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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917732/staying-alive-sensors-used-for-monitoring-cell-health-in-bioreactors
#1
REVIEW
P O'Mara, A Farrell, J Bones, K Twomey
Current and next generation sensors such as pH, dissolved oxygen (dO) and temperature sensors that will help drive the use of single-use bioreactors in industry are reviewed. The current trend in bioreactor use is shifting from the traditional fixed bioreactors to the use of single-use bioreactors (SUBs). However as the shift in paradigm occurs there is now a greater need for sensor technology to play 'catch up' with the innovation of bioreactor technology. Many of the sensors still in use today rely on technology created in the 1960's such as the Clark-type dissolved oxygen sensor or glass pH electrodes...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917122/structure-determination-based-on-continuous-diffraction-from-macromolecular-crystals
#2
REVIEW
Henry N Chapman, Petra Fromme
Bright and coherent X-ray sources, such free-electron lasers, have spurred large activities in developing new methods to obtain the structures of biological macromolecules. In particular, single-molecule diffraction is highly desired, as it would abolish the need for crystallization. It provides considerably more diffraction intensity information than needed to solve a structure, unlike crystal diffraction, which is usually insufficient for direct phasing. To overcome the challenge of weak scattering signals of single molecules, the direct phasing approaches in coherent diffractive imaging have been combined with crystals in several imaginative ways...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916463/penile-prosthesis-implantation-in-priapism
#3
REVIEW
Ömer Barış Yücel, Yaşar Pazır, Ateş Kadıoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Priapism is defined as a full or partial erection lasting longer than 4 hours after sexual stimulation and orgasm or unrelated to sexual stimulation. The main goal of priapism management is to resolve the episode immediately to preserve erectile function and penile length. Corporal smooth muscle necrosis is likely to have already occurred, and medically refractory erectile dysfunction is expected in patients with a protracted episode. Penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) in the early or late phase of priapism can restore erectile function...
September 12, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916011/family-based-integrated-care-fbic-in-a-partial-hospital-program-for-complex-pediatric-illness-fostering-shifts-in-family-illness-beliefs-and-relationships
#4
REVIEW
Michelle L Rickerby, Diane DerMarderosian, Jack Nassau, Christopher Houck
The heuristic model of family-based integrated care (FBIC) was developed from 1998 to 2016 in the context of the development of the Hasbro Children's Partial Hospital Program (HCPHP) along with the development of a family therapy training program for Brown University child psychiatry and triple board residents. The clinical experience of the HCPHP team in treating more than 2000 patients and families in combination with the authors' experience in training residents for diverse practice settings highlights the usefulness of the FBIC paradigm for interdisciplinary family-based treatment for a broad range of illnesses and levels of care...
October 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915948/the-economics-of-surgical-simulation
#5
REVIEW
Noel Jabbour, Carl H Snyderman
There are massive hidden costs in the current paradigm of surgical training related to increased operative times for procedures with resident involvement and costs of medical errors. Shifting procedural training outside of the operating room through use of simulation has the potential to improve patient safety, minimize learning time to achieve competency, and increase operative efficiency. Investment in surgical simulation has the potential to reduce costs to health care systems through improved operating room efficiency and reduction of medical errors...
October 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915713/the-reverse-warburg-effect-is-likely-to-be-an-achilles-heel-of-cancer-that-can-be-exploited-for-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Yaojie Fu, Shanshan Liu, Shanghelin Yin, Weihong Niu, Wei Xiong, Ming Tan, Guiyuan Li, Ming Zhou
Although survival outcomes of cancer patients have been improved dramatically via conventional chemotherapy and targeted therapy over the last decades, there are still some tough clinical challenges that badly needs to be overcome, such as anticancer drug resistance, inevitable recurrences, cancer progression and metastasis. Simultaneously, accumulated evidence demonstrates that aberrant glucose metabolism termed 'the Warburg effect' in cancer cell is closely associated with malignant phenotypes. In 2009, a novel 'two-compartment metabolic coupling' model, also named 'the reverse Warburg effect', was proposed and attracted lots of attention...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915300/inflammation-in-osteoarthritis
#7
Salvador Vilá
Advances in the understanding of chondrocytes and the synovial membrane as targets of and participants in the inflammatory process in articular joints have provided insights into the role of inflammation in cartilage and subchondral bone injury in rheumatic diseases. Reports that describe the inflammatory cellular infiltration of synovial membranes in patients with osteoarthritis, studies that associate cartilage structural injury with synovial membrane inflammatory status, the development of new imaging modalities that quantitatively measure synovial membrane inflammation and basic science advances that explore inflammatory pathways in the synovial cavity all suggest that inflammation plays an important role in cartilage injury in osteoarthritis...
