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Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jordan Perry, Wayne Johnson, Gilbert W Fellingham, Pat R Vehrs
Background/Objective: The heart rate (HR) and metabolic (VO2 ) responses to treadmill running using the GlideTrak™ body weight support system have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the submaximal and maximal HR and VO2 responses to normal-weight treadmill running (TMR) to treadmill running with body weight support provided by the GlideTrak™ (GTR). Methods: Twenty participants (11 males; 9 females) 18 to 26 years of age voluntarily participated in this study...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Seol-Jung Kang, Gi-Chul Ha, Kwang-Jun Ko
Background/Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and cardiorespiratory fitness according to resting heart rate of Korean male adults. Methods: A total of 11,876 male adults aged 20-65 years who underwent health examinations from 2010 to 2015 at a National Fitness Centre in South Korea were included. Subjects' resting heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 max), and metabolic syndrome parameters were collected...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Jungyun Hwang, Kiyoung Kim, R Matthew Brothers, Darla M Castelli, F Gonzalez-Lima
Studies of the effects of physical activity on cognition suggest that aerobic fitness can improve cognitive abilities. However, the physiological mechanisms for the cognitive benefit of aerobic fitness are less well understood. We examined the association between aerobic fitness and cerebrovascular function with neurocognitive functions in healthy, young adults. Participants aged 18-29 years underwent measurements of cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) in response to rebreathing-induced hypercapnia, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) during cycle ergometry to voluntary exhaustion, and simple- and complex-neurocognitive assessments at rest...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Pedro B Junior, Vitor L de Andrade, Eduardo Z Campos, Carlos A Kalva-Filho, Alessandro M Zagatto, Gustavo G de Araújo, Marcelo Papoti
Due to the controversy about the sensitive of lactate minimum intensity (LMI) to training and the need to develop other tool for aerobic fitness evaluation, the purpose of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of glucose minimum intensity (GMI) and LMI to endurance training. Eight trained male cyclists (21.4 ± 1.9 years, 67.6 ± 7.5 kg and 1.72 ± 0.10 m) were evaluated twice, before and after 12 weeks of training. GMI and LMI were calculated, respectively, by the lowest blood glucose and lactate values attained during an incremental test performed after a hyperlactemia induction, and VO2 max was determined during standard incremental effort...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Jaelson G Ortiz, Juliano F da Silva, Lorival J Carminatti, Luiz G A Guglielmo, Fernando Diefenthaeler
This study aims to analyze the physiological, neuromuscular, and biochemical responses in untrained women after eight weeks of regular participation in small-sided soccer games compared to aerobic training. Twenty-seven healthy untrained women were divided into two groups [soccer group (SG = 17) and running group (RG = 10)]. Both groups trained three times per week for eight weeks. The variables measured in this study were maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), relative velocity at VO2 max (vVO2 max), peak velocity, relative intensity at lactate threshold (vLT), relative intensity at onset of blood lactate accumulation (vOBLA), peak force, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol ratio (LDL/HDL)...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Katie A O'Brien, Ross D Pollock, Mike Stroud, Rob J Lambert, Alex Kumar, Robert A Atkinson, David A Green, Ana Anton-Solanas, Lindsay M Edwards, Steve D R Harridge
An insufficient supply of oxygen to the tissues (hypoxia), as is experienced upon high-altitude exposure, elicits physiological acclimatization mechanisms alongside metabolic remodeling. Details of the integrative adaptive processes in response to chronic hypobaric hypoxic exposure remain to be sufficiently investigated. In this small applied field study, subjects (n = 5, male, age 28-54 years) undertook a 40 week Antarctica expedition in the winter months, which included 24 weeks residing above 2500 m...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Christina G de Souza E Silva, Leonard A Kaminsky, Ross Arena, Jeffrey W Christle, Claudio Gil S Araújo, Ricardo M Lima, Euan A Ashley, Jonathan Myers
Background Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is a powerful predictor of health outcomes. Valid and portable reference values are integral to interpreting measured VO2 max; however, available reference standards lack validation and are specific to exercise mode. This study was undertaken to develop and validate a single equation for normal standards for VO2 max for the treadmill or cycle ergometer in men and women. Methods Healthy individuals ( N = 10,881; 67.8% men, 20-85 years) who performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on either a treadmill or a cycle ergometer were studied...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Eduardo Lattari, Henning Budde, Flávia Paes, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhão Neto, José Carlos Appolinario, Antônio Egídio Nardi, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Sérgio Machado
Background: The effects of the aerobic exercise on anxiety symptoms in patients with Panic Disorder (PD) remain unclear. Thus, the investigation of possible changes in EEG frontal asymmetry could contribute to understand the relationship among exercise, brain and anxiety. Objective: To investigate the acute effects of aerobic exercise on the symptoms of anxiety and the chronic effects of aerobic exercise on severity and symptoms related to PD, besides the changes in EEG frontal asymmetry...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die averagely 15years earlier than people in the Western background population, cardiovascular disease being the most frequent cause of death with unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity as major contributing risk factors. Understanding possible associations and predictors of the specific cardiovascular risk may permit more targeted and effective prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between clinical and psychosocial factors and several separate cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of 428 persons with schizophrenia and abdominal obesity enrolled in the CHANGE trial...
