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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933228/who-inrud-prescribing-indicators-and-prescribing-trends-of-antibiotics-in-the-accident-and-emergency-department-of-bahawal-victoria-hospital-pakistan
#1
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Samia Shahid, Sidra Javaid, Huria Ikram, Uzma Baig, Shane Scahill
A descriptive, retrospective and cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prescribing practices and antibiotic use patterns in the Accident and Emergency department of the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. A sample of 4320 prescriptions (systematic random sampling) was drawn out of a total of 1,080,000 prescriptions written during the period 1st January-31st December 2014. The standard World Health Organization/International Network for Rational Use of Drugs prescribing indicators were used to determine the prescribing practices of physicians...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929242/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-diagnosis-and-management
#2
Alexander Kaysin, Anthony J Viera
Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of death. Risk factors include older age and medical comorbidities. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of cough, dyspnea, pleuritic pain, or acute functional or cognitive decline, with abnormal vital signs (e.g., fever, tachycardia) and lung examination findings. Diagnosis should be confirmed by chest radiography or ultrasonography. Validated prediction scores for pneumonia severity can guide the decision between outpatient and inpatient therapy. Using procalcitonin as a biomarker for severe infection may further assist with risk stratification...
November 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928483/emergence-of-cmy-2-and-dha-1-type-ampc-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-enterobacter-cloacae-isolated-from-several-hospitals-of-qazvin-and-tehran-iran
#3
Amir Peymani, Taghi Naserpour-Farivar, Moein Yeylagh-Beygi, Shahiin Bolori
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The emergence of plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) β-lactamases conferring resistance to third-generation cephalosporins has become a major clinical concern worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of pAmpC-producing E. cloacae isolates and typing of them in Qazvin and Tehran provinces, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 cefoxitin non-susceptible isolates of E. cloacae were obtained from educational hospitals of Qazvin and Tehran, Iran...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928448/antimicrobial-resistance-temporal-trend-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-blood
#4
Gavriliu Lc, Benea Oe, Benea S
Background. According to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network, Romania reports an increasing number of resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from invasive infections every year. Material and Method. We analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from blood in 2010 and 2015 in "Matei Bals" National Institute of Infectious Diseases, in order to identify any significant changes in the last five years. Results. We identified 18 strains in 2010 and 37 strains in 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923419/clostridium-difficile-in-an-urban-university-affiliated-long-term-acute-care-hospital
#5
Jerry Jacob, Jingwei Wu, Jennifer Han, Deborah B Nelson
OBJECTIVES To describe the characteristics and impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in a long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH). DESIGN Retrospective matched cohort study. SETTING A 38-bed, urban, university-affiliated LTACH. METHODS The characteristics of LTACH-onset CDI were assessed among patients hospitalized between July 2008 and October 2015. Patients with CDI were matched to concurrently hospitalized patients without a diagnosis of CDI. Severe CDI was defined as CDI with 2 or more of the following criteria: age ≥65 years, serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dL, or peripheral leukocyte count ≥20,000 cells/μL...
December 7, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922894/antimicrobial-prophylaxis-practice-patterns-in-breast-augmentation-a-national-survey-of-current-practice
#6
Karan Chopra, Arvind U Gowda, Colton H L McNichols, Emile N Brown, Sheri Slezak, Yvonne Rasko
BACKGROUND: Breast augmentation is one of the most commonly performed aesthetic surgery procedures worldwide. Bacterial contamination is of paramount concern due to its role in biofilm formation and capsular contracture. Plastic surgeons have adopted a variety of perioperative interventions in efforts to reduce implant contamination, however definitive evidence supporting these practices is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess current practice patterns aimed at reducing implant-related infections in breast augmentation and comparing them to current evidence-based medicine recommendations...
December 5, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921337/extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistance-among-clinical-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-in-west-norway-during-2006-2013-a-prospective-surveillance-study
#7
Haima Mylvaganam, Helge Kolstad, Rebecca Irene Breistein, Grete Lind, Dag Harald Skutlaberg
Routine surveillance of resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae and phenotypic identification of underlying mechanisms using a simple strategy was commenced in 2006 at our laboratory, serving West Norway. This report focuses on the results until 2013. The classical plasmid-mediated extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLA ) among clinically relevant Escherichia coli isolates showed an increase from 0.6% to 4.3% during the surveillance period, while prevalence for other mechanisms remained stable, below 0...
