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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748961/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-receptor-antagonists-modify-molecular-machinery-in-the-progression-of-prostate-cancer
#1
Laura Muñoz-Moreno, Andrew V Schally, Juan C Prieto, M José Carmena, Ana M Bajo
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic strategies should be designed to transform aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes to a chronic situation. To evaluate the effects of the new growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) antagonists: MIA-602, MIA-606, and MIA-690 on processes associated with cancer progression as cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis. METHODS: We used three human prostate cell lines (RWPE-1, LNCaP, and PC3). We analyzed several molecules such as E-cadherin, β-catenin, Bcl2, Bax, p53, MMP2, MMP9, PCNA, and VEGF and signaling mechanisms that are involved on effects exerted by GHRH-R antagonists...
May 10, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743865/somatopause-weaknesses-of-the-therapeutic-approaches-and-the-cautious-optimism-based-on-experimental-ageing-studies-with-soy-isoflavones
#2
REVIEW
Vladimir Z Ajdžanovic, Svetlana Trifunovic, Dragana Miljic, Branka Šošic-Jurjevic, Branko Filipovic, Marko Miler, Nataša Ristic, Milica Manojlovic-Stojanoski, Verica Miloševic
The pathological phenomenon of somatopause, noticeable in hypogonadal ageing subjects, is based on the growth hormone (GH) production and secretion decrease along with the fall in GH binding protein and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, causing different musculoskeletal, metabolic and mental issues. From the perspective of safety and efficacy, GH treatment is considered to be highly controversial, while some other therapeutic approaches (application of IGF-1, GH secretagogues, gonadal steroids, cholinesterase-inhibitors or various combinations) exhibit more or less pronounced weaknesses in this respect...
2018: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729230/role-of-hypothalamus-in-aging-and-its-underlying-cellular-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Keetae Kim, Han Kyoung Choe
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of several physiological functions that can cause various age-related disorders. Several factors have been identified as causes of aging to elucidate the decline in functions. Various aspects of physiological deterioration are controlled by the hypothalamus, a critical brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to physiological functions. In addition, functional alterations in a set of agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, a set of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SST) neurons, a set of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons, and a set of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons contribute to age-related physiological decline in energy metabolism, hormone regulation, circadian rhythm, and reproduction, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678282/multiple-hormone-resistance-and-alterations-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Mantovani Giovanna, Elli Francesca Marta
Metabolic disorders deriving from the non-responsiveness of target organs to hormones, which manifest clinically similar to the deficiency of a given hormone itself, derive from molecular alterations affecting specific hormone receptors. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) and related disorders exemplify an unusual form of hormone resistance as the underlying molecular defect is a partial deficiency of the α subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), a key regulator of cAMP signaling pathway, or, as more recently described, of downstream effector proteins of the same pathway, such as PKA regulatory subunit 1A (R1A) and phosphodyestarase type 4D (PDE4D)...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678281/an-orphan-g-protein-coupled-receptor-causes-human-gigantism-and-or-acromegaly-molecular-biology-and-clinical-correlations
#5
REVIEW
Giampaolo Trivellin, Laura C Hernández-Ramírez, Jeremy Swan, Constantine A Stratakis
X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) is a recently described form of familial or sporadic pituitary gigantism characterized by very early onset GH and IGF-1 excess, accelerated growth velocity, gigantism and/or acromegaloid features. Germline or somatic microduplications of the Xq26.3 chromosomal region, invariably involving the GPR101 gene, constitute the genetic defect leading to X-LAG. GPR101 encodes a class A G protein-coupled receptor that activates the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathway...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663325/a-new-approach-to-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-targeting-the-receptor-for-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone
#6
Joaquin J Jimenez, Gina M DelCanto, Petra Popovics, Aymee Perez, Ailin Vila Granda, Irving Vidaurre, Ren-Zhi Cai, Ferenc G Rick, Ronan T Swords, Andrew V Schally
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus and acts on the pituitary gland to stimulate the release of growth hormone (GH). GHRH can also be produced by human cancers, in which it functions as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. We have previously shown that synthetic antagonistic analogues of GHRH are able to successfully suppress the growth of 60 different human cancer cell lines representing over 20 cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of GHRH and its receptors in leukaemias has never been examined...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618597/regulation-of-vascular-calcification-by-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-and-its-agonists
#7
Jian Shen, Ning Zhang, Yi-Nuo Lin, PingPing Xiang, Xian-Bao Liu, Peng-Fei Shan, Xin-Yang Hu, Wei Zhu, Yao-Liang Tang, Keith A Webster, Ren-Zhi Cai, Andrew Schally, Jian'an Wang, Hong Yu
<u>Rationale:</u> Vascular calcification (VC) is a marker of the severity of atherosclerotic disease. Hormones play important roles in regulating calcification; estrogen and parathyroid hormones exert opposing effects, the former alleviating VC and the latter exacerbating it. So far no treatment strategies have been developed to regulate clinical VC. <u>Objective:</u> To investigate the effect of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and its agonist (GHRH-A) on the blocking of VC in a mouse model...
