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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245459/the-somatotrope-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-axis-in-immunoregulation-and-immunosenescence
#1
Gwennaëlle Bodart, Khalil Farhat, Chantal Charlet-Renard, Roberto Salvatori, Vincent Geenen, Henri Martens
Most scientific reports debate the thymotropic and immuno-stimulating properties of the somatotrope growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, but there is still some disagreement about the physiological role of this axis in basal conditions. Moreover, some authors have hypothesized that the physiological role of the somatotrope axis only appears in stressful conditions (such as sepsis or infective and inflammatory diseases). This chapter will provide an extended overview of the expression of the components (signals and receptors) of the somatotrope axis and their properties on cells of the innate and adaptive immune system...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236009/effects-of-microcystis-on-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver-axis-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#2
Jiazhang Chen, Shunlong Meng, Hai Xu, Zhen Zhang, Xiangyang Wu
In the present study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used to assess the endocrine disruption potential of Microcytis aeruginosa. Male Nile tilapia were exposed to lyophilized M. aeruginosa or purified microcystin-LR (8.3 μg/L) for 28 days. The levels of serum hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) and transcripts of selected genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were analyzed. The results showed that serum hormones were significantly up-regulated, and transcripts of 13 genes (GHRH, PACAP, GH, GHR1, GHR2, IGF1, IGF2, CYP19a, CYP19b, 3β-HSD1, 20β-HSD, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD8) were significantly altered after Microcytis exposure...
April 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222183/correction-igf-1-induces-ghrh-neuronal-axon-elongation-during-early-postnatal-life-in-mice
#3
Lyvianne Decourtye, Erik Mire, Maud Clemessy, Victor Heurtier, Tatiana Ledent, Iain C Robinson, Patrice Mollard, Jacques Epelbaum, Michael J Meaney, Sonia Garel, Yves Le Bouc, Laurent Kappeler
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170083.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205459/effects-of-an-antagonistic-analog-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-on-endometriosis-in-a-mouse-model-and-in-vitro
#4
Frank Köster, Li Jin, Yuanming Shen, Andrew V Schally, Ren-Zhi Cai, Norman L Block, Daniela Hornung, Gabriele Marschner, Achim Rody, Jörg B Engel, Dominique Finas
Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disorder causing dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and subfertility. Receptors for the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) were found in endometriotic tissues. Antagonists of GHRH have been used to inhibit the growth of endometriotic endometrial stromal cells. In this study, the GHRH receptor splice variant (SV) 1 was detected in human endometrial tissue samples by Western blots and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The highest messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of SV1 were found in eutopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis compared to ectopic endometriotic tissues and endometrium from normal patients...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203372/diagnostic-challenges-and-management-of-a-patient-with-acromegaly-due-to-ectopic-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-secretion-from-a-bronchial-carcinoid-tumour
#5
Nikolaos Kyriakakis, Jacqueline Trouillas, Mary N Dang, Julie Lynch, Paul Belchetz, Márta Korbonits, Robert D Murray
A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193499/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-ghrh-promotes-metastatic-phenotypes-through-egfr-her2-transactivation-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#6
Laura Muñoz-Moreno, Ana M Bajo, Juan C Prieto, María J Carmena
The involvement of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in several relevant processes that contribute to prostate cancer progression was analyzed. Firstly, we evaluated GHRH effects on cell proliferation and adhesion in human cancer prostate cell lines, LNCaP and PC3, by using specific assays (BrdU incorporation and collagen adhesion). The expression levels of the main marker molecules of these processes were measured by RT-PCR, Western blotting and zymography assays. GHRH increased both cell proliferation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels in LNCaP cells and in PC3 cells; however, such a rise was faster in the PC3 cells that represent the most aggressive stage of prostate cancer...
February 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130121/synthesis-and-structure-activity-studies-on-novel-analogs-of-human-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-ghrh-with-enhanced-inhibitory-activities-on-tumor-growth
#7
Marta Zarandi, Renzhi Cai, Magdolna Kovacs, Petra Popovics, Luca Szalontay, Tengjiao Cui, Wei Sha, Miklos Jaszberenyi, Jozsef Varga, XianYang Zhang, Norman L Block, Ferenc G Rick, Gabor Halmos, Andrew V Schally
The syntheses and biological evaluations of new GHRH analogs of Miami (MIA) series with greatly increased anticancer activity are described. In the design and synthesis of these analogs, the following previous substitutions were conserved: D-Arg(2), Har(9), Abu(15), and Nle(27). Most new analogs had Ala at position 8. Since replacements of both Lys(12) and Lys(21) with Orn increased resistance against enzymatic degradation, these modifications were kept. The substitutions of Arg at both positions 11 and 20 by His were also conserved...
