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Chris G Buse, Valerie Lai, Katie Cornish, Margot W Parkes
OBJECTIVES: As global environmental change drives inequitable health outcomes, novel health equity assessment methodologies are increasingly required. We review literatures on equity-focused HIA to clarify how equity is informing HIA practice, and to surface innovations for assessing health equity in relation to a range of exposures across geographic and temporal scales. METHODS: A narrative review of the health equity and HIA literatures analysed English articles published between 2003 and 2017 across PubMed, PubMed Central, Biomed Central and Ovid Medline...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Melanie Ward, Amy J Schulz, Barbara A Israel, Kristina Rice, Sheena E Martenies, Evan Markarian
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches present strong opportunities to promote health equity by improving health within low-income communities and communities of color. CBPR principles and evaluation frameworks highlight an emphasis on equitable group dynamics (e.g., shared leadership and power, participatory decision-making, two-way open communication) that promote both equitable processes within partnerships and health equity in the communities with whom they engage. The development of an evaluation framework that describes the manner in which equitable group dynamics promote intermediate and long-term equity outcomes can aid partners in assessing their ability to work together effectively and improve health equity in the broader community...
April 30, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Gregory J Tierney, Ciaran K Simms
OBJECTIVES: Tackle height laws are an area of controversy in rugby union. It is reported that the tackler is at most risk of a Head Injury Assessment (HIA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to use match video evidence of tackles in elite level rugby union to examine the effect of tackle heights on HIA risk for the tackler. DESIGN: Qualitative observational case-control study. METHODS: Each HIA (n=74) and control tackle (n=965) was categorised based on tackle direction (front- or side-on), tackle type (arm, shoulder or smother) and tackle height (upper trunk, mid-trunk, lower trunk, upper leg or lower leg)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Tau Ming Liew, Philip Yap, Nan Luo, Soo Boon Hia, Gerald Choon-Huat Koh, Bee Choo Tai
BACKGROUND: Pre-death grief (PDG) is a key challenge faced by caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD). Marwit-Meuser Caregiver Grief Inventory (MM-CGI) and its abbreviated MM-CGI-Short-Form (MM-CGI-SF) are among the few empirically-developed scales that detect PDG. However, they have not had a Mandarin-Chinese version even though Chinese-speaking populations have among the largest number of PWD. We produced a Mandarin-Chinese version of MM-CGI and evaluated whether it had equivalent scores and similar psychometric properties to the English version...
May 11, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Sachiko Naito, Noriko Takeuchi, Misako Ohkusu, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Hiroki Takahashi, Naoko Imuta, Junichiro Nishi, Keigo Shibayama, Mayumi Matsuoka, Yuko Sasaki, Naruhiko Ishiwada
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have led to a dramatic reduction in Hib disease in young children worldwide. Nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) is now the major cause of invasive H. influenzae infection. We investigated the clinical characteristics of invasive NTHi diseases among children in Japan to clarify the pathogenicity of isolated NTHi strains. The mortality rate was 10.7%, mainly among children with underlying comorbidities. Biotypes II and III were the most common and most (64...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Astrid M Knoblauch, Mark J Divall, Milka Owuor, Gertrude Musunka, Anna Pascall, Kennedy Nduna, Harrison Ng'uni, Jürg Utzinger, Mirko S Winkler
BACKGROUND: Large projects in the extractive industry sector can affect people's health and wellbeing. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), women's health is of particular concern in such contexts due to potential educational and economic disadvantages, vulnerability to transactional sex and unsafe sex practices. At the same time, community health interventions and development initiatives present opportunities for women's and maternal health. METHODS: Within the frame of the health impact assessment (HIA) of the Trident copper mining project in Zambia, two health surveys were conducted (baseline in 2011 and follow-up in 2015) in order to monitor health and health-related indicators...