April 4, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571594/occurrence-of-neoplasms-in-individuals-with-congenital-severe-gh-deficiency-from-the-itabaianinha-kindred
#8
Cindi G Marinho, Lívia M Mermejo, Roberto Salvatori, João A Assirati, Carla R P Oliveira, Elenilde G Santos, Ângela C G B Leal, Cynthia S Barros-Oliveira, Nayra P Damascena, Carlos A Lima, Catarine T Farias, Ayrton C Moreira, Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira
Growth hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) have cell proliferative and differentiation properties. Whether these hormones have a role in mutagenesis is unknown. Nevertheless, severe IGF-I deficiency seems to confer protection against the development of neoplasms. Here, we report five cases of adult patients with severe and congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) due to the c.57+1G>A mutation in the GHRH receptor gene, who developed tumors. Four GH-naïve subjects presented skin tumors: a 42-year-old man with a fibroepithelial polyp, a 53-year-old woman and two men (59 and 56 years old) with epidermoid skin cancers...
March 12, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562345/in-ovo-green-light-photostimulation-during-different-embryonic-stages-affect-somatotropic-axis
#9
L Dishon, N Avital-Cohen, S Zaguri, J Bartman, R Heiblum, S Druyan, T E Porter, M Gumulka, I Rozenboim
Previous studies demonstrated that in-ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increased the somatotropic axis expression in broilers embryos. The objective of the current study was to detect the critical period for in-ovo GL photostimulation, in order to find the optimal targeted photostimulation period during the incubation process. Three hundred thirty-six fertile broiler eggs were divided into 4 groups. The first group was incubated under dark conditions as a negative control. The second incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537382/a-novel-variant-c-97c-t-of-the-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-receptor-gene-causes-isolated-growth-hormone-deficiency-type-ib
#10
Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou, Eleni P Kotanidou, Aggeliki N Kleisarchaki, Rivka Kauli, Zvi Laron
Congenital Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) type Ib is an autosomal recessive genetic condition caused by mutations of GH1 or the GH releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) gene. Affected subjects present symptoms of GHD with low but detectable levels of GH, short stature and responsiveness to GH therapy. We describe a 13-month old girl with severe growth failure who showed a low hGH in response to 2 hGH provocative tests and a modest increase of IGF-I to an IGF-I generation test. Whole exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous variant of the GHRH-R gene (c...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526766/novel-hghrh-homodimer-promotes-fertility-of-female-infertile-hamster-by-up-regulating-ovarian-ghrh-receptor-without-triggering-gh-secretion
#11
Juan-Hui Zhang, Xu-Dong Zhang, Lin-Na Yue, Xiao-Yuan Guo, Jing-Xuan Tang, Li-Rong Guo, Yun Li, Song-Shan Tang
Extra-hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in infertility. The female infertility models were formed by intraperitoneally injecting cyclophosphamide in 5-week-old Chinese hamster once in a week for 5 weeks. All the models mated with healthy male hamster in the ratio of 1:1 in the experimental 6-8th week and the couples were separated to breed in the 9-10th week. 20 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide induced temporary interference of reproduction and did not cause significant difference in the weight of body, bilateral ovaries, or liver...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518740/sleep-endocrine-effects-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-ghrh-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Heike Künzel, Katja Held, Dagmar Schmidt, Marc Ziegenbein, Harald Murck, Axel Steiger
Changes in sleep-EEG after endocrine stimulation tests in patients with schizophrenia include reduced sleep efficiency, prolonged sleep latency and increased awaking after sleep onset Findings on sleep associated growth hormone (GH) secretion were ambiguous. The aim of this study was to elucidate the sleep-endocrine activity especially in the GH system of patients with schizophrenia after repeated administration of GHRH. The effect of repetitive injections of 4 × 50 μg GHRH between 22.00 and 01.00 h on sleep endocrine parameters was investigated in 9 patients diagnosed for schizophrenia...
June 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509880/acetylcholine-modulates-the-hormones-of-the-growth-hormone-insulinlike-growth-factor-1-axis-during-development-in-mice
#13
Marie-José Lecomte, Chloé Bertolus, Nélina Ramanantsoa, Françoise Saurini, Jacques Callebert, Catherine Sénamaud-Beaufort, Maud Ringot, Thomas Bourgeois, Boris Matrot, Corinne Collet, Jeannette Nardelli, Jacques Mallet, Guilan Vodjdani, Jorge Gallego, Jean-Marie Launay, Sylvie Berrard
Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 are anabolic hormones whose physiological roles are particularly important during development. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis is controlled by complex neuroendocrine systems including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in tuning GH secretion, and its GH-stimulatory action has mainly been shown in adults but is not clearly documented during development...
