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Rie Tadokoro, Shotaro Sato, Fumiko Otsuka, Makoto Ueno, Shinichi Ohkawa, Hideki Katakami, Matsuo Taniyama, Shoichiro Nagasaka
The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH...
2016: Internal Medicine
Donato Iacovazzo, Márta Korbonits
X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) is a recently identified condition of early-onset GH excess resulting from the germline or somatic duplication of the GPR101 gene on chromosome Xq26.3. Thirty patients have been formally reported so far. The disease affects mostly females, occurs usually sporadically, and is characterised by early onset and marked overgrowth. Most patients present with concomitant hyperprolactinaemia. Histopathology shows pituitary hyperplasia or pituitary adenoma with or without associated hyperplasia...
September 29, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Hong-Bo Yang, Meng-Qi Zhang, Hui Pan, Hui-Juan Zhu
<strong>Objective</strong> To evaluate physicians' attitude and knowledge about the management of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) at Peking Union Medical College Hospital and impact factors associated with better decision-making.<strong>Methods</strong> A 21-question anonymous survey was distributed and collected at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, a major teaching hospital in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Data of physicians' educational background, clinical training, patient workload per year and continuing medical education in AGHD were collected...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Chiara Diazzi, Giulia Brigante, Giulia Ferrannini, Anna Ansaloni, Lucia Zirilli, Maria Cristina De Santis, Stefano Zona, Giovanni Guaraldi, Vincenzo Rochira
Biochemical growth hormone deficiency is prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, but if this condition is clinically relevant remains challenging. The aim is to prospectively compare the growth hormone deficiency/insulin-like growth factor-1 status of 71 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with impaired growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone + Arginine with that of 65 hypopituitary patients affected by a true growth hormone deficiency secondary to pituitary disease...
October 11, 2016: Endocrine
P Schüssler, M Kluge, W Gamringer, T C Wetter, A Yassouridis, M Uhr, R Rupprecht, A Steiger
We reported previously that repetitive intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) around sleep onset prompt depression-like changes in certain sleep and endocrine activity parameters (e.g. decrease of slow-wave sleep during the second half of the night, blunted growth hormone peak, elevated cortisol concentration during the first half of the night). Furthermore a sexual dimorphism of the sleep-endocrine effects of the hormones growth hormone-releasing hormone and ghrelin was observed. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of pulsatile administration of 4×50μg CRH on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal cortisol and GH concentration in young healthy women...
September 28, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Michael Peroski, Nikoletta Proudan, George Grignol, Istvan Merchenthaler, Bertalan Dudas
It is a general consensus that stress is one of the major factors that suppresses growth. Previous studies revealed that the catecholaminergic and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems, involved in the activation of stress-related neuronal circuits, influence growth hormone (GH)-release via modulating growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) secretion. Indeed, catecholaminergic and NPY-immunoreactive (IR) axon varicosities abut on the surface of the GHRH neurons forming contacts. These juxtapositions appear to be real synapses and may represent the morphological substrate of the impact of stress on growth...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Jyoti Kapali, Brock E Kabat, Kelly L Schmidt, Caitlin E Stallings, Mason Tippy, Deborah O Jung, Brian S Edwards, Leah B Nantie, Lori T Raeztman, Amy M Navratil, Buffy S Ellsworth
The etiology is unknown for half of congenital hypopituitarism cases. Our long-term goal is to expand the molecular diagnoses for congenital hypopituitarism by identifying genes that contribute to this condition. We have previously shown that the forkhead box transcription factor, FOXO1, is present in approximately half of somatotropes at embryonic day (e)18.5, suggesting it may have a role in somatotrope differentiation or function. To elucidate the role of FOXO1 in somatotrope differentiation and function Foxo1 was conditionally deleted from the anterior pituitary (Foxo1(Δpit))...