February 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Gaizka Mejuto, Samuel Chalmers, Stephanie Gilbert, David Bentley
The effects of pre cooling on endurance performance are widely known. In contrast, the approach of cooling during endurance exercise in combination with pre-exercise cooling has been poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effects of precooling and cooling during exercise enhance exercise performance compared to the ingestion of a thermo-neutral beverage (20 °C) or precooling alone in cycling performance. This was an experimental study using a randomised crossover design in which 7 cyclists underwent three trials comprising of 45 min steady state cycling (SS) at 70% VO2 max and a subsequent 10 km time trial (TT) in hot conditions (32 °C, 50% relative humidity)...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
James W Morgan, Eric Ferrazzani, J Andrew Taylor, Isabelle Vivodtzev
High level spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a very limited innervated skeletal muscle mass that strongly reduces exercise capacity. Our recent work showed that when adding functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the paralyzed legs (hybrid FES exercise) to produce higher exercise capacity, peak ventilation became a limiting factor to training-induced improvement in aerobic capacity. Our assumption was that the systemic adaptations to exercise training are delimited by the maximal ventilation that can be achieved...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Gill A Ten Hoor, Guy Plasqui, Annemie M W J Schols, Gerjo Kok
BACKGROUND: In this study, the main hypothesis is that heavier people enjoy strength exercises more than normal-weight people, mediated by fat-free mass and muscle strength. Further, it is hypothesized that heavier people are better in strength exercises and enjoy strength exercises more compared to aerobic exercises. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, height, weight, body composition (i.e., fat mass and fat-free mass by underwater weighing), muscle strength (i...
March 1, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Jaime Gallo-Villegas, Juan Carlos Aristizabal, Mauricio Estrada, Luis H Valbuena, Raul Narvaez-Sanchez, Jorge Osorio, Daniel C Aguirre-Acevedo, Juan C Calderón
BACKGROUND: Evidence of the efficacy of high-intensity, low-volume interval training (HIIT-low volume) in treating insulin resistance (IR) in patients with metabolic disorders is contradictory. In addition, it is unknown whether this effect is mediated through muscle endocrine function, which in turn depends on muscle mass and fiber type composition. Our aims were to assess the efficacy of HIIT-low volume compared to continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) in treating IR in adults with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to establish whether musclin, apelin, muscle mass and muscle composition are mediators of the effect...
February 27, 2018: Trials
Kengo Ishihara, Hirokazu Taniguchi
Endurance exercise performance has been used as a representative index in experimental animal models in the field of health sciences, exercise physiology, comparative physiology, food function or nutritional physiology. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fatmax (the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation) as an additional index of endurance exercise performance that can be measured during running at submaximal exercise intensity in mice. We measured both Fatmax and Vo2 peak of trained ICR mice that voluntary exercised for 8 weeks and compared them with a sedentary group of mice at multiple inclinations of 20, 30, 40, and 50° on a treadmill...
2018: PloS One
Jose Antonio Pérez-Turpin, Mario Trottini, Juan Jose Chinchilla-Mira, Weronika Cyganik
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of microfiltered and sterilized seawater ingestion on running performance in a hot environment. This cross-over, double-blind randomized trial included 12 experienced male runners. The subjects randomly consumed seawater (SW) or pure water (placebo) in an equivalent amount of 50 ml five minutes prior to running at 40% of their VO2 max for 95.0 ± 18.5 min, at 30°C, until they lost 3% of body weight. Every 20 minutes, a measurement of their body weight was taken and a blood lactate analysis was performed...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Daria Domańska-Senderowska, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Justyna Kiszałkiewicz, Michał Brzeziański, Dorota Pastuszak-Lewandoska, Łukasz Radzimińki, Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota, Anna Jegier
Recently studies have shown that, depending on the type of training and its duration, the expression levels of selected circulating myomiRNAs (c-miR-27a,b, c-miR-29a,b,c, c-miR-133a) differ and correlate with the physiological indicators of adaptation to physical activity. To analyse the expression of selected classes of miRNAs in soccer players during different periods of their training cycle. The study involved 22 soccer players aged 17-18 years. The multi-stage 20-m shuttle run test was used to estimate VO2 max among the soccer players...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Chunyang Chen, Yan Sun, Hao Liang, Dan Yu, Songnian Hu
The muscle-specific creatine kinase (CKM) A/G variants (rs8111989) have been associated with skeletal muscle performance in humans; they are correlated with physical performance and contribute to differences in the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) responses during power or endurance training. However, there is not enough definitive evidence to demonstrate whether the A and G allelic variants of the CKM gene rs8111989 are indeed genetic factors that can influence human physical performance. In our study, we identified 9 articles on CKM in a literature search, and conducted two meta-analyses on the CKM rs8111989 A/G allele or genotype differences between power or endurance athletes and general controls...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
Hassan Khan, Setor K Kunutsor, Rainer Rauramaa, Faisal M Merchant, Jari A Laukkanen
The benefits of aerobic fitness in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality is well established; however, the associations of long-term change in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with incident heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been studied before. The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study is a prospective cohort comprising men aged 42 to 60 years from the city of Kuopio and its surroundings, with a baseline examination between 1984 and 1989 (V1), a re-examination at 11 years (V2), and up to 15 years of follow-up from V2...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Paul Robach, Joar Hansen, Aurélien Pichon, Anne-Kristine Meinild Lundby, Sune Dandanell, Gunnar Slettaløkken Falch, Daniel Hammarström, Dominik H Pesta, Christoph Siebenmann, Stefanie Keiser, Patricia Kérivel, Jon Elling Whist, Bent R Rønnestad, Carsten Lundby
Live high - train low (LHTL) using hypobaric hypoxia was previously found to improve sea-level endurance performance in well-trained individuals, however confirmatory controlled data in athletes are lacking. Here we test the hypothesis that natural-altitude LHTL improves aerobic performance in cross-country skiers, in conjunction with expansion of total hemoglobin mass (Hbmass , carbon-monoxide rebreathing technique) promoted by accelerated erythropoiesis. Following duplicate baseline measurements at sea level over the course of two weeks, nineteen Norwegian cross-country skiers (three women, sixteen men, age 20±2 yr, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) 69±5 ml...
February 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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