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Paradigm shift

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812849/global-health-in-the-anthropocene-moving-beyond-resilience-and-capitalism-comment-on-health-promotion-in-an-age-of-normative-equity-and-rampant-inequality
#1
Remco van de Pas
There has been much reflection on the need for a new understanding of global health and the urgency of a paradigm shift to address global health issues. A crucial question is whether this is still possible in current modes of global governance based on capitalist values. Four reflections are provided. (1) Ecological -centered values must become central in any future global health framework. (2) The objectives of 'sustainability' and 'economic growth' present a profound contradiction. (3) The resilience discourse maintains a gridlock in the functioning of the global health system...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811835/mental-health-care-providers-perceptions-of-the-barriers-to-suicide-prevention-amongst-people-with-substance-use-disorders-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-study
#2
Daniel Goldstone, Jason Bantjes
BACKGROUND: Substance use is a well-established, and potentially modifiable, risk factor for suicide. Suicide prevention interventions are typically framed within the biomedical paradigm and focus on addressing individual risk factors, improving access to psychiatric care, and improving the skills of medical personnel to recognise at-risk individuals. Few studies have focused on contextual factors that hinder suicide prevention in people with substance use disorders, particularly in low-resource settings...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809826/high-throughput-screening-for-protein-based-inheritance-in-s-cerevisiae
#3
James S Byers, Daniel F Jarosz
The encoding of biological information that is accessible to future generations is generally achieved via changes to the DNA sequence. Long-lived inheritance encoded in protein conformation (rather than sequence) has long been viewed as paradigm-shifting but rare. The best characterized examples of such epigenetic elements are prions, which possess a self-assembling behavior that can drive the heritable manifestation of new phenotypes. Many archetypal prions display a striking N/Q-rich sequence bias and assemble into an amyloid fold...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809193/patient-at-work-in-the-era-of-pro
#4
Ann Bygholm, Pernille Bertelsen
There is a widespread consensus that it is important to involve patient in their own care, both for the reasons of quality and safety in healthcare and for the sake of the patients' individual rights. The appreciation of patient participation and related notions such as patient empowerment, patient centered care, patient involvement, patient as co-producers of health et cetera, indicate that the role of the patient have changed over the last decades. It has changed from being a passive recipient of treatment to becoming an active and responsible agent...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803718/total-neoadjuvant-therapy-a-shifting-paradigm-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-management
#5
REVIEW
Aaron J Franke, Hiral Parekh, Jason S Starr, Sanda A Tan, Atif Iqbal, Thomas J George
Colorectal carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with rectal cancer accounting for approximately one-third of newly diagnosed cases, thus representing a major socioeconomic health burden. Although minimally invasive procedures (ie, transanal excision) may be appropriate for a subset of patients with small, superficially invasive tumors, a more comprehensive trimodality approach with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, total mesorectal excision, and systemic chemotherapy is recommended for medically operable patients with nonmetastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC)...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803616/unfounded-dumbfounding-how-harm-and-purity-undermine-evidence-for-moral-dumbfounding
#6
Steve Guglielmo
Two paradigm-shifting ideas have gained widespread influence in current accounts of moral cognition: (a) that moral judgments are pluralistic, extending beyond domains of harm and fairness, and (b) that people's judgments are driven primarily by intuition, such that people are "morally dumbfounded" about the reasons behind their own judgments. An ongoing debate has emerged regarding the former claim of moral pluralism, with opposing sides in disagreement about whether moral judgments are best understood as reflecting multiple moral domains vs...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801124/changing-our-approach-to-stage-d-heart-failure
#7
REVIEW
Miriam Becnel, Hector O Ventura, Selim R Krim
Despite the tremendous progress made in the management of heart failure (HF), many patients reach advanced stages. This paper aims to present a practical approach to the stage D HF patient who is no longer responding to optimal medical therapy. We discuss all available therapies for this patient population. We also offer some important caveats with regard to identification, risk stratification, evaluation and treatment including early patient referral to a center with an advanced HF program. Given the changing landscape of heart transplantation and an impending change in the allocation system, we also intend to engage a discussion on the need for a paradigm shift towards left ventricular assist device therapy in this population...