December 6, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920982/clinical-implications-of-paracoccus-yeeii-bacteremia-in-a-patient-with-decompensated-cirrhosis
#8
Jordan Sack, David R Peaper, Pramod Mistry, Maricar Malinis
Infections in patients with cirrhosis are common among those who develop variceal hemorrhage. Prophylactic antimicrobial treatment with third generation cephalosporins is recommended in patients with advanced cirrhosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However no infectious source is identified in up to 50% of patients with cirrhosis and clinical sepsis. We report the first case of Paracoccus yeeii bacteremia in a patient with decompensated cirrhosis who presented with variceal hemorrhage. This rare gram negative organism that occurs naturally in the soil has been difficult to isolate until recent technological advances and may not be susceptible to third generation cephalosporins...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919896/cephalosporin-3-diazeniumdiolate-no-donor-prodrug-pyrro-c3d-enhances-azithromycin-susceptibility-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilms
#9
Samuel A Collins, Michael J Kelso, Ardeshir Rineh, Nageshwar R Yepuri, Janice Coles, Claire L Jackson, Georgia D Halladay, Woolf T Walker, Jeremy S Webb, Luanne Hall-Stoodley, Gary J Connett, Martin Feelisch, Saul N Faust, Jane S A Lucas, Raymond N Allan
OBJECTIVES: PYRRO-C3D is a cephalosporin-3-diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO)-donor prodrug designed to selectively deliver NO to bacterial infection sites. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of PYRRO-C3D against non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) biofilms and examine the role of NO in reducing biofilm-associated antibiotic tolerance. METHODS: The activity of PYRRO-C3D on in vitro NTHi biofilms was assessed through CFU enumeration and confocal microscopy...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919244/surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-children-a-mixed-method-study-on-healthcare-professionals-attitudes
#10
Angela Giusti, Stefania Spila Alegiani, Marta Luisa Ciofi Degli Atti, Sofia Colaceci, Roberto Raschetti, Pasquale Arace, Raffaele Spiazzi, Massimiliano Raponi
BACKGROUND: Qualitative and quantitative research investigating determinants of adherence to clinical guidelines (GLs) on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) are scarce. We conducted a mixed-method study aimed at investigating barriers and at describing attitudes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) regarding SAP in three Italian children's hospitals. METHODS: The study comprised two sequential phases: 1) collection of qualitative data through focus groups; 2) conduction of a survey on HCPs attitudes towards SAP...
December 5, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916604/carbapenem-resistant-and-cephalosporin-susceptible-a-worrisome-phenotype-among-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolates-in-brazil
#11
Eloiza Helena Campana, Danilo Elias Xavier, Fernanda Villas-Boas Petrolini, Jhonatha Rodrigo Cordeiro-Moura, Maria Rita Elmor de Araujo, Ana Cristina Gales
The mechanisms involved in the uncommon resistance phenotype, carbapenem resistance and broad-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility (Carb-R/Ceph-S), were investigated in 25 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates that exhibited this phenotype, which were recovered from three different hospitals located in São Paulo, Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by CLSI broth microdilution. β-Lactamase-encoding genes were investigated by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Carbapenem hydrolysis activity was investigated by spectrophotometer and MALDI-TOF assays...
