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Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou, Eleni P Kotanidou, Aggeliki N Kleisarchaki, Rivka Kauli, Zvi Laron
Congenital Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) type Ib is an autosomal recessive genetic condition caused by mutations of GH1 or the GH releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) gene. Affected subjects present symptoms of GHD with low but detectable levels of GH, short stature and responsiveness to GH therapy. We describe a 13-month old girl with severe growth failure who showed a low hGH in response to 2 hGH provocative tests and a modest increase of IGF-I to an IGF-I generation test. Whole exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous variant of the GHRH-R gene (c...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Juan-Hui Zhang, Xu-Dong Zhang, Lin-Na Yue, Xiao-Yuan Guo, Jing-Xuan Tang, Li-Rong Guo, Yun Li, Song-Shan Tang
Extra-hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in infertility. The female infertility models were formed by intraperitoneally injecting cyclophosphamide in 5-week-old Chinese hamster once in a week for 5 weeks. All the models mated with healthy male hamster in the ratio of 1:1 in the experimental 6-8th week and the couples were separated to breed in the 9-10th week. 20 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide induced temporary interference of reproduction and did not cause significant difference in the weight of body, bilateral ovaries, or liver...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Heike Künzel, Katja Held, Dagmar Schmidt, Marc Ziegenbein, Harald Murck, Axel Steiger
Changes in sleep-EEG after endocrine stimulation tests in patients with schizophrenia include reduced sleep efficiency, prolonged sleep latency and increased awaking after sleep onset Findings on sleep associated growth hormone (GH) secretion were ambiguous. The aim of this study was to elucidate the sleep-endocrine activity especially in the GH system of patients with schizophrenia after repeated administration of GHRH. The effect of repetitive injections of 4 × 50 μg GHRH between 22.00 and 01.00 h on sleep endocrine parameters was investigated in 9 patients diagnosed for schizophrenia...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Marie-José Lecomte, Chloé Bertolus, Nélina Ramanantsoa, Françoise Saurini, Jacques Callebert, Catherine Sénamaud-Beaufort, Maud Ringot, Thomas Bourgeois, Boris Matrot, Corinne Collet, Jeannette Nardelli, Jacques Mallet, Guilan Vodjdani, Jorge Gallego, Jean-Marie Launay, Sylvie Berrard
Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are anabolic hormones whose physiological roles are particularly important during development. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis is controlled by complex neuroendocrine systems including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in tuning GH secretion, and its GH-stimulatory action has mainly been shown in adults but is not clearly documented during development...
March 2, 2018: Endocrinology
Chung Thong Lim, Márta Korbonits
Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumours and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa. The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathological assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest WHO guidelines, helps to categorise pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behaviour...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Lyvianne Decourtye, Maud Clemessy, Erik Mire, Tatiana Ledent, Laurence Périn, Iain C Robinson, Yves Le Bouc, Laurent Kappeler
Nutrition plays a critical role in programming and shaping linear growth during early postnatal life through direct action on the development of the neuroendocrine somatotropic (GH/IGF-1) axis. IGF-1 is a key factor in modulating the programming of linear growth during this period. Notably, IGF-1 preferentially stimulates axonal growth of GHRH neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc), which is crucial for the proliferation of somatotroph progenitors in the pituitary, thus influencing later GH secretory capacity...
