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Joseph P Pillion, Dana Boatman-Reich, Barry Gordon
Atypical responses to sound are common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and growing evidence suggests an underlying auditory brainstem pathology. This review of the literature provides a comprehensive account of the structural and functional evidence for auditory brainstem abnormalities in ASD. The studies reviewed were published between 1975 and 2016 and were sourced from multiple online databases. Indices of both the quantity and quality of the studies reviewed are considered. Findings show converging evidence for auditory brainstem pathology in ASD, although the specific functions and anatomical structures involved remain equivocal...
June 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Katja Waller, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Timo Törmäkangas, Pekka Hautasaari, Noora Lindgren, Paula Iso-Markku, Kauko Heikkilä, Juha Rinne, Jaakko Kaprio, Harri Sievänen, Urho M Kujala
Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in old age is an important indicator of good health and functional capacity enabling independent living. In our prospective twin cohort study with 616 individuals we investigated whether long-term physical activity assessed three times, in 1975, 1982 and 1990 (mean age 48 years in 1990), and other self-reported health habits predict objectively measured MVPA measured with a hip-worn triaxial accelerometer (at least 10 hours per day for at least 4 days) 25 years later (mean age of 73 years)...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Oscar K Serrano, Kunal Yadav, Ananta Bangdiwala, David M Vock, Ty B Dunn, Erik B Finger, Timothy L Pruett, Arthur J Matas, Raja Kandaswamy
With increasing organ demand, living kidney donation from older donors (>60-years-old) has become more common. Between 1975 and 2014, 3752 donor nephrectomies (DN) were performed at University of Minnesota; 167 (4.5%) were >60-years-old Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between contemporaneous >60-years-old and <60-years-old donors. On univariate analysis, >60-years-old were more likely to have had prior abdominal surgery and hypertension; and less likely to smoke. Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was lower in >60-years-old (80 ± 16 vs 101 ± 26 mL/min/1...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Assem A Sultan, Nequesha Mohamed, Linsen T Samuel, Morad Chughtai, Nipun Sodhi, Viktor E Krebs, Kim L Stearns, Robert M Molloy, Michael A Mont
PURPOSE: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) typically impacts middle-aged patients who are typically more active and in whom many surgeons would try to delay performing a total hip arthroplasty (THA). This poses a clinical decision-making challenge. Therefore, several options for joint preservation have been advocated, but varying indications and success rates have led to debate on when to use the various procedures. This is due in part to the lack of a generalized system for assessing ONFH, as well as the absence of a standardized method of data collection for patient stratification...
June 18, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Richard Taylor, Marli Gregory, Kerry Sexton, Jessica Wharton, Nisha Sharma, Georgina Amoyal, Stephen Morrell
Objective To investigate trends in breast cancer mortality in New Zealand women, to corroborate or negate a causal association with service screening mammography. Method Cumulated mortality rates from breast cancer deaths individually linked to incident cases diagnosed before and after screening commencement were compared, in women aged 50-64 (from 2001) and aged 45-49 and 65-69 (from 2006). Trends and differences in aggregate invasive breast cancer mortality (1975-2013) were assessed in relation to introduction of mammography screening targeting women aged 50-64 and 45-69...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Jan-G Vermeulen, Felicity Burt, Esta van Heerden, Errol Cason, Muriel Meiring
The development of therapeutic antibodies in their various forms has been a constant challenge since the development of the first monoclonal antibodies in 1975. This is especially true for the development of therapeutic single chain variable (scFv) fragments in Escherichia coli. In a previous study the selection of a tissue factor inhibiting single chain variable fragment (TFI-scFv) isolated from the Thomlinson I + J phage libraries was described. Although the initial findings were promising, additional characterization of the antibody fragment and subsequent application was hampered due low protein yield...
