study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from three livestock productions in France (cattle, swine and poultry). The trend in resistance to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in animal health was analysed as follows: amoxicillin (penicillin), spectinomycin or streptomycin (aminoglycoside), tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur were also taken into account as members of critically important antimicrobial families in human and veterinary medicine, that is fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, respectively...
November 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109878/bilateral-neck-pyomyositis-caused-by-staphylococcus-capitis-and-staphylococcus-saccharolyticus-in-a-diabetic-adult
#15
Nicholas Young, Hasan Bhally
We report a case of pyomyositis of the paraspinal neck muscles caused by two coagulase-negative staphylococci: Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus saccharolyticus. Inflammation in the spermatic cords was an additional feature of this infection. Treatment with six weeks of first-generation cephalosporin therapy resulted in complete clinical and radiological resolution.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109849/current-concepts-and-future-strategies-in-the-antimicrobial-therapy-of-emerging-gram-positive-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#16
REVIEW
Marco Fiore, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Guglielmo Borgia, Sebastiano Leone, Pasquale Sansone, Maria Beatrice Passavanti, Caterina Aurilio, Maria Caterina Pace
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most common infection in end-stage liver disease patients. SBP is defined as an ascitic fluid infection with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte count ≥ 250/mm(3) without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Several mechanisms contribute to SBP occurrence, including translocation of gut bacteria and their products, reduced intestinal motility provoking bacterial overgrowth, alteration of the gut's barrier function and local immune responses. Historically, Gram-negative enteric bacteria have been the main causative agents of SBP, thereby guiding the empirical therapeutic choice...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106325/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-shigella-with-high-rate-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-production-two-predominant-etiological-agents-of-acute-diarrhea-in-shiraz-iran
#17
Maneli Aminshahidi, Amir Arastehfar, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Esmayil Arman, Fereshteh Fani
This study was conducted to find the etiology of acute diarrhea in Iranian children and determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns. The pathogenic bacteria were recovered from 110/269 (40.9%) diarrheal fecal samples with the following profiles: the most predominant pathogen was diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) (43.6%), comprising enteroaggregative E. coli (23.6%), enteropathogenic E. coli (10.9%), enteroinvasive E. coli (5.5%), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (3.6%); Shigella spp. (37.3%), Salmonella spp...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103924/ceftaroline-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Emily E Barsky, Luis M Pereira, Keri J Sullivan, Alanna Wong, Alexander J McAdam, Gregory S Sawicki, Gregory P Priebe, Susan M Goobie
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a prevalent pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) associated with increased morbidity. Ceftaroline fosamil is an intravenous (IV) cephalosporin with activity against MRSA. There are minimal data regarding dosing in the CF population. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of IV ceftaroline in patients with CF. METHODS: We conducted a single-center prospective study of children and young adults with CF receiving ceftaroline (15mg/kg IV up to 600mg every 8h) as part of treatment for a CF pulmonary exacerbation between June 2016 and April 2017...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102324/prolonged-versus-short-term-intravenous-infusion-of-antipseudomonal-%C3%AE-lactams-for-patients-with-sepsis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#19
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Georgios L Voulgaris, Athanasios Maliaros, George Samonis, Matthew E Falagas
BACKGROUND: The findings of randomised controlled trials (RCT), observational studies, and meta-analyses vary regarding the effectiveness of prolonged β-lactam infusion. We aimed to identify the effectiveness of prolonged versus short-term infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams in patients with sepsis. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare prolonged versus short-term intravenous infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams in patients with sepsis...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102120/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia
#20
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Tahlia Mitchell, Hui San Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Amanda Kidsley, John Turnidge, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major public health concern to both humans and animal health. While the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical E. coli is monitored regularly in human medicine, current frequency of AMR in companion animals remains unknown in Australia. In this study we conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and where possible, determined potential risk factors for MDR infection among 883 clinical Escherichia coli isolated from dogs (n=514), cats (n=341) and horses (n=28)...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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