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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626214/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-is-produced-by-adipocytes-and-regulates-lipolysis-through-growth-hormone-receptor
#1
F Rodríguez-Pacheco, C Gutierrez-Repiso, S García-Serrano, A Ho-Plagaro, J M Gómez-Zumaquero, S Valdes, M Gonzalo, J Rivas-Becerra, C Montiel-Casado, G Rojo-Martínez, E García-Escobar, E Garcia-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays a crucial role in growth hormone (GH) secretion, but little is known about its production by adipocytes and its involvement in adipocyte metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To determine if GHRH and its receptor (GHRH-R) are present in human adipocytes and to study their levels in obesity. Also, to analize the effects of GHRH on human adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis. METHODS: GHRH/GHRH-R and GH/GH-R mRNA expression levels were analyzed in human mature adipocytes from non-obese and morbidly obese subjects...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622464/the-impact-of-drugs-on-male-fertility-a-review
#2
REVIEW
M Semet, M Paci, J Saïas-Magnan, C Metzler-Guillemain, R Boissier, H Lejeune, J Perrin
Beside cytotoxic drugs, other drugs can impact men's fertility through various mechanisms. Via the modification of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones or by non-hormonal mechanisms, drugs may directly and indirectly induce sexual dysfunction and spermatogenesis impairment and alteration of epididymal maturation. This systematic literature review summarizes existing data about the negative impact and associations of pharmacological treatments on male fertility (excluding cytotoxic drugs), with a view to making these data more readily available for medical staff...
June 16, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621684/expression-of-hypothalamic-neurohormones-and-their-receptors-in-the-human-eye
#3
Sander R Dubovy, Maria P Fernandez, Jose J Echegaray, Norman L Block, Noriyuki Unoki, Roberto Perez, Irving Vidaurre, Richard K Lee, Mehrdad Nadji, Andrew V Schally
Extrapituitary roles for hypothalamic neurohormones have recently become apparent and clinically relevant, based on the use of synthetic peptide analogs for the treatment of multiple conditions including cancers, pulmonary edema and myocardial infarction. In the eye, it has been suggested that some of these hormones and their receptors may be present in the ciliary body, iris, trabecular meshwork and retina, but their physiological role has yet to be elucidated. Our study intends to comprehensively demonstrate the expression of some hypothalamic neuroendocrine hormones and their receptors within different retinal and extraretinal structures of the human eye...
June 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617838/safety-and-metabolic-effects-of-tesamorelin-a-growth-hormone-releasing-factor-analogue-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
David R Clemmons, Sam Miller, Jean-Claude Mamputu
OBJECTIVE: Use of growth hormone is associated with side effects, including insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine whether tesamorelin, a stabilized growth hormone-releasing hormone analogue, would alter insulin sensitivity or control of diabetes. DESIGN: A 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled study of 53 patients with type 2 diabetes. Three treatment groups: placebo, 1 and 2 mg tesamorelin. MEASUREMENTS: Fasting glucose, glucose and insulin from oral glucose tolerance test, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), home blood glucose, insulin-like growth factor-1, and lipids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561845/dynamic-properties-of-the-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-receptor-ghrhr-and-molecular-determinants-of-ghrh-binding
#5
M-T Matsoukas, G A Spyroulias
The growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) is a member of the class B GPCR subfamily. GHRH, a 44-residue neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, regulates the secretion of growth hormone through its binding to GHRHR. It has recently been associated with several types of cancer such as prostate, breast, pancreatic and ovarian cancer. Family B GPCR peptides bind in a two-step model, where first the C-terminal region of the peptide interacts with the extracellular domain (ECD) of the receptor and subsequently, the N-terminal interacts with the seven transmembrane domain (TMD), resulting in activation...
May 31, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551577/bioactive-growth-hormone-in-older-men-and-women-it-s-relationship-to-immune-markers-and-healthspan
#6
William J Kraemer, Mary J Kennett, Andrea M Mastro, Roger J McCarter, Connie J Rogers, William H DuPont, Shawn D Flanagan, William J Turbitt, Maren S Fragala, Emily M Post, Wesley C Hymer
OBJECTIVE: The consequences of age-related decline in the somatotropic axis of humans are complex and remain largely unresolved. We tested the hypothesis that hGH measurements of plasma by bioassay vs immunoassay from samples obtained from free-living, elderly individuals would reveal a dichotomy in GH activities that are correlated with the functional status of the donors, i.e. their healthspan. DESIGN: Forty-one men and women of advanced age (men: N=16, age, 80...