August 8, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799010/will-the-oxygen-phosphorus-paradigm-persist-expert-views-of-the-future-of-management-and-restoration-of-eutrophic-lakes
#8
Nina A Nygrén, Petri Tapio, Jukka Horppila
In the age of climate change, the demand and lack of pure water challenges many communities. Substantial amount of effort is put in every year to manage and restore degraded lakes while the long-term effects of those efforts are only poorly known or monitored. Oxygenation, or aeration, is used extensively for the restoration of eutrophic lakes, although many studies question whether this process improves the status of the lakes in the long-term. The desired effect of oxygenation is based on paradigmatic theories that, in the light of recent literature, might not be adequate when long-term improvements are sought...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797674/alternative-approach-in-mandibular-reconstruction-for-benign-disease
#9
Al Haitham Al Shetawi, Rui Fernandes
In recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in mandibular reconstruction, especially for benign disease, using computer technologies to achieve improved cosmetic and functional outcomes. In this case series, the authors review their experience with computer-guided planning to achieve improved esthetics. They also review the current literature on recent advances.
July 15, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797612/decentralized-manufacturing-of-cell-and-gene-therapies-overcoming-challenges-and-identifying-opportunities
#10
REVIEW
Richard P Harrison, Steven Ruck, Nicholas Medcalf, Qasim A Rafiq
Decentralized or "redistributed" manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the manufacturing approach for cell and gene therapies (CGTs), moving away from the "Fordist" paradigm, delivering health care locally, customized to the end user and, by its very nature, overcoming many of the challenges associated with manufacturing and distribution of high volume goods. In departing from the traditional centralized model of manufacturing, decentralized manufacturing divides production across sites or geographic regions...
August 7, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797457/paradigm-shifts-in-staging-of-thyroid-cancer
#11
EDITORIAL
Ashok R Shaha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796241/the-neonatal-intensive-parenting-unit-an-introduction
#12
S L Hall, M T Hynan, R Phillips, S Lassen, J W Craig, E Goyer, R F Hatfield, H Cohen
This paper describes a paradigm shift occurring in neonatal intensive care. Care teams are moving from a focus limited to healing the baby's medical problems towards a focus that also requires effective partnerships with families. These partnerships encourage extensive participation of mothers and fathers in their baby's care and ongoing bi-directional communication with the care team. The term Newborn Intensive Parenting Unit (NIPU) was derived to capture this concept. One component of the NIPU is family-integrated care, where parents are intimately involved in a baby's care for as many hours a day as possible...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792743/a-paradigm-shift-for-preparing-versatile-m2-free-gels-from-unmodified-sodium-alginate
#13
Maria M Pérez-Madrigal, Juan Torras, Jordi Casanovas, Marleen Häring, Carlos Aleman, David Díaz Díaz
This manuscript describes a new route to prepare rapidly Ca2+-free hydrogels from unmodified sodium alginate by simply mixing with small organic molecules such as polycarboxylic acid compounds as cross-linker agents instead of classical divalent metal salts such as CaCl2. DMSO was also found to induce the rapid gelation of aqueous alginate solutions. The gelation process takes place at RT and depending on the composition, gels with good thermal (90-100 °C) and mechanical properties compared to classical metal-containing analogs are obtained...
August 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792171/glycemic-pentad
#14
Glycemic Pentad Forum
BACKGROUND: Conventionally, diabetes management involved targeting the triad of FPG, PPG, and HbA1c. However, several studies have suggested the quintessential need for a paradigm shift to incorporate glycemic variability and quality of life in the holistic diabetes control regimen. AIM: To generate a consensus and ratify the position of Glycemic Variability (GV) and Quality of Life (QOL), along with the traditional triad, in diabetes management in India. To evaluate whether the triple fixed dose combination of metformin, glimepiride, and voglibose can accomplish the goals of glycemic pentad...