June 9, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Magdalena Durda-Masny, Grażyna Jarząbek-Bielecka, Anita Szwed, Tomasz Hanć, Zbigniew Czapla, Maria Kaczmarek
The aim of the study was to evaluate (1) changes over time in age at sexual initiation among Polish women and (2) underlying socio-economic determinants. 273 women born between 1975 and 1995 in Wielkopolska region (Poland) filled in a questionnaire of sexual behavior. The questionnaire included questions about the age of sexual initiation and women's socio-economic status such as place of residence, level of education, type of school, marital status. Database and statistical analyzes were performed using Statistica 10...
June 11, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Pauline F D Scheelbeek, Frances A Bird, Hanna L Tuomisto, Rosemary Green, Francesca B Harris, Edward J M Joy, Zaid Chalabi, Elizabeth Allen, Andy Haines, Alan D Dangour
Environmental changes threaten agricultural production, food security, and health. Previous reviews suggest that environmental changes will substantially affect future yields of starchy dietary staples. To date, no comprehensive global analysis of the impacts of environmental change on (nonstaple) vegetables and legumes-important constituents of healthy diets-has been reported. We systematically searched for articles published between 1975 and 2016 on the effects of ambient temperature, tropospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and ozone (O3 ) concentrations, water availability, and salinization on yields and nutritional quality of vegetables and legumes...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Woojae Han, Noori Kim
The hearing-aid transducer is ubiquitous in the hearing-aid industry. For example, the balanced armature receiver (BAR), first invented by A.G. Bell, has been used in all telephone earphones because it has the highest output and best frequency response. Nevertheless, previous electro-mechanical studies on these miniature speakers are quite primitive, given the price of the transducers. Thus, more detailed analysis is critically important for the field of hearing science. This review study was motivated by Hunt's parameter calibration (1954), a widely used commercial hearing-aid receiver (ED series, manufactured by Knowles Electronics, Inc...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Audiology & Otology
Raef Minwer-Barakat, Judit Marigó, Salvador Moyà-Solà
The scarce primate remains from the late Eocene locality of Roc de Santa (Central Pyrenees, NE Spain) were first documented in 1975. This material included a mandibular fragment with P3 -M2 and a maxillary fragment with P3 -M3 assigned to Adapis magnus (later transferred to the genus Leptadapis), and an isolated M3 attributed to Necrolemur antiquus. However, these specimens were never described in detail. We have thoroughly studied these specimens, with the exception of the mandibular fragment, which has been lost...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Umbreen Hafeez, Hui K Gan, Andrew M Scott
Since Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich proposed the concept of magic bullet in 1906, Köhler and Milstein discovered Hybridoma technology in 1975, and Greg Winter pioneered the technique to humanize monoclonal antibodies in 1988, monoclonal antibodies have been successfully developed to treat medical illnesses. Monoclonal antibodies are effective treatments for inhibition of alloimmune reactivity, haematological malignancies, solid organ malignancies, viral illnesses and are also used as antiplatelet therapy. Their successful use in cancer and autoimmune diseases in humans have made them one of the fastest growing classes of new drugs approved for these indications in last few decades...
June 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Chris K Folland, Olivier Boucher, Andrew Colman, David E Parker
The time series of monthly global mean surface temperature (GST) since 1891 is successfully reconstructed from known natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, including internal climate variability, using a multiple regression technique. Comparisons are made with the performance of 40 CMIP5 models in predicting GST. The relative contributions of the various forcing factors to GST changes vary in time, but most of the warming since 1891 is found to be attributable to the net influence of increasing greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols...
June 2018: Science Advances
Megan E Patrick, Mick P Couper, Virginia B Laetz, John E Schulenberg, Patrick M O'Malley, Lloyd D Johnston, Richard A Miech
The national Monitoring the Future (MTF) study examines substance use among adolescents and adults in the United States and has used paper questionnaires since it began in 1975. The current experiment tested three conditions as compared to the standard MTF follow-up protocol (i.e., MTF Control) for the first MTF follow-up survey at ages 19/20 years (i.e., one or two years after high school graduation). The MTF Control group included participants who completed in-school baseline surveys in the 12th grade in 2012-2013 and who were selected to participate in the first follow-up survey in 2014 ( n  =   2,451)...
