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Cardiac arrythmogenesis

Farhan Rizvi, Alessandra DeFranco, Ramail Siddiqui, Ulugbek Negmadjanov, Larisa Emelyanova, Alisher Holmuhamedov, Gracious Ross, Yang Shi, Ekhson Holmuhamedov, David Kress, A Jamil Tajik, Arshad Jahangir
Fibroblasts, the most abundant cells in the heart, contribute to cardiac fibrosis, the substrate for the development of arrythmogenesis, and therefore are potential targets for preventing arrhythmic cardiac remodeling. A chamber-specific difference in the responsiveness of fibroblasts from the atria and ventricles toward cytokine and growth factors has been described in animal models, but it is unclear whether similar differences exist in human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) and whether drugs affect their proliferation differentially...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
I V Shemarova, V P Nesterov
The review considers role of Ca2+ ions in regulation of specialized functions of cardiomyocytes (CM) in disturbances of heart activity. Problems of Ca(2+)-dependent signaling mechanisms leading to pathological hypertrophy, arrythmogenesis, and heart failure are elucidated. A particular attention is paid to analysis of Ca(2+)-dependent molecular mechanisms leading to remodeling of contractile proteins, apoptosis, or pathological growth of CM.
November 2014: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
Kentaro Sakai, Takahiro Fukuda, Kimiharu Iwadate
BACKGROUND: Past studies have reported that abnormal innervation of cardiac sympathetic nerve can cause sudden cardiac death through the arrythmogenesis; however, the severe cardiac sympathetic degeneration does not necessarily cause clinical problems. This study aimed to examine whether denervation or hyperinnervation of cardiac sympathetic nerves in the subepicardium is associated with unexpected cardiac death (UCD). METHODS: Cardiac tissues of 278 forensic autopsy cases within 48 h after death were analyzed by double-staining immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and neurofilament...
July 2014: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
H Rodríguez-Angulo, J Toro-Mendoza, J Marques, R Bonfante-Cabarcas, A Mijares
Chagas' myocardiopathy, caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is characterized by microvascular alterations, heart failure and arrhythmias. Ischemia and arrythmogenesis have been attributed to proteins shed by the parasite, although this has not been fully demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of substances shed by T. cruzi on ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. We performed a triple ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) protocol whereby the isolated beating rat hearts were perfused with either Vero-control or Vero T...
January 2013: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Natalia A Trayanova, Jason Constantino, Viatcheslav Gurev
Computational modeling has traditionally played an important role in dissecting the mechanisms for cardiac dysfunction. Ventricular electromechanical models, likely the most sophisticated virtual organs to date, integrate detailed information across the spatial scales of cardiac electrophysiology and mechanics and are capable of capturing the emergent behavior and the interaction between electrical activation and mechanical contraction of the heart. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the latest advancements in multiscale electromechanical modeling of the ventricles...
August 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Demetrios A Arvanitis, Despina Sanoudou, Fotis Kolokathis, Elizabeth Vafiadaki, Vasiliki Papalouka, Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, George N Theodorakis, Ioannis A Paraskevaidis, Stamatios Adamopoulos, Gerald W Dorn, Dimitrios Th Kremastinos, Evangelia G Kranias
AIMS: To investigate whether genetic variants of the histidine-rich calcium (HRC)-binding protein are associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and its progression. METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened 123 idiopathic DCM patients and 96 healthy individuals by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing for genetic variants in HRC. Six polymorphisms were detected: Leu35Leu (A/G), Ser43Asn (G/A), Ser96Ala (T/G), Glu202_Glu203insGlu (-/GAG), Asp261del (GAT/-), and an in-frame insertion of 51 amino acids at His321...
October 2008: European Heart Journal
Richard N Re, Julia L Cook
The field of intracrine physiology attempts to codify the biological actions of intracrines--extracellular signaling proteins or peptides that also operate in the intracellular space, either because they are retained in their cells of synthesis or because they have been internalized by a target cell. Intracrines are structurally diverse; hormones, growth factors, DNA-binding proteins and enzymes can all display intracrine functionality. Here, we review the role of intracrines in the heart and vasculature, including the intracrine actions of renin-angiotensin-system components in cardiac pathology, dynorphin B in cardiac development, and a variety of factors in pathologic and therapeutic angiogenesis...
