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Pulmonary Emphysema subtype

Jie Yang, Xinyang Feng, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine, Jie Yang, Xinyang Feng, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine, Xinyang Feng, Jie Yang, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine
Automated texture analysis of lung computed tomography (CT) images is a critical tool in subtyping pulmonary emphysema and diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Texton-based methods encode lung textures with nearest-texton frequency histograms, and have achieved high performance for supervised classification of emphysema subtypes from annotated lung CT images. In this work, we first explore characterizing lung textures with sparse decomposition from texton dictionaries, using different regularization strategies, and then extend the sparsity-inducing constraint to the construction of the dictionaries...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
John M Craig, Alan L Scott, Wayne Mitzner
The cellular mechanisms that result in the initiation and progression of emphysema are clearly complex. A growing body of human data combined with discoveries from mouse models utilizing cigarette smoke exposure or protease administration have improved our understanding of emphysema development by implicating specific cell types that may be important for the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most important aspects of emphysematous damage appear to be oxidative or protease stress and sustained macrophage activation and infiltration of other immune cells leading to epithelial damage and cell death...
February 6, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
Matthew Triplette, Engi F Attia, Kathleen M Akgün, Guy W Soo Hoo, Matthew S Freiberg, Adeel A Butt, Cherry Wongtrakool, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Sheldon T Brown, Christopher J Graber, Laurence Huang, Kristina Crothers
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of emphysema is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals compared to HIV-uninfected persons. While greater tobacco use contributes, HIV-related effects on immunity likely confer additional risk. Low peripheral blood CD4+ to CD8+ T-lymphocyte (CD4/CD8) ratio may reflect chronic inflammation in HIV and may be a marker of chronic lung disease in this population. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly the emphysema subtype, in a cohort of HIV+ subjects...
2017: PloS One
James C Ross, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Junxiang Chen, Yale Chang, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
We introduce a novel Bayesian nonparametric model that uses the concept of disease trajectories for disease subtype identification. Although our model is general, we demonstrate that by treating fractions of tissue patterns derived from medical images as compositional data, our model can be applied to study distinct progression trends between population subgroups. Specifically, we apply our algorithm to quantitative emphysema measurements obtained from chest CT scans in the COPDGene Study and show several distinct progression patterns...
September 13, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
James C Ross, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Junxiang Chen, Yale Chang, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
We introduce a novel Bayesian nonparametric model that uses the concept of disease trajectories for disease subtype identification. Although our model is general, we demonstrate that by treating fractions of tissue patterns derived from medical images as compositional data, our model can be applied to study distinct progression trends between population subgroups. Specifically, we apply our algorithm to quantitative emphysema measurements obtained from chest CT scans in the COPDGene Study and show several distinct progression patterns...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Li Gao, Sheng Xie, Hui Liu, Pingping Liu, Yan Xiong, Jiping Da, Chengli Que, Huaping Dai, Chen Wang
OBJECTIVE: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a newly defined entity that comprises upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Patients with CPFE are at high risk for lung cancer and have poor prognoses. To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of lung cancer with CPFE, lung cancers with CPFE and Non-CPFE interstitial lung disease (ILD) were reevaluated by 2015 WHO classification and compared. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with histologically proven lung cancer were selected from the database of two institutional medical centers...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Kristoffer Ostridge, Nicholas Williams, Viktoriya Kim, Stephen Harden, Simon Bourne, Ngaire A Coombs, Paul T Elkington, Raul San Jose Estepar, George Washko, Karl J Staples, Tom M A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is characterised by distinct pathological sub-types, but little is known about the divergent underlying aetiology. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that can degrade the extracellular matrix and have been identified as potentially important in the development of emphysema. However, the relationship between MMPs and emphysema sub-type is unknown. We investigated the role of MMPs and their inhibitors in the development of emphysema sub-types by quantifying levels and determining relationships with these sub-types in mild-moderate COPD patients and ex/current smokers with preserved lung function...
July 26, 2016: Respiratory Research
Álvaro Mena, Héctor Meijide, Pedro J Marcos
The widespread use of HAART for persons living with HIV since 1996 has resulted in a dramatic decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, other comorbidities are increasing, such as metabolic disturbances or cancers, including solid organ malignancies. Among the latest, lung cancer, especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, is on the rise. HIV infection, even controlling for smoking, is an independent risk factor for developing lung cancer. HIV could promote lung cancers through immunosuppression, chronic inflammation, and a direct oncogenic effect...
