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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319878/visual-stimuli-modulate-frontal-oscillatory-rhythms-in-a-cortically-blind-patient-evidence-for-top-down-visual-processing
#1
Eda Tipura, Alan J Pegna, Beatrice de Gelder, Olivier Renaud
OBJECTIVE: We investigated neuronal correlates of faces versus non-faces processing in a cortically blind patient (TN) and a group of healthy age-matched controls in order to test electrophysiological correlates of the processing of pertinent stimuli in this patient. METHODS: An EEG paradigm was used, in which intact and scrambled faces were displayed on a screen. First, time-frequency transforms were conducted on the patients' data alone. These oscillations were then compared to the frontal activity of six control participants...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319779/supramolecular-biofunctional-materials
#2
REVIEW
Jie Zhou, Jie Li, Xuewen Du, Bing Xu
This review discusses supramolecular biofunctional materials, a novel class of biomaterials formed by small molecules that are held together via noncovalent interactions. The complexity of biology and relevant biomedical problems not only inspire, but also demand effective molecular design for functional materials. Supramolecular biofunctional materials offer (almost) unlimited possibilities and opportunities to address challenging biomedical problems. Rational molecular design of supramolecular biofunctional materials exploit powerful and versatile noncovalent interactions, which offer many advantages, such as responsiveness, reversibility, tunability, biomimicry, modularity, predictability, and, most importantly, adaptiveness...
March 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319425/overcoming-challenges-in-the-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-pediatric-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#3
Sylvie Jonckheree, Jennifer Furin
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a growing global health threat and children are especially vulnerable to becoming infected and sick with DR-TB. There is a growing body of evidence on the optimal diagnosis, treatment and prevention of DR-TB in this vulnerable population. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of the literature on DR-TB in children was done using PubMed and Ovid databases up to December 31, 2016. Topic areas covered included diagnosis of DR-TB, treatment of DR-TB-including novel medications and regimens, prevention of DR-TB, community-based care, and stigma/discrimination...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319157/subchondral-bone-histology-and-grading-in-osteoarthritis
#4
Olli-Matti Aho, Mikko Finnilä, Jerome Thevenot, Simo Saarakkala, Petri Lehenkari
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) has often regarded as a disease of articular cartilage only. New evidence has shifted the paradigm towards a system biology approach, where also the surrounding tissue, especially bone is studied more vigorously. However, the histological features of subchondral bone are only poorly characterized in current histological grading scales of OA. The aim of this study is to specifically characterize histological changes occurring in subchondral bone at different stages of OA and propose a simple grading system for them...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318378/pexophagy-is-responsible-for-65-of-cases-of-peroxisome-biogenesis-disorders
#5
Taras Y Nazarko
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) is a group of diseases caused by mutations in one of the peroxins, proteins responsible for biogenesis of the peroxisomes. In recent years, it became clear that many peroxins (e.g., PEX3 and PEX14) play additional roles in peroxisome homeostasis (such as promoting autophagic degradation of peroxisomes or pexophagy), which are often opposite to their originally established functions in peroxisome formation and maintenance. Even more interesting, the peroxins that make up the peroxisomal AAA ATPase complex (AAA-complex) in yeast (Pex1, Pex6 and Pex15) or mammals (PEX1, PEX6, PEX26) are responsible for the downregulation of pexophagy...
February 28, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315827/contemporary-management-of-low-grade-glioma-a-paradigm-shift-in-neuro-oncology
#6
REVIEW
Caroline Hayhurst
Supratentorial diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas represent a distinct but heterogenous group of tumours, with the propensity to grow and to differentiate into malignant tumours. They have been historically viewed in the 'benign' spectrum of intrinsic brain tumours, so a watch-and-wait policy was often adopted. With recent advances in our understanding of the natural history of these tumours, combined with advances in surgical technique, an aggressive approach is now recommended. Increasing quality evidence of the impact of tumour resection and multicentre trials of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy have led to a new algorithm for low-grade glioma management...