September 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914189/a-hopeful-prospect-of-riociguat-as-a-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulator-for-management-of-pressure-ulcers
#8
Soha Azadi, Hajar Ashrafi, Amir Azadi
Pressure ulcer remains as a common problem, especially developed in disabled patients and hence, subjected to continuous pressure for prolonged periods of time. Most of the studies investigating the preventive and therapeutic approaches have focused on wound cleansing, dressing and supportive strategies , as well as pharmacological therapy including zinc sulphate, vitamin A or phenytoin. Despite such efforts, pressure ulcer continues to impair the life quality and expectancy. Thus involving in the paradigm shift in biomedical studies, the recent ones focus on biological signaling pathways involving nitric oxide (NO)- soluble guanylatecyclase (sGC)- cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) contributing in vasodilation, reperfusion and oxygen delivery...
September 15, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912704/reliability-of-eeg-measures-of-interaction-a-paradigm-shift-is-needed-to-fight-the-reproducibility-crisis
#9
Yvonne Höller, Andreas Uhl, Arne Bathke, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Kevin Butz, Raffaele Nardone, Jürgen Fell, Eugen Trinka
Measures of interaction (connectivity) of the EEG are at the forefront of current neuroscientific research. Unfortunately, test-retest reliability can be very low, depending on the measure and its estimation, the EEG-frequency of interest, the length of the signal, and the population under investigation. In addition, artifacts can hamper the continuity of the EEG signal, and in some clinical situations it is impractical to exclude artifacts. We aimed to examine factors that moderate test-retest reliability of measures of interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912396/-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-lung-cancer-with-egfr-mutation
#10
Hidetoshi Hayashi, Tetsuya Mitsudomi
Recent clinical evidence that anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody therapy is superior to cytotoxic chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC)that expresses PD-L1 has lead to a paradigm shift in treatment strategies for those patients. However, efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies for patients with NSCLC harboring EGFR mutation is generally poor. This lack ofresponse is at least partially attributed to suppression oftumor infiltrating lymphocytes caused by EGFR pathway activation or to low non-synonymous mutation load in NSCLC with EGFR mutation...
September 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910994/paediatric-and-maternal-schistosomiasis-shifting-the-paradigms
#11
Amaya L Bustinduy, J Russell Stothard, Jennifer F Friedman
Background: In endemic areas, schistosomiasis causes both overt and subclinical disease in young children and their mothers, as well as in returned travellers. Sources of data: Key recently published literature. Areas of agreement: An action plan for paediatric schistosomiasis and female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is needed with expanded access to praziquantel (PZQ) treatment required. Areas of controversy: Schistosomiasis-related morbidity is underappreciated...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910616/neuroimmunology-of-traumatic-brain-injury-time-for-a-paradigm-shift
#12
REVIEW
Yasir N Jassam, Saef Izzy, Michael Whalen, Dorian B McGavern, Joseph El Khoury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and disability, with a considerable socioeconomic burden. Heterogeneity of pathoanatomical subtypes and diversity in the pathogenesis and extent of injury contribute to differences in the course and outcome of TBI. Following the primary injury, extensive and lasting damage is sustained through a complex cascade of events referred to as "secondary injury." Neuroinflammation is proposed as an important manipulable aspect of secondary injury in animal and human studies...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903101/citation-classics-in-stroke-the-top-100-cited-articles-on-hemorrhagic-stroke
#13
Yerim Kim, Dae Young Yoon, Jee-Eun Kim, Kang Min Park, Ju-Hun Lee, Hong-Ki Song, Jong Seok Bae
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a disastrous disease and a major health burden worldwide, especially in Korea. Hemorrhagic stroke (HS) accounts for approximately 20% of all the types of strokes. It is important to be able to evaluate stroke diagnoses and evolving treatments. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the top-100 cited articles and assess a paradigm shift that occurred in the field of HS. METHODS: We searched all articles that had been cited more than 100 times using the Web of Science citation search tool during January 2016...
