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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128625/lxr-activation-increases-the-expression-of-gnrh-and-%C3%AE-msh-in-the-rat-hypothalamus-in-vivo
#1
María Sol Kruse, Lucas Gabriel Suarez, Héctor Coirini
Liver X receptors (LXR) are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Recently, we described LXR receptors expression in the hypothalamus but their function in this brain area remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the function of LXR on the expression of factors produced in the hypothalamus in vitro and in vivo by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. More precisely we studied the expression of GnRH and GHRH, αMSH and NPY in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121520/effects-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-gene-targeted-ablation-on-ghrelin-induced-feeding
#2
Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Claudio Ferrante, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Rugia Shohreh, Chiara Di Nisio, Michele Vacca, Giustino Orlando, Roberto Salvatori, Luigi Brunetti
Impairment of growth hormone (GH) signaling has been associated with increased feeding and adiposity. The gastric hormone ghrelin, in addition to its GH-secretagogue effects, stimulates food intake after both central and peripheral administration. In the present study we further investigated the feeding regulatory role of the ghrelin-GH axis in a mouse model of isolated GH deficiency due to targeted ablation of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene [GHRH knockout (GHRHKO)]. We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin administration on feeding behavior, related hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, and serum ghrelin levels in mice homozygous for GHRHKO allele (-/-) and heterozygous (+/-) control animals...
November 6, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108816/obestatin-stimulates-the-somatotrophic-axis-activity-in-sheep
#3
Anna Wójcik-Gładysz, Michał Szlis, Anna Misztal, Bartosz Jarosław Przybył, Jolanta Polkowska
The effects of obestatin (an anorexigenic peripheral peptide) on somatotrophic axis activity in ruminants have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequence of intracerebroventricular infusions of obestatin on the activity of the somatotrophic axis in peripubertal female sheep. Animals were randomly divided into two groups: control group received intracerebroventricular infusions of the vehicle, and the obestatin group was infused with obestatin (25 µg/120 µL h(-1)). The series of four hourly infusions on three consecutive days were performed...
November 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103201/possible-predictive-markers-of-response-to-therapy-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-cancer
#4
Laszló Zoltan, Robert Farkas, Andrew V Schally, Eva Pozsgai, Andras Papp, Laura Bognár, Tamas Tornoczki, Laszlo Mangel, Szabolcs Bellyei
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the intensity of biomarker expression and the response to radiochemotherapy in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Ninety-two patients with locally advanced ESCC were examined retrospectively. Pre-treatment tumor samples were stained for proteins SOUL, Hsp 16.2, Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptor (GHRH-R) and p-Akt using immunhistochemistry methods. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to show the relationship between intensity of expression of biomarkers and clinical parameters and 3-year OS...
November 4, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098662/deregulation-of-the-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-axis-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#5
C Pascucci, R V De Biase, D Savi, S Quattrucci, A M Isidori, C Lubrano, L Gnessi, A Lenzi
PURPOSE: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) present with signs and symptoms that overlap with those of adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome: loss of muscle mass, bone fragility and lower stress tolerance. In literature, the prevalence of GHD in pediatric CF patients is higher than general population, but these studies have been performed on children with growth delay. To our knowledge, there are no studies on adult patients. The aim of this paper is to evaluate GH-IGF1 axis in an adult CF population...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097701/two-missense-mutations-in-kcnq1-cause-pituitary-hormone-deficiency-and-maternally-inherited-gingival-fibromatosis
#6
Johanna Tommiska, Johanna Känsäkoski, Lasse Skibsbye, Kirsi Vaaralahti, Xiaonan Liu, Emily J Lodge, Chuyi Tang, Lei Yuan, Rainer Fagerholm, Jørgen K Kanters, Päivi Lahermo, Mari Kaunisto, Riikka Keski-Filppula, Sanna Vuoristo, Kristiina Pulli, Tapani Ebeling, Leena Valanne, Eeva-Marja Sankila, Sirpa Kivirikko, Mitja Lääperi, Filippo Casoni, Paolo Giacobini, Franziska Phan-Hug, Tal Buki, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Nelly Pitteloud, Riitta Veijola, Marita Lipsanen-Nyman, Kari Kaunisto, Patrice Mollard, Cynthia L Andoniadou, Joel A Hirsch, Markku Varjosalo, Thomas Jespersen, Taneli Raivio
Familial growth hormone deficiency provides an opportunity to identify new genetic causes of short stature. Here we combine linkage analysis with whole-genome resequencing in patients with growth hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis. We report that patients from three unrelated families harbor either of two missense mutations, c.347G>T p.(Arg116Leu) or c.1106C>T p.(Pro369Leu), in KCNQ1, a gene previously implicated in the long QT interval syndrome. Kcnq1 is expressed in hypothalamic GHRH neurons and pituitary somatotropes...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078377/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-improves-heart-function-in-pressure-overload-induced-heart-failure
#7
Iacopo Gesmundo, Michele Miragoli, Pierluigi Carullo, Letizia Trovato, Veronica Larcher, Elisa Di Pasquale, Mara Brancaccio, Marta Mazzola, Tania Villanova, Matteo Sorge, Marina Taliano, Maria Pia Gallo, Giuseppe Alloatti, Claudia Penna, Joshua M Hare, Ezio Ghigo, Andrew V Schally, Gianluigi Condorelli, Riccarda Granata
It has been shown that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) reduces cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis, prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury, and improves cardiac function in ischemic rat hearts. However, it is still not known whether GHRH would be beneficial for life-threatening pathological conditions, like cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Thus, we tested the myocardial therapeutic potential of GHRH stimulation in vitro and in vivo, using GHRH or its agonistic analog MR-409. We show that in vitro, GHRH(1-44)NH2 attenuates phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiac cells, adult rat ventricular myocytes, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs, decreasing expression of hypertrophic genes and regulating hypertrophic pathways...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063103/influence-of-insulin-on-growth-hormone-secretion-level-and-growth-hormone-signalling
#8
Han Qiu, Jin-Kui Yang, Chen Chen
Growth hormone (GH), as a vital hormone, has to experience a series of processes to fulfill its function including secretion, entering the circulation to reach target tissues (pre-receptor process), binding on the GH receptor (GHR) and triggering signaling inside cells (post-GHR process). Insulin can directly or indirectly influence part of these processes. GH secretion from pituitary somatotropes is regulated by GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS) from hypothalamus. Insulin may exert positive or negative effects on the neurons expressing GHRH and SS and somatotropes under healthy and pathological conditions including obesity and diabetes...