March 18, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314784/integrative-cancer-pharmacogenomics-to-infer-large-scale-drug-taxonomy
#7
Nehme El-Hachem, Deena M A Gendoo, Laleh Soltan Ghoraie, Zhaleh Safikhani, Petr Smirnov, Christina Chung, Kenan Deng, Alisa Fang, Erin Birkwood, Chantal Ho, Ruth Isserlin, Gary Bader, Anna Goldenberg, Benjamin Haibe-Kains
Identification of drug targets and mechanism of action (MoA) for new and uncharacterized anticancer drugs is important for optimization of treatment efficacy. Current MoA prediction largely relies on prior information including side effects, therapeutic indication, and chemo-informatics. Such information is not transferable or applicable for newly identified, previously uncharacterized small molecules. Therefore, a shift in the paradigm of MoA predictions is necessary towards development of unbiased approaches that can elucidate drug relationships and efficiently classify new compounds with basic input data...
March 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306518/biochemical-testing-in-a-laboratory-tent-and-semi-intensive-care-of-ebola-patients-on-site-in-a-remote-part-of-guinea-a-paradigm-shift-based-on-a-bleach-sensitive-point-of-care-device
#8
Leonid M Irenge, Jean-Michel Dindart, Jean-Luc Gala
BACKGROUND: During the West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, a Belgian laboratory was deployed for supporting the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) of N'Zerekore, Guinea. Besides diagnosis of EVD and malaria, biochemical parameters were tested and used to guide supportive treatment of EVD. METHODS: To preserve analytes stability, lithium-heparin blood samples were analyzed using the i-STAT® point-of-care testing (POCT) handheld device without the viral inactivation step...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303749/-spontaneous-visual-perspective-taking-mediated-by-attention-orienting-that-is-voluntary-and-not-reflexive
#9
Mark R Gardner, Zainabb Hull, Donna Taylor, Caroline J Edmonds
Experiments revealing 'spontaneous' visual perspective-taking are conventionally interpreted as demonstrating that adults have the capacity to track simple mental states in a fast and efficient manner ('implicit mentalising'). A rival account suggests that these experiments can be explained by the general purpose mechanisms responsible for reflexive attentional orienting. Here, we report two experiments designed to distinguish between these competing accounts. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether reflexive attention orienting was sufficient to yield findings interpreted as spontaneous perspective taking in the 'avatar task' (Samson et al...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303491/changing-the-therapeutic-landscape-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-the-evolution-of-comprehensive-molecular-profiling-improves-access-to-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Joshua K Sabari, Fernando Santini, Isabella Bergagnini, W Victoria Lai, Kathryn C Arbour, Alexander Drilon
Targeting genomic alterations has led to a paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with lung cancer. In an effort to better identify potentially actionable alterations that may predict response to FDA-approved and or investigational therapies, many centers have migrated towards performing targeted exome sequencing in patients with stage IV disease. The implementation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the evaluation of tumor tissue from patients with NSCLC has led to the discovery of targetable alterations in tumors that previously had no known actionable targets by less comprehensive profiling...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302901/treatment-of-renal-angiomyolipoma-and-other-hamartomas-in-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#11
REVIEW
Joshua A Samuels
Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by growth of benign tumors (hamartomas) in multiple organs, especially the kidneys, brain, heart, lungs, and skin. Tuberous sclerosis complex is usually caused by a mutation in either the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or tuberous sclerosis complex 2 gene, resulting in constitutive activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Currently, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are recommended in adult patients with tuberous sclerosis complex for the treatment of asymptomatic, growing renal angiomyolipoma that are >3 cm in diameter and pediatric or adult patients with brain lesions (subependymal giant cell astrocytoma) that either are growing or are not amenable to surgical resection...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302705/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-phenotype-and-metabolic-potential-in-mice-and-men
#12
Kanta Chechi, Wouter David van Marken Lichtenbelt, Denis Richard
With the recent re-discovery of brown fat in adult humans, our outlook on adipose tissue biology has undergone a paradigm shift. While we attempt to identify, recruit and activate classic brown fat stores in humans, identification of beige/brite adipocytes has also raised the possibility of browning our white fat stores. Whether such transformation of human white fat depots can be achieved in order to enhance the whole-body oxidative potential remains to be seen. Evidence to-date, however, largely points towards a major oxidative role only for classic brown fat depots in rodents and in humans (e...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301969/the-internet-s-effect-on-personality-traits-an-important-casualty-of-the-internet-addiction-paradigm