June 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525353/molecular-genetics-of-growth-hormone-deficient-children-correlation-with-auxology-and-response-to-first-year-of-growth-hormone-therapy
#7
Vaman Khadilkar, Nikhil Phadke, Kavita Khatod, Veena Ekbote, Supriya Phanse Gupte, Ruchi Nadar, Anuradha Khadilkar
BACKGROUND: With the paucity of available literature correlating genetic mutation and response to treatment, we aimed to study the genetic makeup of children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency in Western India and correlate the mutation with auxology and response to GH treatment at end of 1 year. METHODS: Fifty-three (31 boys and 22 girls) children with severe short stature (height for age z-score <-3) and failed GH stimulation test were studied. Those having concomitant thyroid hormone or cortisol deficiencies were appropriately replaced prior to starting GH treatment...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508613/genetic-mutations-birth-lengths-weights-and-head-circumferences-of-children-with-igf-i-receptor-defects-comparison-with-other-congenital-defects-in-the-gh-igf-i-axis
#8
Jenna Lee Essakow, Aharon Lauterpacht, Pearl Lilos, Rivka Kauli, Zvi Laron
BACKGROUND: In recent years more and more genetic defects along the GHRH-GH-IGF-I axis have been reported. Mutations of the IGF-I receptor (R) are a rare abnormality of whom only the heterozygote progenies survive. OBJECTIVES: To summarize, from the literature, data on birth length, weight and head circumference of neonates with IGF-I-R mutations, and to correlate the data with that of other types of mutations in the GH/IGF-I axis. SUBJECTS: Sixty seven neonates from 24 published articles were included and forty seven different mutations of the IGF-I (R) located on chromosome 15 have been identified...
September 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483360/regulation-of-growth-epigenetic-mechanisms
#9
Laurent Kappeler, Maud Clemessy, Sarah Saget, Lyvianne Decourtye, Yves Le Bouc
Organism development is controlled by both genetic programs and the environment to insure a reproductive success as adults. Linear growth is an important part of the development and is mostly controlled by genetic factors. However, the variability of height in a given species does not seem to be specifically associated with SNP. This suggests that environment may play a crucial role. In agreement, an important part of height-related genes present CpG island in their proximal promoter, indicating potential involvement of epigenetic mechanisms...
May 5, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462077/pdk1-foxo1-pathway-in-agrp-neurons-of-arcuate-nucleus-promotes-bone-formation-via-ghrh-gh-igf1-axis
#10
Hideyuki Sasanuma, Masanori Nakata, Kumari Parmila, Jun Nakae, Toshihiko Yada
OBJECTIVE: In the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, functions connected to bone metabolism. The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) serves as a major signaling molecule particularly for leptin and insulin in AgRP neurons. We asked whether PDK1 in AGRP neurons also contributes to bone metabolism. METHODS: We generated AgRP neuron-specific PDK1 knockout (Agrp Pdk1(-/-) ) mice and those with additional AgRP neuron-specific expression of transactivation-defective FoxO1 (Agrp Pdk1(-/-)Δ256Foxo1)...
May 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456063/ocular-findings-in-adult-subjects-with-an-inactivating-mutation-in-gh-releasing-hormone-receptor-gene
#11
Augusto C N Faro, Virginia M Pereira-Gurgel, Roberto Salvatori, Viviane C Campos, Gustavo B Melo, Francielle T Oliveira, Alecia A Oliveira-Santos, Carla R P Oliveira, Francisco A Pereira, Ann Hellström, Luís A Oliveira-Neto, Eugenia H O Valença, Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: Ocular function is fundamental for environmental adaptation and survival capacity. Growth factors are necessary for a mature eyeball, needed for adequate vision. However, the consequences of the deficiency of circulating growth hormone (GH) and its effector insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on the physical aspects of the human eye are still debated. A model of untreated isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), with low but measurable serum GH, may clarify this issue. The aim of this study was to assess the ocular aspects of adult IGHD individuals who have never received GH therapy...
June 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438614/the-expression-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-ghrh-and-its-receptors-in-breast-carcinomas-with-apocrine-differentiation-further-evidence-of-the-presence-of-a-ghrh-pathway-in-these-tumors
#12
Bence Kővári, Semir Vranic, Caterina Marchio, Anna Sapino, Gábor Cserni
Apocrine breast carcinomas were evaluated for the expression of components of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) autocrine/paracrine pathway: GHRH and its receptors (GHRH-R), as mammary apocrine carcinomas and epithelium seemed to be uniformly positive for GHRH-R in a pilot study. The apocrine phenotype was determined on the basis of hematoxylin-eosin morphology and a congruent immunohistochemical profile (estrogen receptor negativity, androgen receptor and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 positivity)...
