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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214168/medication-adherence-a-practical-measurement-selection-guide-using-case-studies
#1
Leah L Zullig, Phil Mendys, Hayden B Bosworth
OBJECTIVES: Medication adherence is a complex problem and can be evaluated using a variety of methods. There is no single or perfect strategy to assess adherence. The "best" measure depends on contextual factors. Our objective is to provide a practical, illustrative guide for selecting the most appropriate measure of medication adherence in common contexts. METHODS: We present three case studies - from the perspectives of an academic researcher, health care payer, and clinical care provider - to describe common problems and processes for measuring medication adherence, as well as proposing possible solutions...
February 10, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214091/multidonor-intensive-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-active-ulcerative-colitis-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
Sudarshan Paramsothy, Michael A Kamm, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Alissa J Walsh, Johan van den Bogaerde, Douglas Samuel, Rupert W L Leong, Susan Connor, Watson Ng, Ramesh Paramsothy, Wei Xuan, Enmoore Lin, Hazel M Mitchell, Thomas J Borody
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal microbiota transplantation is a novel form of therapeutic microbial manipulation, but its efficacy in ulcerative colitis is uncertain. We aimed to establish the efficacy of intensive-dosing, multidonor, faecal microbiota transplantation in active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at three hospitals in Australia...
February 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213724/mobile-phone-use-and-risk-of-brain-tumours-a-systematic-review-of-association-between-study-quality-source-of-funding-and-research-outcomes
#3
Manya Prasad, Prachi Kathuria, Pallavi Nair, Amit Kumar, Kameshwar Prasad
Mobile phones emit electromagnetic radiations that are classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Evidence for increased risk for brain tumours accumulated in parallel by epidemiologic investigations remains controversial. This paper aims to investigate whether methodological quality of studies and source of funding can explain the variation in results. PubMed and Cochrane CENTRAL searches were conducted from 1966 to December 2016, which was supplemented with relevant articles identified in the references...
February 17, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212971/should-countries-set-an-explicit-health-benefits-package-the-case-of-the-english-national-health-service
#4
Peter C Smith, Kalipso Chalkidou
BACKGROUND: A fundamental debate in the transition towards universal health coverage concerns whether to establish an explicit health benefits package to which all citizens are entitled, and the level of detail in which to specify that package. At one extreme, the treatments to be funded, and the circumstances in which patients qualify for the treatment, might be specified in great detail, and be entirely mandatory. This would make clinicians little more than automata, carrying out prescribed practice...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212638/commissioning-for-health-improvement-following-the-2012-health-and-social-care-reforms-in-england-what-has-changed
#5
E W Gadsby, S Peckham, A Coleman, D Bramwell, N Perkins, L M Jenkins
BACKGROUND: The wide-ranging program of reforms brought about by the Health and Social Care Act (2012) in England fundamentally changed the operation of the public health system, moving responsibility for the commissioning and delivery of services from the National Health Service to locally elected councils and a new national public health agency. This paper explores the ways in which the reforms have altered public health commissioning. METHODS: We conducted multi-methods research over 33 months, incorporating national surveys of Directors of Public Health and local council elected members at two time-points, and in-depth case studies in five purposively selected geographical areas...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212109/sustainable-exposure-prevention-through-innovative-detection-and-remediation-technologies-from-the-niehs-superfund-research-program
#6
Heather F Henry, William A Suk
Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups...
February 17, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209518/evidence-based-policies-on-school-nutrition-and-physical-education-associations-with-state-level-collaboration-obesity-and-socio-economic-indicators
#7
Jennifer E Pelletier, Melissa N Laska, Richard MacLehose, Toben F Nelson, Marilyn S Nanney
Despite calls for more cross-sector collaboration on obesity prevention, little is known about the role of collaborative partnerships, or groups of organizations from different sectors working together toward a shared goal, in state policy activities. This study examined associations between competitive food/beverage and physical education policies and state-level collaboration and state characteristics (obesity, socioeconomic indicators, public health funding levels) for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, USA, in 2012...