March 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123062/antagonists-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-inhibit-proliferation-induced-by-inflammation-in-prostatic-epithelial-cells
#8
Petra Popovics, Andrew V Schally, Luis Salgueiro, Krisztina Kovacs, Ferenc G Rick
The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is multifactorial, and chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in its pathogenesis. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been shown to act as paracrine/autocrine factor in various malignancies including prostate cancer. GHRH and its receptors are expressed in experimental models of BPH, in which antagonists of GHRH suppressed the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and altered the expression of genes related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095492/growth-hormone-deficiency-is-associated-with-worse-cardiac-function-physical-performance-and-outcome-in-chronic-heart-failure-insights-from-the-t-o-s-ca-ghd-study
#9
Michele Arcopinto, Andrea Salzano, Francesco Giallauria, Eduardo Bossone, Jörgen Isgaard, Alberto M Marra, Emanuele Bobbio, Olga Vriz, David N Åberg, Daniele Masarone, Amato De Paulis, Lavinia Saldamarco, Carlo Vigorito, Pietro Formisano, Massimo Niola, Francesco Perticone, Domenico Bonaduce, Luigi Saccà, Annamaria Colao, Antonio Cittadini
BACKGROUND: Although mounting evidence supports the concept that growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) affects cardiovascular function, no study has systematically investigated its prevalence and role in a large cohort of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of GHD in mild-to-moderate CHF and to explore clinical and functional correlates of GHD. METHODS: One-hundred thirty CHF patients underwent GH provocative test with GHRH+arginine and accordingly categorized into GH-deficiency (GHD, n = 88, age = 61...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090719/diversity-oriented-synthesis-of-cyclic-azapeptides-by-a-3-macrocyclization-provides-high-affinity-cd36-modulating-peptidomimetics
#10
Jinqiang Zhang, Mukandila Mulumba, Huy Ong, William D Lubell
Macrocyclization has enabled the use of peptides in drug discovery creating a need for methods to synthesize diverse peptide macrocycles. Azapeptides have advanced to clinically used drugs, however, few cyclic azapeptides have been studied. A multiple component "A(3) -macrocyclization" strategy is described for the preparation of diverse cyclic azapeptides and is demonstrated by the synthesis of 15 growth hormone releasing hormone-6 (GHRP-6) analogs. Certain cyclic aza-GHRP-6 analogs exhibited unprecedented affinity for the CD36 receptor, and capacity to modulate Toll-like receptor agonist-induced overproduction of nitric oxide, and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages...
January 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076448/igf-1-induces-ghrh-neuronal-axon-elongation-during-early-postnatal-life-in-mice
#11
Lyvianne Decourtye, Erik Mire, Maud Clemessy, Victor Heurtier, Tatiana Ledent, Iain C Robinson, Patrice Mollard, Jacques Epelbaum, Michael J Meaney, Sonia Garel, Yves Le Bouc, Laurent Kappeler
Nutrition during the perinatal period programs body growth. Growth hormone (GH) secretion from the pituitary regulates body growth and is controlled by Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. We observed that dietary restriction during the early postnatal period (i.e. lactation) in mice influences postnatal growth by permanently altering the development of the somatotropic axis in the pituitary gland. This alteration may be due to a lack of GHRH signaling during this critical developmental period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032599/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-antagonist-inhibits-the-invasiveness-of-human-endometrial-cancer-cells-by-down-regulating-twist-and-n-cadherin-expression
#12
Hsien-Ming Wu, Hong-Yuan Huang, Andrew V Schally, Angel Chao, Hung-Hsueh Chou, Peter C K Leung, Hsin-Shih Wang
More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in reproduction. Here, we examined the effect of a GHRH antagonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and the mechanisms of action of the antagonist in endometrial cancer. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GHRH receptor protein. The activity of Twist and N-cadherin was determined by Western blotting...
