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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817485/anti-diabetic-drug-alogliptin-protects-the-heart-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-glp-1-receptor-dependent-and-independent-pathways-involving-no-production-in-rabbits
#1
Shinya Baba, Masamitsu Iwasa, Kenshi Higashi, Shingo Minatoguchi, Yoshihisa Yamada, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Masanori Kawasaki, Kazuhiko Nishigaki, Shinya Minatoguchi
GLP-1 has been reported to be cardioprotective against ischemia-reperfusion injury. We aimed to examine the effect of alogliptin, which may produce GLP-1, on ischemia-reperfusion injury and its mechanisms. Rabbits were fed a normal chow (control group) and a chow containing alogliptin (2 mg/kg/day: alogliptin-L group, and 20 mg/kg/day: alogliptin-H group) for 7 days. The rabbits underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion and 48 h of reperfusion. Exendin (9-39) (5 or 50μg/kg, i.v., alogliptin-H+exendin (9-39)-L group and alogliptin-H+exendin (9-39)-H group) or L-NAME(10 mg/kg, i...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811745/inhibition-of-inflammation-mediated-through-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-biochemical-pathway-can-lead-to-favorable-outcomes-in-alzheimer-disease
#2
REVIEW
Daniah Shamim, Michael Laskowski
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors have long been used as disease-modifying agents in immune disorders. Recently, research has shown a role of chronic neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and interest has been generated in the use of anti-TNF agents and TNF-modulating agents for prevention and treatment. This article extensively reviewed literature on animal studies testing these agents. The results showed a role for direct and indirect TNF-α inhibition through agents such as thalidomide, 3,6-dithiothalidomide, etanercept, infliximab, exendin-4, sodium hydrosulfide, minocycline, imipramine, and atorvastatin...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811669/paraventricular-thalamic-control-of-food-intake-and-reward-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signaling
#3
Zhi Yi Ong, Jing-Jing Liu, Zhiping P Pang, Harvey J Grill
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons receive hindbrain and hypothalamic inputs, and project to forebrain sites involved in reward and motivation function. The role of PVT in energy balance and reward control is however understudied. Given that PVT neurons express glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1R), which are critical to feeding and body weight control, we tested the hypothesis that PVT GLP-1R signaling contributes to food intake and reward inhibition. To assess the hypothesis, behavioral tests including chow and high-fat diet intake, meal patterns, conditioned place preference for high-fat food, cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking, and motivation to work for sucrose were employed following intra-PVT delivery of either GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4 (Ex4), or GLP-1R antagonist, exendin-9-39 (Ex9)...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811293/the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-reduces-short-term-food-intake-in-male-mice-by-regulating-nutrient-sensor-activity
#4
Melissa A Burmeister, Jacob D Brown, Jennifer E Ayala, Doris A Stoffers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley, Julio E Ayala
Pharmacological activation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reduces food intake. Here, we assessed whether suppression of food intake by GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) in this region is dependent upon AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). We found that pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and, thus, activation of AMPK, in the VMH attenuates the anorectic effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), indicating that glucose metabolism and inhibition of AMPK are both required for this effect...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807216/early-resuscitation-with-exendin-4-alleviates-acute-lung-injury-after-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#5
Xiang Song, Gan Chen, Xin Luo, Guoxing You, Yujing Yin, Ying Wang, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress induced by hemorrhagic shock (HS) is known to initiate a systemic inflammatory response, which leads to subsequent acute lung injury. This study is aimed to assess the efficacy of exendin-4 (Ex-4) in attenuating lung injury in a rat model of HS and resuscitation (HS/R). METHODS: HS was induced in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats by withdrawing blood to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 30-35 mm Hg for 50 min...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804538/exendin-4-assisted-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-protects-renal-function-against-co-existing-acute-kidney-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-severe-sepsis-syndrome-in-rat
#6
Pei-Hsun Sung, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Chih-Chao Yang, Yen-Ta Chen, Kuan-Hung Chen, Chih-Hung Chen, Pei-Lin Shao, Yung-Lung Chen, Sarah Chua, Han-Tan Chai, Yi-Ling Chen, Tien-Hung Huang, Hon-Kan Yip, Mel S Lee
This study tested the hypothesis that combined therapy with exendin-4 (Ex4) and autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) was superior to either alone for protecting renal function against acute kidney ischemia-reperfusion (IR; 40-min ischemia/27-h reperfusion) injury when complicated by sepsis syndrome (SS; by cecal-ligation-puncture). Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40) were equally divided into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (IR-SS), group 3 (IR-SS + Ex4, 10 μg/kg subcutaneously 30 min after reperfusion and daily for 3 days), group 4 [IR-SS + ADMSC (1...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794173/glucose-potentiates-%C3%AE-cell-function-by-inducing-tph1-expression-in-rat-islets
#7
Yuqing Zhang, Ruyuan Deng, Xue Yang, Wan Xu, Yun Liu, Fengying Li, Juan Zhang, Hongju Tang, Xueying Ji, Yufang Bi, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou, Guang Ning
Impaired pancreatic β-cell function is the primary defect in type 2 diabetes. Glucose is an important regulator of β-cell growth and function; however, the mechanisms that are involved in the chronic adaptation of β-cells to hyperglycemia remain largely unknown. In the present study, global gene expression patterns revealed that tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) was the most profound of genes that are up-regulated in rat islets exposed to high glucose. Calcium and cAMP signals synergistically mediated glucose-stimulated Tph1 transcription in β-cells by activating cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and promoting its binding with a Tph1 promoter...