October 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031905/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-decreases-after-liver-fat-reduction-via-growth-hormone-augmentation
#9
Laurie R Braun, Meghan N Feldpausch, Natalia Czerwonka, Martin Torriani, Steven K Grinspoon, Takara L Stanley
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) ameliorates steatohepatitis but is increased in humans with fatty liver, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms and/or FGF21 resistance. Further, animal models suggest that GH increases serum FGF21. Tesamorelin, a growth hormone releasing hormone agonist, reduces liver fat in HIV-infected individuals. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes in FGF21 during tesamorelin treatment, to elucide the interplay between FGF21, GH augmentation, and liver fat reduction in humans...
October 7, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977997/expression-of-hypothalamic-neurohormones-and-their-receptors-in-the-human-eye
#10
Sander R Dubovy, Maria P Fernandez, Jose J Echegaray, Norman L Block, Noriyuki Unoki, Roberto Perez, Irving Vidaurre, Richard K Lee, Mehrdad Nadji, Andrew V Schally
Extrapituitary roles for hypothalamic neurohormones have recently become apparent and clinically relevant, based on the use of synthetic peptide analogs for the treatment of multiple conditions including cancers, pulmonary edema and myocardial infarction. In the eye, it has been suggested that some of these hormones and their receptors may be present in the ciliary body, iris, trabecular meshwork and retina, but their physiological role has yet to be elucidated. Our study intends to comprehensively demonstrate the expression of some hypothalamic neuroendocrine hormones and their receptors within different retinal and extraretinal structures of the human eye...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977590/kisspeptin-stimulates-growth-hormone-release-by-utilizing-neuropeptide-y-pathways-and-is-dependent-on-the-presence-of-ghrelin-in-the-ewe
#11
Chad D Foradori, Brian K Whitlock, Jay A Daniel, Arthur D Zimmerman, Melaney A Jones, Casey C Read, Barbara P Steele, Jeremy T Smith, Iain J Clarke, Theodore H Elsasser, Duane H Keisler, James L Sartin
Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, recent findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Here we show that central delivery of kisspeptin causes a robust rise in plasma GH in fasted but not fed sheep. Kisspeptin-induced GH secretion was similar in animals fasted for 24 hours and those fasted for 72 hours, suggesting that the factors involved in kisspeptin-induced GH secretion are responsive to loss of food availability and not the result of severe negative energy balance...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974369/characterization-and-distribution-of-ghrh-pacap-trh-sst-and-igf1-mrnas-in-the-green-iguana
#12
José Ávila-Mendoza, Ernesto Pérez-Rueda, Valeria Urban-Sosa, Martha Carranza, Carlos G Martínez-Moreno, Maricela Luna, Carlos Arámburo
The somatotropic axis (SA) regulates numerous aspects of vertebrate physiology such as development, growth, and metabolism and has influence on several tissues including neural, immune, reproductive and gastric tract. Growth hormone (GH) is a key component of SA, it is synthesized and released mainly by pituitary somatotrophs, although now it is known that virtually all tissues can express GH, which, in addition to its well-described endocrine roles, also has autocrine/paracrine/intracrine actions. In the pituitary, GH expression is regulated by several hypothalamic neuropeptides including GHRH, PACAP, TRH and SST...
January 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962892/effects-of-metformin-on-cell-growth-and-ampk-activity-in-pituitary-adenoma-cell-cultures-focusing-on-the-interaction-with-adenylyl-cyclase-activating-signals
#13
Lara Faggi, Andrea Giustina, Giovanni Tulipano
For a few years we have been investigating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a target for drug therapy of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Aim of this study was to investigate the direct effects of metformin, which causes AMPK activation in different cell types, on rat pituitary adenoma cell growth and on related cell signalling pathways. Our results suggest that metformin can exert a growth-inhibitory activity in rat pituitary tumor cells mediated by AMPK activation, although multiple mechanisms are most likely involved...