2018: PloS One
Haibo Wang, Xianyang Zhang, Irving Vidaurre, Renzhi Cai, Wei Sha, Andrew V Schally
We investigated the effects of novel antagonists of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), MIA602 and MIA690, on three human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) lines (H446, DMS53 and H69) and two non-SCLC (NSCLC) lines (HCC827 and H460). In vitro exposure of cancer cells to these GHRH antagonists significantly inhibited cell viability, increased cell apoptosis, decrease cellular levels of cAMP and reduced cell migration. In vivo, the antagonists strongly inhibited tumor growth in xenografted nude mice models. Subcutaneous administration of MIA602 at the dose of 5μg/day for 4-8 weeks reduced the growth of HCC827, H460 and H446 tumors by 69...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Hui Zhu, Lijun Zhu, Zhengmei Fang, Song Yang, Yanchun Chen, Yuelong Jin, Xianghai Zhao, Chong Shen, Yingshui Yao
Somatostatin (SST) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) are involved in the development of hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate whether SST and GHRH contribute to genetic susceptibility to hypertension. A case-control study consisting of 2012 hypertensive patients and 2210 matched control individuals was performed, and three tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. The association of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms with hypertension and ischemic stroke was further evaluated among 4098 participants in a follow-up study...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
M Castagno, A Monzani, S Zanetta, G Genoni, E Giglione, R Ricotti, G Bona, F Prodam, S Bellone
PURPOSE: To describe the course of growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) plus arginine provocative test in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and to evaluate the role of peak time. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed analyzing 344 GHRH plus arginine provocative tests performed in children and adolescents with short stature. Serum GH levels were measured at four-time points (T0', T30', T45' and T60') and GH peak was defined as the maximum value at any time point...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Fernanda A Correa, Marcela M França, Qing Fang, Qianyi Ma, Tania A Bachega, Andresa Rodrigues, Bilge A Ozel, Jun Z Li, Berenice B Mendonca, Alexander A L Jorge, Luciani R Carvalho, Sally A Camper, Ivo J P Arnhold
Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the most common pituitary hormone deficiency and, clinically, patients have delayed bone age. High sequence similarity between CYP21A2 gene and CYP21A1P pseudogene poses difficulties for exome sequencing interpretation. A 7.5 year-old boy born to second-degree cousins presented with severe short stature (height SDS -3.7) and bone age of 6 years. Clonidine and combined pituitary stimulation tests revealed GH deficiency. Pituitary MRI was normal. The patient was successfully treated with rGH...
December 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Diana Cristina Pérez-Ibave, Irám Pablo Rodríguez-Sánchez, María Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez, Antonio Alí Pérez-Maya, Maricela Luna, Carlos Arámburo, Andrew Tsin, George Perry, Karim Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran Mohamed-Noriega, Humberto Cavazos Adame, Jesús Mohamed Hamsho, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña
The human growth hormone (GH) locus is comprised by two GH (GH1 and GH2) genes and three chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH1, CSH2 and CSH-L) genes. While GH1 is expressed in the pituitary gland, the rest are expressed in the placenta. However, GH1 is also expressed in several extrapituitary tissues, including the eye. So to understand the role of this hormone in the eye we used the baboon (Papio hamadryas), that like humans has a multigenic GH locus; we set up to investigate the expression and regulation of GH locus in adult and fetal baboon ocular tissues...
January 30, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
N Reisch, M Reincke
Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes result from the production of bioactive substances from neoplastic cells, of endocrine or neuroendocrine origin. Typically these are located in the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, skin, prostate or breast. In endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes the secretion of peptides, amines or other bioactive substances is always ectopic and not related to the anatomical source. The clinical presentation, however, is indistinguishable from a suspected eutopic endocrine tumor posing a diagnostic challenge...
February 2018: Der Internist
Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes, Carolina Gutierrez-Repiso, Sara García-Serrano, Ailec Ho-Plagaro, Sergio Valdes, Montserrat Gonzalo, Francisco J Cobos-Bravo, Custodia Montiel-Casado, Gemma Rojo-Martinez, Eva Garcia-Escobar, Francisca Rodríguez-Pacheco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Nathaniel T Berry, Monica Hubal, Laurie Wideman
The incidence of pre-diabetes (PD) and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic. African American (AA) individuals are disproportionately more likely to become diabetic than other ethnic groups. Over the long-term, metabolic complications related to diabetes result in significant alterations in growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Considering the limited exercise-related studies in the area of gene expression changes with disease progression, the objective of this study was to examine differences in exercise-induced gene expression related to the GH and IGF-1 pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy (CON) and PD AA individuals...