April 21, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432269/altered-sleep-patterns-in-patients-with-non-functional-ghrh-receptor
#13
Francielle T Oliveira, Roberto Salvatori, Jose' Marcondes, Larissa B Macena, Alecia A Oliveira-Santos, Augusto Cn Faro, Viviane C Campos, Carla R Oliveira, Ursula Mm Costa, Manuel Aguiar-Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: GH releasing hormone (GHRH) exerts hypnotic actions increasing non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Conversely, GH stimulates REM sleep. GH deficiency (GHD) often leads to sleep problems, daytime fatigue, and reduced quality of life (QoL). GHD may be due to lack of hypothalamic GHRH or destruction of somatotroph cells. We have described a cohort with isolated GHD (IGHD) due to GHRH resistance caused by a homozygous null mutation in the GHRH receptor gene. They have normal QoL and no obvious complaints of chronic tiredness...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428227/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-the-multiple-facets-of-gh-lessons-from-lifetime-untreated-isolated-gh-deficiency-due-to-ghrh-receptor-mutation
#14
Manuel Aguiar-Oliveira, Anita Ho Souza, Carla R Oliveira, Viviane C Campos, Luiz A Oliveira-Neto, Roberto Salvatori
Twenty years ago, we described a kindred of 105 individuals with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) in Itabaianinha County, in Brazilian northeast, due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene. These subjects exhibit markedly reduced GH responsiveness to stimulatory tests, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF binding protein type 3, and the acid-labile subunit are markedly reduced, with a lesser reduction of IGF-II. The most striking physical findings of these IGHD individuals are the proportionate short stature, doll facies, high-pitched voice, and visceral obesity with reduced fat free mass...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349931/adipokines-leptin-adiponectin-resistin-differentially-regulate-all-hormonal-cell-types-in-primary-anterior-pituitary-cell-cultures-from-two-primate-species
#15
André Sarmento-Cabral, Juan R Peinado, Lisa C Halliday, María M Malagon, Justo P Castaño, Rhonda D Kineman, Raúl M Luque
Adipose-tissue (AT) is an endocrine organ that dynamically secretes multiple hormones, the adipokines, which regulate key physiological processes. However, adipokines and their receptors are also expressed and regulated in other tissues, including the pituitary, suggesting that locally- and AT-produced adipokines might comprise a regulatory circuit that relevantly modulate pituitary cell-function. Here, we used primary pituitary cell-cultures from two normal nonhuman-primate species [Papio-anubis/Macaca-fascicularis] to determine the impact of different adipokines on the functioning of all anterior-pituitary cell-types...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339753/in-ovo-monochromatic-green-light-photostimulation-enhances-embryonic-somatotropic-axis-activity
#16
L Dishon, N Avital-Cohen, D Malamud, R Heiblum, S Druyan, T E Porter, M Gumulka, I Rozenboim
Previous studies demonstrated that in ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increases body weight and accelerates muscle development in broilers. The mechanism in which in ovo photostimulation accelerates growth and muscle development is not clearly understood. The objective of the current study was to define development of the somatotropic axis in the broiler embryo associated with in ovo green light photostimulation. Two-hundred-forty fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups. The first group was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0...
June 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245459/the-somatotrope-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-axis-in-immunoregulation-and-immunosenescence
#17
Gwennaëlle Bodart, Khalil Farhat, Chantal Charlet-Renard, Roberto Salvatori, Vincent Geenen, Henri Martens
Most scientific reports debate the thymotropic and immuno-stimulating properties of the somatotrope growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, but there is still some disagreement about the physiological role of this axis in basal conditions. Moreover, some authors have hypothesized that the physiological role of the somatotrope axis only appears in stressful conditions (such as sepsis or infective and inflammatory diseases). This chapter will provide an extended overview of the expression of the components (signals and receptors) of the somatotrope axis and their properties on cells of the innate and adaptive immune system...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236009/effects-of-microcystis-on-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver-axis-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#18
Jiazhang Chen, Shunlong Meng, Hai Xu, Zhen Zhang, Xiangyang Wu
In the present study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used to assess the endocrine disruption potential of Microcytis aeruginosa. Male Nile tilapia were exposed to lyophilized M. aeruginosa or purified microcystin-LR (8.3 μg/L) for 28 days. The levels of serum hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) and transcripts of selected genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were analyzed. The results showed that serum hormones were significantly up-regulated, and transcripts of 13 genes (GHRH, PACAP, GH, GHR1, GHR2, IGF1, IGF2, CYP19a, CYP19b, 3β-HSD1, 20β-HSD, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD8) were significantly altered after Microcytis exposure...
April 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222183/correction-igf-1-induces-ghrh-neuronal-axon-elongation-during-early-postnatal-life-in-mice
#19
Lyvianne Decourtye, Erik Mire, Maud Clemessy, Victor Heurtier, Tatiana Ledent, Iain C Robinson, Patrice Mollard, Jacques Epelbaum, Michael J Meaney, Sonia Garel, Yves Le Bouc, Laurent Kappeler
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170083.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205459/effects-of-an-antagonistic-analog-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-on-endometriosis-in-a-mouse-model-and-in-vitro
#20
Frank Köster, Li Jin, Yuanming Shen, Andrew V Schally, Ren-Zhi Cai, Norman L Block, Daniela Hornung, Gabriele Marschner, Achim Rody, Jörg B Engel, Dominique Finas
Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disorder causing dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and subfertility. Receptors for the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) were found in endometriotic tissues. Antagonists of GHRH have been used to inhibit the growth of endometriotic endometrial stromal cells. In this study, the GHRH receptor splice variant (SV) 1 was detected in human endometrial tissue samples by Western blots and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The highest messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of SV1 were found in eutopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis compared to ectopic endometriotic tissues and endometrium from normal patients...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
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