September 15, 2016: Endocrinology
Anne-Lise Lecoq, Philippe Zizzari, Mirella Hage, Lyvianne Decourtye, Clovis Adam, Say Viengchareun, Johannes D Veldhuis, Valérie Geoffroy, Marc Lombès, Virginie Tolle, Anne Guillou, Auli Karhu, Laurent Kappeler, Philippe Chanson, Peter Kamenický
Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age...
October 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Bora Lee, Seunghee Lee, Soo-Kyung Lee, Jae W Lee
Neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus relay and translate important cues from the periphery into the central nervous system. However, the gene regulatory program directing their development remains poorly understood. Here we report that the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 is expressed in several subpopulations of developing arcuate neurons and plays crucial roles in their fate specification. Mice with conditional deletion of the Isl1 gene in developing hypothalamus display severe deficits in both feeding and linear growth...
August 30, 2016: Development
Virginia M Pereira-Gurgel, Augusto C N Faro, Roberto Salvatori, Thiago A Chagas, José F Carvalho-Junior, Carla R P Oliveira, Ursula M M Costa, Gustavo B Melo, Ann Hellström, Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: Experimental models demonstrate an important role of GH in retinal development. However, the interactions between GH and the neuro-vascularization of the human retina are still not clear. A model of untreated congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) may clarify the actions of GH on the retina. The purpose of this work was to assess the retinal neuro-vascularization in untreated congenital IGHD (cIGHD). DESIGN: In a cross sectional study, we performed an endocrine and ophthalmological assessment of 25 adult cIGHD subjects, homozygous for a null mutation (c...
July 27, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Sheng-Kuo Hsieh, Tse-Yu Chung, Yue-Chiun Li, Yuan-Hao Lo, Nan-Hei Lin, Ping-Chung Kuo, Wen-Ying Chen, Jason Tc Tzen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Folium Ginkgo, the dried leaf of Ginkgo biloba L. is a traditional Chinese medicine listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China with several therapeutic effects, including prevention of aging. It is used as herbal medicine for the treatment of several aging-related diseases. The therapeutic effects of Folium Ginkgo on aging-related diseases are suspected to be similar to the anti-aging effects of growth hormone release induced by ghrelin...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Vijay M Ravindra, Amol Raheja, Heather Corn, Meghan Driscoll, Corrine Welt, Debra L Simmons, William T Couldwell
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and comprises approximately 30% of all lymphomas. Patients typically present with a nonpainful mass in the neck, groin, or abdomen associated with constitutional symptoms. In this report, however, the authors describe a rare case of a 61-year-old woman with hyperprolactinemia, hypothyroidism, and acromegaly (elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1]) with elevated growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in whom an MRI demonstrated diffuse enlargement of the pituitary gland...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Louise Cheryl Gregory, Kyriaki Sandy Alatzoglou, Mark James McCabe, Peter Christopher Hindmarsh, Jose William Saldanha, Nicola Romano, Paul Le Tissier, Mehul Tulsidas Dattani
OBJECTIVE: Recessive mutations in GHRHR are associated with severe isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), with a final height in untreated patients of 130 cm ± 10 cm (-7.2 ± 1.6 SDS; males) and 114 ± 0.7 cm (-8.3 ± 0.1 SDS; females). DESIGN: We hypothesized that a consanguineous Pakistani family with IGHD in three siblings (two males, one female) would have mutations in GH1 or GHRHR. RESULTS: Two novel homozygous missense variants [c...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Tengjiao Cui, Joaquin J Jimenez, Norman L Block, Evangelos V Badiavas, Luis Rodriguez-Menocal, Ailin Vila Granda, Renzhi Cai, Wei Sha, Marta Zarandi, Roberto Perez, Andrew V Schally
Decreased or impaired proliferation capability of dermal fibroblasts interferes with successful wound healing. Several growth factors tested failed to fully restore the growth of fibroblasts, possibly due to their rapid degradation by proteases. It is therefore critical to find new agents which have stimulatory effects on fibroblasts while being highly resistant to degradation. In such a scenario, the activities of two agonistic analogs of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), MR-409 and MR-502, were evaluated for their impact on proliferation and survival of primary human dermal fibroblasts...