October 2007: Nature Clinical Practice. Cardiovascular Medicine
Keisuke Yamazaki, Hajime Terada, Hiroshi Satoh, Kensuke Naito, Akihiro Takeshita, Akihiko Uehara, Hideki Katoh, Kazunori Ohnishi, Hideharu Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O (3)) is a new promising regimen for patients with a relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but causes life-threatening arrhythmias. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mechanism of arrythmogenesis caused by As(2)O(3). METHODS AND RESULTS: Standard 12-lead ECGs were monitored throughout As(2)O(3) therapy in 20 APL patients. As(2)O (3) (0.15 mg/kg) significantly prolonged the corrected QT interval (QTc: 445+/-7 to 517+/-17 ms, means+/-SE, p<0...
November 2006: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Asterios Deligiannis, Hans Björnstad, Francois Carre, Hein Heidbüchel, Evangelia Kouidi, Nicole M Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Fabio Pigozzi, Wilhelm Schänzer, Luc Vanhees et al.
The use of doping substances and methods is extensive not only among elite athletes, but also among amateur and recreational athletes. Many types of drugs are used by athletes to enhance performance, to reduce anxiety, to increase muscle mass, to reduce weight or to mask the use of other drugs during testing. However, the abuse of doping substances and methods has been associated with the occurrence of numerous health side-effects. The adverse effects depend on the type of the consumed drug, as well as the amount and duration of intake and the sensitivity of the body, since there is a large inter-individual variability in responses to a drug...
October 2006: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation
Tara R St Amand, Jonathan T Lu, Kenneth R Chien
To unravel the complex disease phenotype of heart failure, we are utilizing an integrative approach employing genomics, physiology, and mouse genetics to identify nodal pathways for specific physiological end points such as myocyte stretch activation responses, contractility and electrical conduction. A new class of genetic pathways for cardiac sudden death and associated arrhythmias has been based on transcription factors that control conduction system lineages, including HF1b/SP4 and NKX2.5. Previous studies have established that HF1b plays a critical role in conduction system lineage formation and the loss of HF1b leads to a confused electrophysiological identity in Purkinje and ventricular cell lineages, resulting in cardiac sudden death and marked tachy and brady arrhythmias...
2003: Novartis Foundation Symposium
William T Clusin
Rapid progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which calcium ions mediate certain cardiac arrhythmias. Principal advances include imaging of cytosolic calcium in isolated cells and in intact tissues, use of fluorescent indicators and monophasic action potentials to record membrane potentials in isolated tissue, and sequencing of the genes that encode critical ion channel proteins. In this review, five types of arrhythmias are discussed where calcium ion currents, or currents controlled by calcium, appear to be responsible for arrythmogenesis...
June 2003: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Aoxiang Xu, Michael R. Guevara
It is well known that there is considerable spatial inhomogeneity in the electrical properties of heart muscle, and that the many interventions that increase this initial degree of inhomogeneity all make it easier to induce certain cardiac arrhythmias. We consider here the specific example of myocardial ischemia, which greatly increases the electrical heterogeneity of ventricular tissue, and often triggers life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. There is growing evidence that spiral-wave activity underlies these reentrant arrhythmias...
March 1998: Chaos
P Donohoe, B M Hendry, O V Walgama, F Bertaso, D J Hopster, M J Shattock, A F James
Renal failure in humans is associated with electrocardiographic changes including altered QT interval dispersion, which suggests that cardiac myocyte repolarization is abnormal and which appears to correlate with cardiac prognosis. In this study, cardiac myocyte repolarizing currents have been studied in isolated cells from rats 8 wk after subtotal nephrectomy (SNx), using sham-operated animals as controls. In addition, monophasic cardiac action potentials were recorded from the epicardial surface of the left ventricle (LV) apex, LV base, and the right ventricle of isolated perfused hearts paced at 320/min...
September 2000: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
T Ravingerova, J Slezak, N Tribulova, A Dzurba, B Uhrik, A Ziegelhoffer
The early period of reperfusion of ischaemic myocardium leads to a high incidence of severe tachyarrhythmias including ventricular fibrillation (VF), accompanied by a sudden transitional dysfunction. Oxygen free radicals (OFR) have been identified as one of the principal factors responsible for reperfusion-induced events. However, direct evidence for participation of OFR in the arrhythmogenic mechanisms upon reperfusion is still lacking. In the present study, in isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts subjected to 30 min global ischaemia, the onset of reperfusion induced 100% incidence of both ventricular tachycardia (VT) and VF with their gradual cessation during 5 min of reperfusion...
October 1993: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
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