March 2018: Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology
A John Spencer, Loc G Do, Diep H Ha
BACKGROUND: Water fluoridation's effectiveness has been reaffirmed by systematic reviews. However, most of the included nonrandomised controlled before and after studies were conducted pre-1975. Opportunity for such studies is limited in a steady state of community fluoridation programmes. As an alternative for evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of water fluoridation, this study used data from a recent national child oral health study to examine associations between lifetime exposure to fluoridated water (%LEFW) and childhood caries...
June 5, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Michael Zenz, Julia Zenz, Maximilian Grieger
Since 1975, the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association (WMA) has clearly required ethics committee approval for research into humans. Nevertheless, this Declaration is violated quite often. As many English-language publications have addressed the theme of ethics board approval in theses and other published works, it is now to be investigated in Germany for the first time.From 2013 to 2014, a total of 1,482 medical theses at four selected universities in addition to three German-language scientific journals were reviewed...
June 5, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Willem M Otte, Joeri K Tijdink, Paul L Weerheim, Herm J Lamberink, Christiaan H Vinkers
Clinical trials have a vital role in ensuring the safety and efficacy of new treatments and interventions in medicine. A key characteristic of a clinical trial is its statistical power. Here we investigate whether the statistical power of a trial is related to the gender of first and last authors on the paper reporting the results of the trial. Based on an analysis of 31,873 clinical trials published between 1974 and 2017, we find that adequate statistical power was most often present in clinical trials with a male first author and a female last author (20...
June 5, 2018: ELife
Johannes C Rusch, Haakon Hansen, David A Strand, Turhan Markussen, Sigurd Hytterød, Trude Vrålstad
BACKGROUND: Environmental DNA (eDNA) monitoring is growing increasingly popular in aquatic systems as a valuable complementary method to conventional monitoring. However, such tools have not yet been extensively applied for metazoan fish parasite monitoring. The fish ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris, introduced into Norway in 1975, has caused severe damage to Atlantic salmon populations and fisheries. Successful eradication of the parasite has been carried out in several river systems in Norway, and Atlantic salmon remain infected in only seven rivers, including three in the Drammen region...
June 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Daniel Seoane-Mato, Olivier Nuñez, Nerea Fernández-de-Larrea, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Marina Pollán, Gonzalo López-Abente, Nuria Aragonés
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is acquiring increasing prominence as a cause of cancer death in the population. The purpose of this study was to analyze long-term pancreatic cancer mortality trends in Spain and evaluate the independent effects of age, death period and birth cohort on these trends. METHODS: Population and mortality data for the period 1952-2012 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Pancreatic cancer deaths were identified using the International Classification of Diseases ICD-6 to ICD-9 (157 code) and ICD-10 (C25 code)...
June 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
Chu-Yi Lee, Yi-Wei Chen, Yi-Yen Lee, Feng-Chi Chang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Shih-Chieh Lin, Donald Ming-Tak Ho, Ming-Chao Huang, Sang-Hue Yen, Tai-Tong Wong, Muh-Lii Liang
PURPOSE: Complications can occur following a prolonged latency period after radiation therapy for cancer, and this is a growing concern because secondary tumors are potentially fatal. Few studies have examined secondary tumors in patients who received radiation therapy as children. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This retrospective study examined 1697 pediatric patients with central nervous system tumors who received treatment at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from January 1, 1975, to December 31, 2013...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Andrea Parisini, Stefano Frabboni, Gian Carlo Gazzadi, Rodolfo Rosa, Aldo Armigliato
In this work, we compare the results of different Cliff-Lorimer (Cliff & Lorimer 1975) based methods in the case of a quantitative energy dispersive spectrometry investigation of light elements in ternary C-O-Si thin films. To determine the Cliff-Lorimer (C-L) k-factors, we fabricated, by focused ion beam, a standard consisting of a wedge lamella with a truncated tip, composed of two parallel SiO2 and 4H-SiC stripes. In 4H-SiC, it was not possible to obtain reliable k-factors from standard extrapolation methods owing to the strong CK-photon absorption...
May 31, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
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