February 13, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207882/improving-brain-computer-interface-research-through-user-involvement-the-transformative-potential-of-integrating-civil-society-organisations-in-research-projects
#8
Bernd Carsten Stahl, Kutoma Wakunuma, Stephen Rainey, Christian Hansen
Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207807/how-much-is-a-child-worth-providers-and-patients-views-and-responses-concerning-ethical-and-policy-challenges-in-paying-for-art
#9
Robert Klitzman
Infertility treatments remain expensive and in many countries are covered by little, if any, insurance, raising critical questions concerning how patients and providers view and make decisions regarding these challenges. In-depth semi-structured interviews of approximately 1 hour were conducted with 37 IVF providers and 10 patients (17 physicians, 10 other providers and 10 patients), and were systematically analyzed. These data suggest current insurance policies and legislation pose critical ethical and logistical challenges for both patients and providers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205233/priorities-and-funding-for-global-cancer-surgery-research
#10
T Peter Kingham, Ophira Ginsburg, Sudha Sivaram, Andre Ilbawi, Ted Trimble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205026/common-strategic-research-agenda-for-radiation-protection-in-medicine
#11
(no author information available yet)
: Reflecting the change in funding strategies for European research projects, and the goal to jointly improve medical radiation protection through sustainable research efforts, five medical societies involved in the application of ionising radiation (European Association of Nuclear Medicine, EANM; European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. EFOMP; European Federation of Radiographer Societies, EFRS; European Society of Radiology, ESR; European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, ESTRO) have identified research areas of common interest and developed this first edition of the Common Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for medical radiation protection...
February 15, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202934/the-food-industry-and-conflicts-of-interest-in-nutrition-research-a-latin-american-perspective
#12
Joaquin Barnoya, Marion Nestle
Conflicts of interest arise when corporations marketing harmful products establish financial relationships with research institutions, researchers, or public health organizations. As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, such relationships threaten to jeopardize the integrity of scientific research. Latin America, a region undergoing rapid development, is particularly vulnerable to such conflicts. Here, we provide examples of how food and beverage companies are funding nutrition-focused research and institutions in Latin America, putting their credibility at risk...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202309/working-in-scarcity-effects-on-social-interactions-and-biomedical-care-in-a-tanzanian-hospital
#13
Adrienne E Strong
Based on mixed-methods, ethnographic research in government health facilities conducted in Rukwa, Tanzania over 23 months between 2012 and 2015, this paper explores the social implications of budget shortfalls in the healthcare system at the level of a regional hospital. Budget crises resulted from the late disbursal of funds and the failure of outside donors to meet aid commitments needed to subsidize healthcare at the national level. Healthcare administrators recounted specific donors who pulled out of commitments as a direct result of foreign government austerity measures enacted after the global financial crisis of 2008...
February 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199816/survival-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-among-periviable-infants
#14
Noelle Younge, Ricki F Goldstein, Carla M Bann, Susan R Hintz, Ravi M Patel, P Brian Smith, Edward F Bell, Matthew A Rysavy, Andrea F Duncan, Betty R Vohr, Abhik Das, Ronald N Goldberg, Rosemary D Higgins, C Michael Cotten
Background Data reported during the past 5 years indicate that rates of survival have increased among infants born at the borderline of viability, but less is known about how increased rates of survival among these infants relate to early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods We compared survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes among infants born at 22 to 24 weeks of gestation, as assessed at 18 to 22 months of corrected age, across three consecutive birth-year epochs (2000-2003 [epoch 1], 2004-2007 [epoch 2], and 2008-2011 [epoch 3])...
16, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197815/choosing-not-to-undergo-predictive-genetic-testing-for-hereditary-colorectal-cancer-syndromes-expanding-our-understanding-of-decliners-and-declining
#15
Louise A Keogh, Heather Niven, Alison Rutstein, Louisa Flander, Clara Gaff, Mark Jenkins
While medical research continues to investigate the genetic basis of cancer, and personalised prevention gains momentum, little research has been conducted with the individuals who decline predictive genetic testing for cancer. We recruited individuals who had been offered genetic testing for Lynch syndrome or bi-allelic MUTYH mutations due to their participation in a large, population-based, Australia-wide colorectal cancer study. Thirty-three individuals in mutation-carrying families, unaffected by cancer, who had actively or passively declined testing at one of four decision-making points, took part in a qualitative interview about their decision...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196521/comparison-of-two-independent-systematic-reviews-of-trials-of-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-rhbmp-2-the-yale-open-data-access-medtronic-project
#16
Jeffrey Low, Joseph S Ross, Jessica D Ritchie, Cary P Gross, Richard Lehman, Haiqun Lin, Rongwei Fu, Lesley A Stewart, Harlan M Krumholz
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether the replication of systematic reviews, particularly those with the same objectives and resources, would employ similar methods and/or arrive at identical findings. We compared the results and conclusions of two concurrent systematic reviews undertaken by two independent research teams provided with the same objectives, resources, and individual participant-level data. METHODS: Two centers in the USA and UK were each provided with participant-level data on 17 multi-site clinical trials of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)...
February 15, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196489/what-is-a-hospital-bed-day-worth-a-contingent-valuation-study-of-hospital-chief-executive-officers
#17
Katie Page, Adrain G Barnett, Nicholas Graves
BACKGROUND: Decreasing hospital length of stay, and so freeing up hospital beds, represents an important cost saving which is often used in economic evaluations. The savings need to be accurately quantified in order to make optimal health care resource allocation decisions. Traditionally the accounting cost of a bed is used. We argue instead that the economic cost of a bed day is the better value for making resource decisions, and we describe our valuation method and estimations for costing this important resource...
February 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195698/structure-based-targeting-of-orthologous-pathogen-proteins-accelerates-anti-parasitic-drug-discovery
#18
Vitul Jain, Arvind Sharma, Gajinder Pal Singh, Manickam Yogavel, Amit Sharma
Parasitic diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens impose significant health and economic burden worldwide. The level of research funding available for many parasitic diseases is insufficient in relation to their adverse social impact. Here, we review the extant 3D structural data on protein-inhibitor complexes that can be harnessed to accelerate drug discovery against many related pathogens. Assessment of sequence conservation within drug/inhibitor-binding residues in enzyme-inhibitor complexes can be leveraged to predict and validate both new lead compounds and their molecular targets in multiple parasitic diseases...
February 14, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194870/participation-in-clinical-trials-improves-outcomes-in-women-s-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
S K Nijjar, M I D'Amico, N A Wimalaweera, Nam Cooper, J Zamora, K S Khan
BACKGROUND: Previous reviews examining the effect of participation in trials on outcomes have not consistently shown benefit. Obstetrics and gynaecology is a unique disease area posing challenges for both researchers and patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether participation in randomised controlled trials (RCTs), compared with non-participation, has a beneficial effect on women's health. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo were searched up to December 2015...
February 14, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194230/what-are-the-personal-and-professional-characteristics-that-distinguish-the-researchers-who-publish-in-high-and-low-impact-journals-a-multi-national-web-based-survey
#20
Carlos Eduardo Paiva, Raphael L C Araujo, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro Paiva, Cristiano de Pádua Souza, Flavio Mavignier Cárcano, Marina Moreira Costa, Sérgio Vicente Serrano, João Paulo Nogueira Lima
PURPOSE: This study identifies the personal and professional profiles of researchers with a greater potential to publish high-impact academic articles. METHOD: The study involved conducting an international survey of journal authors using a web-based questionnaire. The survey examined personal characteristics, funding, and the perceived barriers of research quality, work-life balance, and satisfaction and motivation in relation to career. The processes of manuscript writing and journal publication were measured using an online questionnaire that was developed for this study...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
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