May 1, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Katsuhiko Ogawa, Yutaka Suzuki, Takayoshi Akimoto, Keiji Shiobara, Makoto Hara, Akihiko Morita, Satoshi Kamei, Masayoshi Soma
Objective An abnormal high intensity area (HIA) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) indicates the presence of cytotoxic edema and has been reported to be observed in the hippocampus of patients with transient global amnesia (TGA). The appearance of an HIA on DWI is usually delayed after the onset of patients with amnesia in TGA; thus, the significance of the HIA was evaluated in patients with TGA. Patients and Methods Three adult TGA patients who had a unilateral HIA on DWI (right, n=2; left, n=1) were enrolled...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
Xuting Shi, Hai-Yan Liu, Shu-Ping Li, Hong-Bin Xu
Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-re-oxygenation (OGDR) exposure to endometrial cells mimics ischemia-reperfusion injury. The present study tests the potential effect of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) on the process. We show that KGF receptor KGFR is expressed in human endometrial T-HESC cells and primary murine endometrial cells. KGF pre-treatment protected endometrial cells from OGDR, inhibiting cell viability reduction and cell death. KGF attenuated OGDR-induced programmed necrosis in endometrial cells...
June 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nunzia Linzalone, Adele Ballarini, Cristiano Piccinelli, Francesca Viliani, Fabrizio Bianchi
A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is an evidence-based methodology that includes health promotion and protection goals in decision-making. HIA has been introduced and/or institutionalized to various extents in different countries. In order to promote HIA and preventive health assessments in Italy, a research methodology was followed to identify specific obstacles or facilitators. The experiences of various countries reported in the literature were analyzed in terms of facilitating or hindering the introduction and institutionalization of HIA...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Iqbal Azad, Malik Nasibullah, Tahmeena Khan, Firoj Hassan, Yusuf Akhter
This paper deals with in silico evaluation of newly proposed heterocyclic derivatives in search of potential anticancer activity. Best possible drug candidates have been proposed using a rational approach employing a pipeline of computational techniques namely MetaPrint2D prediction, molinspiration, cheminformatics, Osiris Data warrior, AutoDock and iGEMDOCK. Lazar toxicity prediction, AdmetSAR predictions, and targeted docking studies were also performed. 27 heterocyclic derivatives were selected for bioactivity prediction and drug likeness score on the basis of Lipinski's rule, Viber rule, Ghose filter, leadlikeness and Pan Assay Interference Compounds (PAINS) rule...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
B A K Kreilkamp, B Weber, S B Elkommos, M P Richardson, S S Keller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and surgical outcome correlates of preoperative hippocampal subfield volumes in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multisequence segmentation technique. METHODS: We recruited 106 patients with TLE and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent conventional T1-weighted and T2 short TI inversion recovery MRI. An automated hippocampal segmentation algorithm was used to identify twelve subfields in each hippocampus...
June 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Niels J F De Baerdemaeker, Niek Hias, Jan Van den Bulcke, Wannes Keulemans, Kathy Steppe
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent research has highlighted the importance of living tissue in wood. Polyploidization can impact amounts and arrangements of living cells in wood, potentially leading to increased drought tolerance. Tetraploid variants were created from the apple cultivar Malus ×domestica 'Gala' (Gala-4x), and their vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation and their hydraulic capacitance were compared to those of their diploid predecessors (Gala-2x). Assuming a positive correlation between polyploidy and drought tolerance, we hypothesized lower vulnerability and higher capacitance for the tetraploid...
February 2018: American Journal of Botany
Alonso Hormazábal-Peralta, Javier Espinoza, Pablo Cáceres, Pablo A Lizana
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to have multiple health and wellness benefits, but there is no such information for adolescents with high intellectual ability (HIA). Thus, the aim of this study is to assess body composition and PA in HIA Chilean adolescents. METHODS: Weight and body composition were measured by bioelectrical impedance in 73 adolescents (39 female) aged 14-18 years from the Valparaíso region of Chile. HIA was assessed via Raven's Progressive Matrices (> 75th percentile) and PA, via questionnaire...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Gordon Ward Fuller, Matthew J Cross, Keith A Stokes, Simon P T Kemp
BACKGROUND: The King-Devick (KD) test is an objective clinical test of eye movements that has been used to screen for concussion. We characterised the accuracy of the KD test and the World Rugby Head Injury Assessment (HIA-1) screening tools as methods of off-field evaluation for concussion after a suspicious head impact event. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed in elite English rugby union competitions between September 2016 and May 2017. The study population comprised consecutive players identified with a head impact event with the potential to result in concussion...