July 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791010/uses-of-next-generation-sequencing-technologies-for-the-diagnosis-of-primary-immunodeficiencies
#15
REVIEW
Michael Seleman, Rodrigo Hoyos-Bachiloglu, Raif S Geha, Janet Chou
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are genetic disorders impairing host immunity, leading to life-threatening infections, autoimmunity, and/or malignancies. Genomic technologies have been critical for expediting the discovery of novel genetic defects underlying PIDs, expanding our knowledge of the complex clinical phenotypes associated with PIDs, and in shifting paradigms of PID pathogenesis. Once considered Mendelian, monogenic, and completely penetrant disorders, genomic studies have redefined PIDs as a heterogeneous group of diseases found in the global population that may arise through multigenic defects, non-germline transmission, and with variable penetrance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789906/tocotrienols-the-unsaturated-sidekick-shifting-new-paradigms-in-vitamin-e-therapeutics
#16
REVIEW
Madhu M Kanchi, Muthu K Shanmugam, Grishma Rane, Gautam Sethi, Alan P Kumar
Vitamin E family members: tocotrienols and tocopherols are widely known for their health benefits. Decades of research on tocotrienols have shown they have diverse biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective and skin protection benefits, as well as improved cognition, bone health, longevity and reduction of cholesterol levels in plasma. Tocotrienols also modulate several intracellular molecular targets and, most importantly, have been shown to improve lipid profiles, reduce total cholesterol and reduce the volume of white matter lesions in human clinical trials...
August 5, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781749/pediatric-hereditary-angioedema-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Geetika Sabharwal, Timothy Craig
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1-inhibitor (C1-Inh) deficiency (C1-Inh-HAE) is a rare, life-threatening, and disabling genetic disorder characterized by self-limited tissue swelling caused by deficiency or dysfunction of C1-Inh. Our aim in this update is to discuss new advances in HAE therapy, focusing mainly on the various treatment options that have become available recently and also drugs that are under trial for prophylaxis to prevent attacks. There is a paradigm shift to where the treatment of HAE is headed, focusing now on prophylactic treatment rather than abortive management...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780731/unmet-needs-in-the-field-of-psoriasis-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Wolf-Henning Boehncke, Nicolo Costantino Brembilla
In times of targeted therapies, innovative therapeutics become tools to further unravel the pathogenesis of the treated disease, thus influencing current pathogenetic concepts. Based on such paradigm shifts, the next generation of novel therapeutic targets might be identified. Psoriasis is a good example for the resulting most fruitful dialog between clinical and fundamental research. As a result of this, the key role of Th17 lymphocytes, some of their effector molecules, as well as mediators contributing to their maturation have been identified, many of these being targeted by some of the most effective drugs currently available to treat psoriasis...
August 6, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780428/spontaneous-c-septicum-gas-gangrene-a-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Ira Srivastava, Michael J Aldape, Amy E Bryant, Dennis L Stevens
As the infectious disease paradigm undergoes a subtle shift, unusual infections associated with malignancy and immunosuppression are being increasingly reported. Spontaneous or non-traumatic Clostridium septicum infection is one such unusual infection which has gained prominence. This article aims to understand the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and current trends in diagnosing and treating this rare but deadly infection. To understand the multifactorial causation of this infection a review of published cases of spontaneous C...
August 2, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777542/1-4-dihydropyrrolo-3-2-b-pyrroles-as-a-single-component-photoactive-layer-a-new-paradigm-for-broadband-detection
#20
Ram Kumar Canjeevaram Balasubramanyam, Ahmad E Kandjani, Christopher J Harrison, Syed Sulthan Alaudeen Abdul Haroon Rashid, Ylias M Sabri, Suresh K Bhargava, Ramanuj Narayan, Pratyay Basak, Samuel J Ippolito
Single component organic photodetectors capable of broadband light sensing represent a paradigm shift for designing flexible and inexpensive optoelectronic devices. The present study demonstrates the application of a new quadrupolar 1,4-dihydropyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole derivative with spectral sensitivity across 350-830 nm as a potential broadband organic photodetector (OPD) material. The amphoteric redox characteristics evinced from the electrochemical studies are exploited to conceptualize a single component OPD with ITO and Al as active electrodes...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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