September 13, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899796/once-is-too-much-early-development-of-the-opponent-process-in-taste-reactivity-behavior-is-associated-with-later-escalation-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#14
Elizabeth M Colechio, Danielle N Alexander, Caesar G Imperio, Kelsey Jackson, Patricia S Grigson
Evidence suggests that the addiction process may begin immediately in some vulnerable subjects. Specifically, some rats have been shown to exhibit aversive taste reactivity (gapes) following the intraoral delivery of a cocaine-predictive taste cue after as few as 1 to 2 taste-drug pairings. After only 3 to 4 trials, the number of gapes becomes a reliable predictor of later cocaine self-administration. Given that escalation of drug-taking behavior over time is recognized as a key feature of substance use disorder (SUD) and addiction, the present study examined the relationship between early aversion to the cocaine-predictive flavor cue and later escalation of cocaine self-administration in an extended-access paradigm...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898933/inside-the-guts-of-the-city-urban-induced-alterations-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-a-wild-passerine
#15
Aimeric Teyssier, Lieze Oscar Rouffaer, Noraine Saleh Hudin, Diederik Strubbe, Erik Matthysen, Luc Lens, Joël White
Urbanisation represents one of the most radical forms of terrestrial land use change and has been shown to lead to alterations in ecosystem functioning and community dynamics and changes in individual phenotypic traits. While the recent surge in microbiome studies has brought about a paradigm shift by which individuals cannot truly be considered independently of the bacterial communities they host, the role of gut microbiota in organismal response to human-induced environmental change is still scarcely studied...
September 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898500/offset-analgesia-the-role-of-peripheral-and-central-mechanisms
#16
D Ligato, K K Petersen, C D Mørch, L Arendt-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Offset Analgesia (OA) can be evoked by a three-heat-stimulus train (T1-T2-T3), with T1 (5 s) and T3 (20 s) having the same temperature (e.g. 48 °C) and T2 (5 s) being slightly higher (1-3 °C). OA is defined as a disproportional pain reduction caused by the slight temperature decrease from T2 to T3. As the pain modulatory mechanisms behind OA are still poorly understood, the current study aimed to investigate the role of peripheral and central mechanisms by applying heat stimuli to the same location and to different unilateral and bilateral locations...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898197/urgent-need-for-improved-mental-health-care-and-a-more-collaborative-model-of-care
#17
James Lake, Mason Spain Turner
Current treatments and the dominant model of mental health care do not adequately address the complex challenges of mental illness, which accounts for roughly one-third of adult disability globally. These circumstances call for radical change in the paradigm and practices of mental health care, including improving standards of clinician training, developing new research methods, and re-envisioning current models of mental health care delivery. Because of its dominant position in the US health care marketplace and its commitment to research and innovation, Kaiser Permanente (KP) is strategically positioned to make important contributions that will shape the future of mental health care nationally and globally...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894698/paradigm-shift-toward-reducing-overtreatment-of-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-of-breast
#18
REVIEW
Yasuaki Sagara, Wong Julia, Mehra Golshan, Masakazu Toi
The prevalence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast has increased substantially after the introduction of breast cancer screening programs, although the clinical effects of early DCIS detection and treatment remain unclear. The standard treatment for DCIS has involved local breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiotherapy (RT) or total mastectomy with/without endocrine therapy, and the choice of local treatment is not usually based on clinicopathologic or biological factors. However, we have investigated the effectiveness of local treatment using breast surgery and RT using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, and found that the effectiveness of breast surgery was modified by the nuclear grade...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893648/initial-activation-state-stimulation-intensity-and-timing-of-stimulation-interact-in-producing-behavioral-effects-of-tms
#19
Juha Silvanto, Silvia Bona, Zaira Cattaneo
Behavioral effects of TMS have been shown to depend on various factors, such as neural activation state, stimulation intensity, and timing of stimulation. Here we examined whether these factors interact, by applying TMS at either sub- or suprathreshold intensity (relative to phosphene threshold, PT) and at different time points during a state-dependent TMS paradigm. The state manipulation involved a behavioral task in which a visual prime (colour grating) was followed by a target stimulus which could be either congruent, incongruent or partially congruent with the colour and orientation of the prime...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892868/assessing-the-feasibility-of-integrating-ecosystem-based-with-engineered-water-resource-governance-and-management-for-water-security-in-semi-arid-landscapes-a-case-study-in-the-banas-catchment-rajasthan-india
#20
Mark Everard, Om Prakash Sharma, Vinod Kumar Vishwakarma, Dharmendra Khandal, Yogesh K Sahu, Rahul Bhatnagar, Jitendra K Singh, Ritesh Kumar, Asghar Nawab, Amit Kumar, Vivek Kumar, Anil Kashyap, Deep Narayan Pandey, Adrian C Pinder
Much of the developing world and areas of the developed world suffer water vulnerability. Engineering solutions enable technically efficient extraction and diversion of water towards areas of demand but, without rebalancing resource regeneration, can generate multiple adverse ecological and human consequences. The Banas River, Rajasthan (India), has been extensively developed for water diversion, particularly from the Bisalpur Dam from which water is appropriated by powerful urban constituencies dispossessing local people...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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