#13
Elias Aboujaoude
Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301696/toward-an-ethically-sensitive-implementation-of-noninvasive-prenatal-screening-in-the-global-context
#14
Jessica Mozersky, Vardit Ravitsky, Rayna Rapp, Marsha Michie, Subhashini Chandrasekharan, Megan Allyse
Noninvasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA, which analyzes placental DNA circulating in maternal blood to provide information about fetal chromosomal disorders early in pregnancy and without risk to the fetus, has been hailed as a potential "paradigm shift" in prenatal genetic screening. Commercial provision of cell-free DNA screening has contributed to a rapid expansion of the tests included in the screening panels. The tests can include screening for sex chromosome anomalies, rare subchromosomal microdeletions and aneuploidies, and most recently, the entire fetal genome...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301625/successful-treatment-of-generalized-essential-telangiectasia-with-6-mercaptopurine
#15
Alex M Glazer, Bryan D Sofen, Darrell S Rigel, Jerome L Shupack
<p>Generalized essential telangiectasia (GET) is a notoriously difficult to treat disorder with no current satisfactory treatments. This case and discussion report the use of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) as a successful treatment for GET. Moreover, we show that GET may represent a state of increased angiogenesis, a paradigm shift from the current understanding that these telangiectasias represent dilatations of only pre-existing vessels. This new view of GET may drive others to look at novel agents for treatment...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300695/the-countdown-to-a-paradigm-shift-in-diagnosing-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#16
EDITORIAL
Gregory A Coté
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300639/sliding-window-analysis-tracks-fluctuations-in-amygdala-functional-connectivity-associated-with-physiological-arousal-and-vigilance-during-fear-conditioning
#17
Blazej M Baczkowski, Tom Johnstone, Henrik Walter, Susanne Erk, Ilya M Veer
We evaluated whether sliding-window analysis can reveal functionally relevant brain network dynamics during a well-established fear conditioning paradigm. To this end, we tested if fMRI fluctuations in amygdala functional connectivity (FC) can be related to task-induced changes in physiological arousal and vigilance, as reflected in the skin conductance level (SCL). Thirty-two healthy individuals participated in the study. For the sliding-window analysis we used windows that were shifted by one volume at a time...
March 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296958/interaction-between-the-oculomotor-and-postural-systems-during-a-dual-task-compensatory-reductions-in-head-sway-following-visually-induced-postural-perturbations-promote-the-production-of-accurate-double-step-saccades-in-standing-human-adults
#18
Mathieu Boulanger, Guillaume Giraudet, Jocelyn Faubert
Humans routinely scan their environment for useful information using saccadic eye movements and/or coordinated movements of the eyes and other body segments such the head and the torso. Most previous eye movement studies were conducted with seated subject and showed that single saccades and sequences of saccades (e.g. double-step saccades) made to briefly flashed stimuli were equally accurate and precise. As one can easily appreciate, most gaze shifts performed daily by a given person are not produced from a seated position, but rather from a standing position either as subjects perform an action from an upright stance or as they walk from one place to another...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295342/an-information-theory-account-of-late-frontoparietal-erp-positivities-in-cognitive-control
#19
Francisco Barceló, Patrick S Cooper
ERP research on task switching has revealed distinct transient and sustained positive waveforms (latency circa 300-900 ms) while shifting task rules or stimulus-response (S-R) mappings. However, it remains unclear whether such switch-related positivities show similar scalp topography and index context-updating mechanisms akin to those posed for domain-general (i.e., classic P300) positivities in many task domains. To examine this question, ERPs were recorded from 31 young adults (18-30 years) while they were intermittently cued to switch or repeat their perceptual categorization of Gabor gratings varying in color and thickness (switch task), or else they performed two visually identical control tasks (go/no-go and oddball)...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295317/applications-of-natural-zeolites-on-agriculture-and-food-production
#20
REVIEW
Nazife Eroglu, Mevlut Emekci, Christos Athanassiou
Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties including losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. Commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during last fifty years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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