August 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776922/efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics-of-subcutaneous-exendin-9-39-in-patients-with-post-bariatric-hypoglycemia
#8
Colleen M Craig, Li-Fen Liu, Thi Nguyen, Candice Price, Justus Bingham, Tracey L McLaughlin
AIM: Post-bariatric hypoglycemia (PBH) is a rare but growing complication of bariatric surgery with severe, debilitating, potentially life-threatening consequences and no safe and effective treatment. Previous studies involving continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39) (Ex-9) in patients with PBH have demonstrated efficacy in preventing symptomatic postprandial hypoglycemia. Subcutaneous (SC) injection of Ex-9 would represent a more practical therapeutic approach...
August 4, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775287/non-invasive-in-vivo-determination-of-viable-islet-graft-volume-by-111-in-exendin-3
#9
Wael A Eter, Inge Van der Kroon, Karolina Andralojc, Mijke Buitinga, Stefanie M A Willekens, Cathelijne Frielink, Desiree Bos, Lieke Joosten, Otto C Boerman, Maarten Brom, Martin Gotthardt
Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the duration of long-term graft survival is limited due to inflammatory as well as non-inflammatory processes and routine clinical tests are not suitable to monitor islet survival. (111)In-exendin-SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) is a promising method to non-invasively image islets after transplantation and has the potential to help improve the clinical outcome. Whether (111)In-exendin-SPECT allows detecting small differences in beta-cell mass (BCM) and measuring the actual volume of islets that were successfully engrafted has yet to be demonstrated...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761132/exendin-4-reduces-food-intake-via-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-the-hypothalamus
#10
Yan Yang, Pique P Choi, Wanli W Smith, Weijie Xu, Delin Ma, Zachary A Cordner, Nu-Chu Liang, Timothy H Moran
Exendin-4 (EX-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, has been shown to reduce food intake and to increase proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the hypothalamus. In this study, we examined the potential neural mechanisms by which these effects occur. Male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with a cannula in the third ventricle of the brain through which an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) (wortmannin) was administered, and EX-4 or vehicle was administered via intraperitoneal (IP) injection...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754350/beneficial-metabolic-effects-of-dietary-epigallocatechin-gallate-alone-and-in-combination-with-exendin-4-in-high-fat-diabetic-mice
#11
Nupur M Pathak, Paul J B Millar, Varun Pathak, Peter R Flatt, Victor A Gault
OBJECTIVE: Significant attempts are being made to generate multifunctional, hybrid or peptide combinations as novel therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes, however this presents key challenges including design and pharmaceutical development. In this study, we evaluated metabolic properties of oral nutritional supplement epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in combination with GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 in a mouse model of dietary-induced diabetes and obesity. METHODS: EGCG, exendin-4 or combination of both were administered twice-daily over 28 days to high fat (HF) mice on background of low-dose streptozotocin...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747082/construction-of-functional-pancreatic-artificial-islet-tissue-composed-of-fibroblast-modified-polylactic-co-glycolic-acid-membrane-and-pancreatic-stem-cells
#12
Liping Liu, Jing Tan, Baoyuan Li, Qian Xie, Junwen Sun, Hongli Pu, Li Zhang
Objective To improve the biocompatibility between polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane and pancreatic stem cells, rat fibroblasts were used to modify the polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane. Meanwhile, we constructed artificial islet tissue by compound culturing the pancreatic stem cells and the fibroblast-modified polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane and explored the function of artificial islets in diabetic nude mice. Methods Pancreatic stem cells were cultured on the fibroblast-modified polylactic- co-glycolic acid membrane in dulbecco's modified eagle medium containing activin-A, β-catenin, and exendin-4...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730728/beneficial-long-term-antidiabetic-actions-of-n-and-c-terminally-modified-analogues-of-apelin-13-in-diet-induced-obese-diabetic-mice
#13
V Parthsarathy, C Hogg, P R Flatt, F P M O'Harte
AIMS: This study investigated the chronic effects of twice daily administration of stable apelin analogues, apelin-13 amide and (pGlu)apelin-13 amide, on metabolic parameters in glucose intolerant and insulin resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high-fat diet for 150 days. STUDY DESIGN & METHODS: Groups of mice received twice daily (09:00 and 17:00 h) injections of saline vehicle, apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4(1-39) for 28 days (all at 25 nmol/kg)...