March 21, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
B A Kadashev, A N Konovalov, L I Astaf'eva, P L Kalinin, M A Kutin, I S Klochkova, D V Fomichev, O I Sharipov, D N Andreev
The pituitary stalk (PS) is a relatively thin bundle connecting the hypophyseal stalk to the pituitary gland; it consists of both axons of the hypothalamic nuclei (terminating in the neurohypophysis) and the system of portal vessels. Compression of the PS by a space-occupying lesion or its transection (forced or intended) during surgery may lead to the development of endocrine disorders: hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and hyperprolactinemia. The modern literature lacks studies evaluating the severity of endocrine disorders depending on the PS condition before and after surgery...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Patrizia Gentili, Martina Nardi, Irene Antignano, Paolo Cambise, Marco D'Abramo, Francesca D'Acunzo, Alessandro Pinna, Emanuele Ussia
In the context of our research on stimuli-responsive polymers bearing the 2-(hydroxyimino)aldehyde (HIA) group, we have explored the photochemical behavior and physicochemical properties of a number of HIAs. Interpretation of the experimental data is supported by quantum mechanical calculations. HIAs are expected to undergo photoisomerization, chelate metal ions, yield hydrogen-bonded dimers or oligomers, exhibit relatively low pKa s, and form >C=NO. radicals through OH hydrogen abstraction or oxidation of the oximate ion...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Fabrizio Minichilli, Fabrizio Bianchi, Carla Ancona, Marco Cervino, Gianluigi De Gennaro, Cristina Mangia, Michele Santoro, Elisa Bustaffa
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the associations among the emissions produced by "Centro olio Val d'Agri" (COVA), with mortality and hospitalization of residents in the Viggiano and Grumento Nova Municipalities, located in Val d'Agri (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy). DESIGN: residential cohort study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Lagrangians dispersion models to estimate the level of exposure at the address of residence to NOX concentrations as tracers of COVA emissions...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Nunzia Linzalone, Fabrizio Bianchi, Marco Cervino, Liliana Cori, Gianluigi De Gennaro, Cristina Mangia, Elisa Bustaffa
In Europe, Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a consolidated practice aimed at predicting health impacts supporting the predisposition of plans and projects subjected to authorization procedures. In Italy, further developments are needed to harmonize the practice and consolidate methodologies in order to extend the HIA application in different fields. The recent HIA conducted in Val d'Agri (Basilicata) on the impacts of a first crude oil treatment plant represents an opportunity to illustrate its tools, methods and fields of application...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Affan Shoukat, Robert Van Exan, Seyed M Moghadas
The preceding decade has witnessed the emergence of severe community-acquired acute infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia), with alarming incidence rates in North America, particularly among indigenous populations. The remarkable success of Hib conjugate vaccine over the past 20 years signify the development of an Hia vaccine candidate as a prevention measure to reduce the incidence of invasive Hia disease. However, quantifications of the long-term epidemiologic and economic impacts of vaccination are needed to inform decision on investment in Hia vaccine development and immunization programs...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Behzad Damari, Abbas Vosoogh-Moghaddam, Sahand Riazi-Isfahani
Background: According to the general health policies issued in 2014, Health Impact Assessment (HIA) or Health Annex should be implemented in Iran. The present study provided a model for executing HIA in the Iranian context as a developing country. Methods: This is a system design study with the qualitative approach. The data on the system components were gathered via reviews of the literature, in-depth interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs) with experts...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
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