August 2, 2016: Oncotarget
Julia Rohayem, Hendrik Drechsel, Bettina Tittel, Gabriele Hahn, Roland Pfaeffle, Angela Huebner
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has been used to treat children with GH deficiency (GHD) since 1966. AIMS: Using a combined retrospective and cross-sectional approach, we explored the long-term outcomes of patients with GHD, analysed factors influencing therapeutic response, determined persistence into adulthood, investigated pituitary morphology, and screened for mutations in causative genes. METHODS: The files of 96 GH-deficient children were reviewed...
2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Viviane C Campos, Mônica R Barrios, Roberto Salvatori, Roque Pacheco de Almeida, Enaldo V de Melo, Ana C S Nascimento, Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus, Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira
Growth hormone is important for the development and function of the immune system, but there is controversy on whether growth hormone deficiency is associated to immune disorders. A model of isolated growth hormone deficiency may clarify if the lack of growth hormone is associated with increased susceptibility to infections, or with an altered responsiveness of the immune system. We have studied the frequency of infectious diseases and the immune function in adults with congenital, untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency...
August 3, 2016: Endocrine
Johannes D Veldhuis, Dana Erickson, Rebecca Yang, Paul Takahashi, Cyril Bowers
BACKGROUND: Systemic concentrations of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), GH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 decline in healthy aging individuals. Conversely, T and E2 stimulate GH and IGF-I production in hypogonadal patients. HYPOTHESIS: Since (1) E2 stimulates GH secretion, putatively via the nuclear estrogen receptor (ER-alpha), and (2) E2 and GH fall with menopause, we postulated that diminished endogenous E2 contributes to low GH output in older women. LOCATION: Mayo Center for Clinical and Translational Science...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Laura Muñoz-Moreno, M Isabel Arenas, María J Carmena, Andrew V Schally, Manuel Sánchez-Chapado, Juan C Prieto, Ana M Bajo
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and its receptors have been implicated in the progression of various tumors. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that GHRH antagonists inhibit the growth of several cancers. GHRH antagonists, JMR-132 and JV-1-38 inhibit the growth of androgen-independent prostate tumors. Here we investigated the involvement of GHRH antagonists in proliferative and apoptotic processes. We used non-tumoral RWPE-1 and tumoral LNCaP and PC3 human prostatic epithelial cells, as well as an experimental model of human tumor PC3 cells...
July 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Kevin C J Yuen, Nicholas A Tritos, Susan L Samson, Andrew R Hoffman, Laurence Katznelson
INTRODUCTION: The clinical features of adult GH deficiency (GHD) are nonspecific, and GH stimulation testing is often required to confirm the diagnosis. However, diagnosing adult GHD can be challenging due to the episodic and pulsatile GH secretion, concurrently modified by age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: PubMed searches were conducted to identify published data since 2009 on GH stimulation tests used to diagnose adult GHD. Relevant articles in English language were identified and considered for inclusion in the present document...
July 13, 2016: Endocrine Practice
Guixian Bu, Dongliang Lin, Lin Cui, Long Huang, Can Lv, Simiao Huang, Yiping Wan, Chao Fang, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
The 2 structurally and functionally related peptides, neuropeptide B (NPB) and neuropeptide W (NPW), together with their receptor(s) (NPBWR1/NPBWR2) constitute the NPB/NPW system, which acts mainly on the central nervous system to regulate many physiological processes in mammals. However, little is known about this NPB/NPW system in nonmammalian vertebrates. In this study, the functionality and expression of this NPB/NPW system and its actions on the pituitary were investigated in chickens. The results showed that: 1) chicken NPB/NPW system comprises an NPB peptide of 28 amino acids (cNPB28), an NPW peptide of 23 or 30 amino acids (cNPW23/cNPW30), and their 2 receptors (cNPBWR1 and cNPBWR2), which are highly homologous to their human counterparts...
September 2016: Endocrinology
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