April 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498920/update-on-the-clinicopathology-of-pituitary-adenomas
#14
Chung Thong Lim, Márta Korbonits
Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumours and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa. The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathological assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest WHO guidelines, helps to categorise pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behaviour...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466413/impact-of-insulin-on-primary-arcuate-neurons-culture-is-dependent-on-early-postnatal-nutritional-status-and-neuronal-subpopulation
#15
Lyvianne Decourtye, Maud Clemessy, Erik Mire, Tatiana Ledent, Laurence Périn, Iain C Robinson, Yves Le Bouc, Laurent Kappeler
Nutrition plays a critical role in programming and shaping linear growth during early postnatal life through direct action on the development of the neuroendocrine somatotropic (GH/IGF-1) axis. IGF-1 is a key factor in modulating the programming of linear growth during this period. Notably, IGF-1 preferentially stimulates axonal growth of GHRH neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc), which is crucial for the proliferation of somatotroph progenitors in the pituitary, thus influencing later GH secretory capacity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435973/inhibition-of-experimental-small-cell-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-by-novel-antagonists-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone
#16
Haibo Wang, Xianyang Zhang, Irving Vidaurre, Renzhi Cai, Wei Sha, Andrew V Schally
We investigated the effects of novel antagonists of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)-MIA602 and MIA690-on three human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) lines (H446, DMS53 and H69) and two non-SCLC (NSCLC) lines (HCC827 and H460). In vitro exposure of cancer cells to these GHRH antagonists significantly inhibited cell viability, increased cell apoptosis, decrease cellular levels of cAMP and reduced cell migration. In vivo, the antagonists strongly inhibited tumor growth in xenografted nude mice models. Subcutaneous administration of MIA602 at the dose of 5 μg/day for 4-8 weeks reduced the growth of HCC827, H460 and H446 tumors by 69...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426577/common-variants-at-somatostatin-are-significantly-associated-with-hypertension-incidence-in-smoking-and-drinking-populations
#17
Hui Zhu, Lijun Zhu, Zhengmei Fang, Song Yang, Yanchun Chen, Yuelong Jin, Xianghai Zhao, Chong Shen, Yingshui Yao
Somatostatin (SST) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) are involved in the development of hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate whether SST and GHRH contribute to genetic susceptibility to hypertension. A case-control study consisting of 2012 hypertensive patients and 2210 matched control individuals was performed, and three tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. The association of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms with hypertension and ischemic stroke was further evaluated among 4098 participants in a follow-up study...
March 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423542/evaluation-of-growth-hormone-response-to-ghrh-plus-arginine-test-in-children-with-idiopathic-short-stature-role-of-peak-time
#18
M Castagno, A Monzani, S Zanetta, G Genoni, E Giglione, R Ricotti, G Bona, F Prodam, S Bellone
PURPOSE: To describe the course of growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) plus arginine provocative test in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and to evaluate the role of peak time. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed analyzing 344 GHRH plus arginine provocative tests performed in children and adolescents with short stature. Serum GH levels were measured at four-time points (T0', T30', T45' and T60') and GH peak was defined as the maximum value at any time point...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412390/growth-hormone-deficiency-with-advanced-bone-age-phenotypic-interaction-between-ghrh-receptor-and-cyp21a2-mutations-diagnosed-by-sanger-and-whole-exome-sequencing
#19
Fernanda A Correa, Marcela M França, Qing Fang, Qianyi Ma, Tania A Bachega, Andresa Rodrigues, Bilge A Ozel, Jun Z Li, Berenice B Mendonca, Alexander A L Jorge, Luciani R Carvalho, Sally A Camper, Ivo J P Arnhold
Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the most common pituitary hormone deficiency and, clinically, patients have delayed bone age. High sequence similarity between CYP21A2 gene and CYP21A1P pseudogene poses difficulties for exome sequencing interpretation. A 7.5 year-old boy born to second-degree cousins presented with severe short stature (height SDS -3.7) and bone age of 6 years. Clonidine and combined pituitary stimulation tests revealed GH deficiency. Pituitary MRI was normal. The patient was successfully treated with rGH...
December 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407222/expression-of-growth-hormone-gene-in-the-baboon-eye
#20
Diana Cristina Pérez-Ibave, Irám Pablo Rodríguez-Sánchez, María Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez, Antonio Alí Pérez-Maya, Maricela Luna, Carlos Arámburo, Andrew Tsin, George Perry, Karim Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran Mohamed-Noriega, Humberto Cavazos-Adame, Jesús Mohamed-Hamsho, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña
The human growth hormone (GH) locus is comprised by two GH (GH1 and GH2) genes and three chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH1, CSH2 and CSH-L) genes. While GH1 is expressed in the pituitary gland, the rest are expressed in the placenta. However, GH1 is also expressed in several extrapituitary tissues, including the eye. So to understand the role of this hormone in the eye we used the baboon (Papio hamadryas), that like humans has a multigenic GH locus; we set up to investigate the expression and regulation of GH locus in adult and fetal baboon ocular tissues...
April 2018: Experimental Eye Research
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