July 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721305/fully-automated-gmp-production-of-68-ga-ga-do3a-vs-cys-40-exendin-4-for-clinical-use
#14
Irina Velikyan, Ulrika Rosenstrom, Olof Eriksson
[(68)Ga]Ga-DO3A-VS-Cys(40)-Exendin-4/PET-CT targeting glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) has previously demonstrated its potential clinical value for the detection of insulinomas. The production and accessibility of this radiopharmaceutical is one of the critical factors in realization of clinical trials and routine clinical examinations. Previously, the radiopharmaceutical was prepared manually, however larger scale of clinical trials and healthcare requires automation of the production process in order to limit the operator radiation dose as well as improve tracer manufacturing robustness and on-line documentation for enhanced good manufacturing practice (GMP) compliance...
2017: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707223/inhibition-of-exendin-4-induced-steatosis-by-protein-kinase-a-in-cultured-hepg2-human-hepatoma-cells
#15
Alice Y Chen-Liaw, Gabrielle Hammel, George Gomez
Nonalcoholic fatty liver is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of triglycerides within hepatocytes, resulting in a steatotic liver. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and its analog exendin-4 can ameliorate certain aspects of this syndrome by inducing weight loss and reducing hepatic triglyceride accumulation, but it is unclear whether these effects result from the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on the pancreas, or from direct action on the liver. This study investigated the direct action and putative cellular mechanism of exendin-4 on steatotic hepatocytes in culture...
July 13, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702330/neonatal-glp1r-activation-limits-adult-adiposity-by-durably-altering-hypothalamic-architecture
#16
Andrea V Rozo, Daniella A Babu, PoMan A Suen, David N Groff, Randy J Seeley, Rebecca A Simmons, Patrick Seale, Rexford S Ahima, Doris A Stoffers
OBJECTIVE: Adult obesity risk is influenced by alterations to fetal and neonatal environments. Modifying neonatal gut or neurohormone signaling pathways can have negative metabolic consequences in adulthood. Here we characterize the effect of neonatal activation of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP1R) signaling on adult adiposity and metabolism. METHODS: Wild type C57BL/6 mice were injected with 1 nmol/kg Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP1R agonist, for 6 consecutive days after birth...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696785/exendin-4-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-downregulates-hepatic-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-rat-model
#17
Mona M Allam, Walaa B El Gazzar
CONTEXT: Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist has been shown to have curative effects on hepatic steatosis in murine models. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of Exendin-4 on hepatic receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mRNA expression in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rat model induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: NASH was induced by high-fat diet intake, and Exendin-4 was given in two different doses...
July 11, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695626/mucosal-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-responses-are-mediated-by-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-in-the-mouse-colon-and-both-peptide-responses-are-area-specific
#18
I R Tough, R Moodaley, H M Cox
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is an incretin hormone and its mimetics are proven antidiabetic and antiobesity drugs. GLP-1 exerts antimotility and mucosal proliferative activities but its epithelial ion transport effects are uncharacterized and these may contribute to the gastrointestinal (GI) disturbance, i.e., diarrhea experienced with some GLP-1 mimetics. Our aim was to establish GLP-1 agonist mechanisms and identify potential mucosal mediator(s) in the colonic tissue from C57BL/6J mice...
July 11, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693820/central-glucagon-like-peptide-1-inhibits-reflex-swallowing-elicited-by-the-superior-laryngeal-nerve-via-caudal-brainstem-in-the-rat
#19
Motoi Kobashi, Satoshi Mizutani, Masako Fujita, Yoshihiro Mitoh, Yuichi Shimatani, Ryuji Matsuo
The effects of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on reflex swallowing were examined using anaesthetized rats. GLP-1 was injected into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) using glass micropipettes. Swallowing was induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated in the mylohyoide muscle through bipolar electrodes. Microinjection of GLP-1 into the medial DVC (M-DVC) increased the frequency of swallowing during the electrical stimulation of the SLN and extended the latency of the first swallowing...
July 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685028/bariatric-surgery-and-obesity-influence-on-the-incretins
#20
REVIEW
B Laferrère
The gut hormone incretins have an important physiological role in meal-related insulin release and post-prandial glucose control. In addition to weight loss, the incretin hormones have a role in glucose control after bariatric surgery. The release of incretins, and specifically of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, in response to the ingestion of nutrients, is greatly enhanced after gastric bypass (RYGBP). The rapid transit of food from the gastric pouch to the distal ileum is responsible for the greater GLP-1 release after RYGBP...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
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