2018: PloS One
Tiffanie S Stewart, Abhignyan Nagesetti, Rakesh Guduru, Ping Liang, Emmanuel Stimphil, Ali Hadjikhani, Luis Salgueiro, Jeffrey Horstmyer, Renzhi Cai, Andrew Schally, Sakhrat Khizroev
AIM: We studied externally controlled anticancer effects of binding tumor growth inhibiting synthetic peptides to magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) on treatment of glioblastomas. METHODS: Hydrothermally synthesized 30-nm MENs had the core-shell composition of CoFe2O4@BaTiO3. Molecules of growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist of the MIA class (MIA690) were chemically bound to MENs. In vitro experiments utilized human glioblastoma cells (U-87MG) and human brain microvascular endothelial cells...
January 18, 2018: Nanomedicine
Zhi-Hao Liu, Qi-Liang Chen, Qiang Chen, Fang Li, Ying-Wen Li
In fish, spermatogenesis and somatic growth are mainly regulated by hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-somatic (HPS) axes, respectively. Xenoestrogens have been reported to impair spermatogenesis in some fishes, and arrest somatic growth in some others, whereas, whether xenoestrogens are capable of disrupting spermatogenesis and somatic growth simultaneously in fish that exhibits sexual dimorphic growth is little known, and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, male juveniles of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), which exhibits a sexual dimorphic growth that favors males, were exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) for 28 days...
January 16, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Asta Dogg Jonasdottir, Petur Sigurjonsson, Ingvar Hakon Olafsson, Sigurbergur Karason, Gudmundur Sigthorsson, Helga Agusta Sigurjonsdottir
OBJECTIVE: High prevalence of hypopituitarism (HP) has been reported after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the prevalence and progression of HP in patients after TBI and SAH in Icelandic population. DESIGN: A 12 month prospective single-centre study. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A total of 27 patients were included, 15 patients with TBI and 12 patients with SAH...
December 28, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira, Caridad Davalos, Viviane C Campos, Luiz A Oliveira Neto, Cindi G Marinho, Carla R P Oliveira
Several acquired or congenital hypothalamic abnormalities may cause growth failure (GF). We described two of these congenital abnormalities. First, a case of CHARGE syndrome, an epigenetic disorder mostly caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding CHD7, a chromatin remodeling protein, causing several malformations, some life-threatening, with additional secondary hypothalamus-hypophyseal dysfunction, including GF. Second, a cohort of individuals with genetic isolated severe GH deficiency (IGHD), due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor gene described in Itabaianinha County, in northeast Brazil...
December 20, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Shirong Tang, Zhong Luo, Xiaowei Qiu, Yanke Zhang, Xi Lu, Hao Huang, Zhongxiang Xu, Zucai Xu
Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) has recently been shown to increase the level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and activate GABA receptors (GABARs) in the cerebral cortex. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that can inhibit seizures. Does GHRH enhance the inhibitory effect of GABA to prevent epilepsy by increasing the GABA level and activating GABARs? In this study, patients with epilepsy and C57/BL6 mice with epilepsy induced by kainic acid (KA) or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) served as the research subjects...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Antonello E Rigamonti, Antonino Crinò, Sarah Bocchini, Alessio Convertino, Martin Bidlingmaier, Michael Haenelt, Sofia Tamini, Silvano G Cella, Graziano Grugni, Alessandro Sartorio
Human GH is present in pituitary and circulation as several isoforms, the prevalent being 22kDa- and 20kDa-GH. Recently, we have demonstrated the preservation of a normal balance in GH isoforms after GH releasing hormone (GHRH) plus arginine (ARG) administration in adult patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), one of the most common causes of syndromic obesity, often associated with GH deficiency (GHD). Aim of the present study was to measure circulating levels of 22kDa- and 20kDa-GH in young PWS patients (n=24; F/M: 10/14; genotype UPD/DEL/met+: 11/11/2; age: 10...
November 27, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
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