December 1, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912925/cardiac-arrest-in-pediatric-patients-receiving-azithromycin
#12
Santiago O Valdés, Jeffrey J Kim, Mary C Niu, Caridad M de la Uz, Christina Y Miyake, Brady S Moffett
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes of pediatric patients treated with azithromycin compared with penicillin or cephalosporin. We hypothesized that azithromycin use would not be associated with increased cardiac mortality in the pediatric population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2008 and 2012. Patients <19 years of age with a principal diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia who received an antibiotic were included...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909820/genomic-analysis-reveals-the-presence-of-a-class-d-beta-lactamase-with-broad-substrate-specificity-in-animal-bite-associated-capnocytophaga-species
#13
S Zangenah, A F Andersson, V Özenci, P Bergman
Capnocytophga canimorsus and Capnocytophga cynodegmi can be transmitted from cats and dogs to humans, and can cause a wide range of infections including wound infections, sepsis, or endocarditis. We and others recently discovered two new Capnocytophaga species, C. canis and C. stomatis, mainly associated with wound infections. The first-line treatment of animal bite related infections is penicillin, and in case of allergy, doxycycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, there is a lack of antibiotic susceptibility patterns for animal bite associated Capnocytophaga species...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907224/single-versus-combination-intravenous-anti-pseudomonal-antibiotic-therapy-for-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Heather E Elphick, Alison Scott
BACKGROUND: Choice of antibiotic, and the use of single or combined therapy are controversial areas in the treatment of respiratory infection due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF). Advantages of combination therapy include wider range of modes of action, possible synergy and reduction of resistant organisms; advantages of monotherapy include lower cost, ease of administration and reduction of drug-related toxicity. Current evidence does not provide a clear answer and the use of intravenous antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis requires further evaluation...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904747/comparing-the-disk-diffusion-and-agar-dilution-tests-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#15
Hsi Liu, Thomas H Taylor, Kevin Pettus, Steve Johnson, John R Papp, David Trees
BACKGROUND: We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France), respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC): ceftriaxone (CRO), cefixime (CFX), and cefpodoxime (CPD). METHODS: One hundred and five clinical isolates and ten laboratory-mutants were tested following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's standards for each of the three methods...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903600/improved-accuracy-of-cefepime-susceptibility-testing-for-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-using-an-on-demand-digital-dispensing-method
#16
Kenneth P Smith, Thea Brennan-Krohn, Susan Weir, James E Kirby
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae generally cannot be treated with penicillins and cephalosporins. However, some later generation cephalosporins, including cefepime, are poorly hydrolyzed by specific ESBL enzymes, and certain strains demonstrate in vitro susceptibility to these agents, potentially affording additional treatment opportunities. Moreover, the ability to adjust both dose and dosing interval of β-lactam agents allows treatment of strains with elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) formerly classified in the intermediate range...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899921/high-prevalence-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-and-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-genes-in-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant-escherichia-coli-from-dogs-in-shaanxi-china
#17
Xiaoqiang Liu, Haixia Liu, Yinqian Li, Caiju Hao
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) and carbapenemases as well as plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant (PMQR) among extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Escherichia coli from dogs in Shaanxi province in China. Methods: A total of 40 ESC-R Escherichia coli selected from 165 Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolated from dogs were screened and characterized for the genes encoding for the ESBLs, pAmpC, carbapenemases and PMQR genes by PCR and sequencing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898714/comparable-effectiveness-of-first-week-treatment-with-anti-staphylococcal-penicillin-versus-cephalosporin-in-methicillin-sensitive-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-a-propensity-score-adjusted-retrospective-study
#18
Erik Forsblom, Eeva Ruotsalainen, Asko Järvinen
: The objective was to compare the prognostic impact of first week treatment with anti-staphylococcal penicillin (ASP) versus cephalosporin in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MS-SAB). Altogether 580 patients were retrospectively followed and categorized according to first week treatment; 84% (488) received ASP (cloxacillin) and 16% (92) cephalosporin (cefuroxime or ceftriaxone). SAB management was optimized with formal bedside infectious disease specialist consultation in 88%, deep infection foci diagnosed in 77% and adjunctive rifampicin therapy given to 61% of patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898325/determination-of-acid-dissociation-constants-pka-of-cephalosporin-antibiotics-computational-and-experimental-approaches
#19
Alyson R Ribeiro, Torsten C Schmidt
Cefapirin (CEPA) and ceftiofur (CEF) are two examples of widely used veterinarian cephalosporins presenting multiple ionization centers. However, the acid dissociation constants (pKa) of CEF are missing and experimental data about CEPA are rare. The same is true for many cephalosporins, where available data are either incomplete or even wrong. Environmentally relevant biotic and abiotic processes depend primordially on the antibiotic pH-dependent speciation. Consequently, this physicochemical parameter should be reliable, including the correct ionization center identification...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895012/a-multicenter-observational-study-of-ceftaroline-fosamil-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections
#20
Evan J Zasowski, Trang D Trinh, Kimberly C Claeys, Anthony M Casapao, Noor Sabagha, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Kenneth P Klinker, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Novel therapies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection (BSI) are needed in the setting of reduced antibiotic susceptibilities and therapeutic failure. Ceftaroline is an advanced generation cephalosporin with MRSA activity. Although not FDA approved for MRSA BSI, ceftaroline has generated much interest as a potential treatment option. However, detailed description of its use in this setting remains limited. To address this, we conducted a retrospective, multicenter, observational study of adult patients with MRSA BSI treated with at least 72 hours of ceftaroline from 2011 to 2015...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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