December 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974186/classical-and-non-classical-causes-of-gh-deficiency-in-the-paediatric-age
#13
REVIEW
Natascia Di Iorgi, Giovanni Morana, Anna Elsa Maria Allegri, Flavia Napoli, Roberto Gastaldi, Annalisa Calcagno, Giuseppa Patti, Sandro Loche, Mohamad Maghnie
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) may result from a failure of hypothalamic GHRH production or release, from congenital disorders of pituitary development, or from central nervous system insults including tumors, surgery, trauma, radiation or infiltration from inflammatory diseases. Idiopathic, isolated GHD is the most common sporadic form of hypopituitarism. GHD may also occur in combination with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, and is often referred to as hypopituitarism, combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) or panhypopituitarism...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932410/anthropometric-factors-have-significant-influence-on-the-outcome-of-the-ghrh-arginine-test-establishment-of-normative-data-for-an-automated-immunoassay-specifically-measuring-22%C3%A2-kda-human-growth-hormone
#14
Timo Deutschbein, Martin Bidlingmaier, Jochen Schopohl, Christian J Strasburger, Stephan Petersenn
CONTEXT: Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is diagnosed by provocative testing of GH secretion. OBJECTIVE: To improve the diagnostic accuracy of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) plus arginine (GARG) testing, we evaluated the influence of age, BMI and sex and established normative data for an automatic immunoassay specifically measuring 22 kDa human GH. DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective multicenter study. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-seven patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disease and 200 healthy controls...
March 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930339/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-receptor-antagonists-inhibit-human-gastric-cancer-through-downregulation-of-pak1-stat3-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#15
Jinfeng Gan, Xiurong Ke, Jiali Jiang, Hongmei Dong, Zhimeng Yao, Yusheng Lin, Wan Lin, Xiao Wu, Shumei Yan, Yixuan Zhuang, Wai Kit Chu, Renzhi Cai, Xianyang Zhang, Herman S Cheung, Norman L Block, Chi Pui Pang, Andrew V Schally, Hao Zhang
Gastric cancer (GC) ranks as the fourth most frequent in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. The development of effective treatment approaches is an urgent requirement. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) have been found to be present in a variety of tumoral tissues and cell lines. Therefore the inhibition of GHRH-R was proposed as a promising approach for the treatment of these cancers. However, little is known about GHRH-R and the relevant therapy in human GC...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911838/antagonists-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-receptor-induce-apoptosis-specifically-in-retinoblastoma-cells
#16
Wai Kit Chu, Ka Sin Law, Sun On Chan, Jason Cheuk Sing Yam, Li Jia Chen, Hao Zhang, Herman S Cheung, Norman L Block, Andrew V Schally, Chi Pui Pang
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular cancer in children worldwide. Current treatments mainly involve combinations of chemotherapies, cryotherapies, and laser-based therapies. Severe or late-stage disease may require enucleation or lead to fatality. Recently, RB has been shown to arise from cone precursor cells, which have high MDM2 levels to suppress p53-mediated apoptosis. This finding leads to the hypothesis that restoring apoptosis mechanisms in RBs could specifically kill the cancer cells without affecting other retinal cells...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871293/genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations-in-the-gnas-locus-and-clinical-consequences-in-pseudohypoparathyroidism-italian-common-healthcare-pathways-adoption
#17
L de Sanctis, F Giachero, G Mantovani, G Weber, M Salerno, G I Baroncelli, M F Elli, P Matarazzo, M Wasniewska, L Mazzanti, G Scirè, D Tessaris
BACKGROUND: Genetic and epigenetic alterations in the GNAS locus are responsible for the Gsα protein dysfunctions causing Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia/c and Ib, respectively. For these heterogeneous diseases characterized by multiple hormone resistances and Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) the current classification results inadequate because of the clinical overlap between molecular subtypes and a standard clinical approach is still missing. In the present paper several members of the Study Group Endocrine diseases due to altered function of Gsα protein of the Italian Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED) have reviewed and updated the clinical-molecular data of the largest case series of (epi)/genetically characterized AHO/PHP patients; they then produced a common healthcare pathway for patients with these disorders...
November 21, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853416/neuropeptide-control-of-feeding-behavior-in-birds-and-its-difference-with-mammals
#18
REVIEW
Tetsuya Tachibana, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
Feeding is an essential behavior for animals to sustain their lives. Over the past several decades, many neuropeptides that regulate feeding behavior have been identified in vertebrates. These neuropeptides are called "feeding regulatory neuropeptides." There have been numerous studies on the role of feeding regulatory neuropeptides in vertebrates including birds. Some feeding regulatory neuropeptides show different effects on feeding behavior between birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. The difference is marked with orexigenic neuropeptides...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816751/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-induced-transactivation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-human-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Eva Vacas, Laura Muñoz-Moreno, Pedro L Valenzuela, Juan C Prieto, Andrew V Schally, María J Carmena, Ana M Bajo
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subset of breast cancers which is negative for expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Chemotherapy is currently the only form of treatment for women with TNBC. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are autocrine/paracrine growth factors in breast cancer and a substantial proportion of TNBC expresses receptors for GHRH and EGF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interrelationship between both these signaling pathways in MDA-MB-468 human TNBC cells...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777568/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-in-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Leonid E Fridlyand, Natalia A Tamarina, Andrew V Schally, Louis H Philipson
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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