September 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948296/gip-3-30-nh2-is-an-efficacious-gip-receptor-antagonist-in-humans-a-randomised-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#14
Lærke S Gasbjerg, Mikkel B Christensen, Bolette Hartmann, Amalie R Lanng, Alexander H Sparre-Ulrich, Maria B N Gabe, Flemming Dela, Tina Vilsbøll, Jens J Holst, Mette M Rosenkilde, Filip K Knop
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone secreted postprandially from enteroendocrine K cells, but despite therapeutically interesting effects, GIP physiology in humans remains incompletely understood. Progress in this field could be facilitated by a suitable GIP receptor antagonist. For the first time in humans, we investigated the antagonistic properties of the naturally occurring GIP(3-30)NH2 in in vivo and in in vitro receptor studies...
September 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924876/inhibitory-effects-of-antagonists-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-ghrh-in-thyroid-cancer
#15
Helena Pópulo, Bruno Nunes, Cristina Sampaio, Rui Batista, Marta Teixeira Pinto, Tiago B Gaspar, Leandro Miranda-Alves, Ren-Zhi Cai, Xian Yang Zhang, Andrew V Schally, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Paula Soares
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a peptide hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH) in the pituitary. The extra-hypothalamic GHRH and its cognate receptors (GHRHR and splice variants) play a mitogenic role by stimulating cell proliferation and preventing apoptotic cell death. It is well established that GHRH antagonists inhibit the growth, tumorigenicity, and metastasis of various human malignancies. In this work, we studied the effect of two new GHRH antagonists, MIA602 and MIA690, on thyroid cancer...
December 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910730/pathogenic-and-likely-pathogenic-genetic-alterations-and-polymorphisms-in-growth-hormone-gene-gh1-and-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-receptor-gene-ghrhr-in-a-cohort-of-isolated-growth-hormone-deficient-ighd-children-in-sri-lanka
#16
Tharmini Sundralingam, Kamani Hemamala Tennekoon, Shamya de Silva, Sumadee De Silva, Asanka Sudeshini Hewage
OBJECTIVE: Genetic alterations in GH1 and GHRHR genes are known to cause isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). Of these, GHRHR codon 72 mutation has been reported to be highly prevalent in the Indian subcontinent, but among Sri Lankans its prevalence was low compared to reports from neighboring countries. The present study was therefore carried out to identify genetic alterations in the GH1 gene and rest of the GHRHR gene in a cohort of Sri Lankan IGHD patients who tested negative for GHRHR codon 72 mutation...
September 5, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905791/re-antagonists-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-inhibit-proliferation-induced-by-inflammation-in-prostatic-epithelial-cells
#17
Anthony Atala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903914/long-term-treatment-with-the-ghrelin-receptor-antagonist-d-lys3-ghrp-6-does-not-improve-glucose-homeostasis-in-non-obese-diabetic-mkr-mice
#18
Rasha Mosa, Lili Huang, Hongzhuo Li, Michael Grist, Derek LeRoith, Chen Chen
Ghrelin secretion has been associated with increased caloric intake and adiposity. The expressions of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in pancreas have raised the interest about the role of ghrelin in glucose homeostasis. Most of the studies showed that ghrelin promoted hyperglycaemia and inhibited insulin secretion. This raised the interest in using GHS-R1a antagonists as therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. Available data of GHS-R antagonists are on a short-term basis. Moreover, the complexity of GHS-R1a signalling makes it difficult to understand the mechanism of action of GHS-R1a antagonists...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803605/management-of-adult-growth-hormone-deficiency-at-peking-union-medical-college-hospital-a-survey-among-physicians
#19
Hong-Bo Yang, Meng-Qi Zhang, Hui Pan, Hui-Juan Zhu
Objective To evaluate physicians' attitude and knowledge about the management of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) at Peking Union Medical College Hospital and impact factors associated with better decision-making.Methods A 21-question anonymous survey was distributed and collected at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, a major teaching hospital in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Data of physicians' educational background, clinical training, patient workload per year and continuing medical education in AGHD were collected...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755537/gender-has-to-be-taken-into-account-in-diagnosing-adult-growth-hormone-deficiency-by-the-ghrh-plus-arginine-test
#20
Helene M Markkanen, Tuula Pekkarinen, Esa Hämäläinen, Matti J Välimäki, Henrik Alfthan, Ulf-Håkan Stenman
OBJECTIVE: Data on the effect of gender on the interpretation of the GHRH plus arginine stimulation test (GHRH+ARG test) is controversial. We validated the GHRH+ARG stimulation test in control subjects and patients with organic or idiopathic pituitary disease and a suspicion of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) using the Immulite 2000 XPi GH assay. DESIGN: We studied 126 apparently healthy adults (median age 38.8years) and 34 patients with a suspicion of AGHD (median age 42...
July 18, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
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