July 2016: AIDS Reviews
Asger Dirksen, Mathilde M W Wille
Computed tomography (CT) is an obvious modality for subclassification of COPD. Traditionally, the pulmonary involvement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers is understood as a combination of deleterious effects of smoking on small airways (chronic bronchitis and small airways disease) and distal to the airways with destruction and loss of lung parenchyma (emphysema). However, segmentation of airways is still experimental; with contemporary high-resolution CT (HRCT) we can just see the "entrance" of small airways, and until now changes in airway morphology that have been observed in COPD are subtle...
April 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Rola Harmouche, James C Ross, Alejandro A Diaz, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We propose a novel single index for the quantification of emphysema severity based on an aggregation of multiple computed tomographic features evident in the lung parenchyma of smokers. Our goal was to demonstrate that this single index provides complementary information to the current standard measure of emphysema, percent emphysema (percent low attenuation areas [LAA%]), and may be superior in its association with clinically relevant outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inputs to our algorithm were objective assessments of multiple emphysema subtypes (normal tissue; panlobular; paraseptal; and mild, moderate, and severe centrilobular emphysema)...
April 2016: Academic Radiology
B Storbeck, T H Schröder, M Oldigs, K F Rabe, C Weber
UNLABELLED: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type ("bronchitis") on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required...
July 2015: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
David A Lynch, John H M Austin, James C Hogg, Philippe A Grenier, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Alexander A Bankier, R Graham Barr, Thomas V Colby, Jeffrey R Galvin, Pierre Alain Gevenois, Harvey O Coxson, Eric A Hoffman, John D Newell, Massimo Pistolesi, Edwin K Silverman, James D Crapo
The purpose of this statement is to describe and define the phenotypic abnormalities that can be identified on visual and quantitative evaluation of computed tomographic (CT) images in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with the goal of contributing to a personalized approach to the treatment of patients with COPD. Quantitative CT is useful for identifying and sequentially evaluating the extent of emphysematous lung destruction, changes in airway walls, and expiratory air trapping. However, visual assessment of CT scans remains important to describe patterns of altered lung structure in COPD...
October 2015: Radiology
Tetsuro Araki, Mizuki Nishino, Oscar E Zazueta, Wei Gao, Josée Dupuis, Yuka Okajima, Jeanne C Latourelle, Ivan O Rosas, Takamichi Murakami, George T O'Connor, George R Washko, Gary M Hunninghake, Hiroto Hatabu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema...
July 2015: European Journal of Radiology
Stephen I Rennard, Nicholas Locantore, Bruno Delafont, Ruth Tal-Singer, Edwin K Silverman, Jørgen Vestbo, Bruce E Miller, Per Bakke, Bartolomé Celli, Peter M A Calverley, Harvey Coxson, Courtney Crim, Lisa D Edwards, David A Lomas, William MacNee, Emiel F M Wouters, Julie C Yates, Ignacio Coca, Alvar Agustí
RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease that likely includes clinically relevant subgroups. OBJECTIVES: To identify subgroups of COPD in ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) subjects using cluster analysis and to assess clinically meaningful outcomes of the clusters during 3 years of longitudinal follow-up. METHODS: Factor analysis was used to reduce 41 variables determined at recruitment in 2,164 patients with COPD to 13 main factors, and the variables with the highest loading were used for cluster analysis...
March 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Hayrettin Gocmen, Dane Ediger, Esra Uzaslan, Selim Doganay, Nevin Ay Guney, Ercument Ege
OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition, which is a complication frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and negatively affects prognosis, has become a parameter that must be monitored. Even though various methods are applied to assess malnutrition, biochemical parameters, especially serum prealbumin levels, are useful. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationships between serum prealbumin levels, which we used as an indicator of malnutrition, with the severity of disease and the parameters predicting emphysema in stable COPD patients with no additional health problems were determined in this prospective study...
December 2010: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Kelly Suzanne Burrowes, Tom Doel, Chris Brightling
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by airway obstruction and airflow imitation and pose a huge burden to society. These obstructive lung diseases impact the lung physiology across multiple biological scales. Environmental stimuli are introduced via inhalation at the organ scale, and consequently impact upon the tissue, cellular and sub-cellular scale by triggering signaling pathways. These changes are propagated upwards to the organ level again and vice versa. In order to understand the pathophysiology behind these diseases we need to integrate and understand changes occurring across these scales and this is the driving force for multiscale computational modeling...
November 28, 2014: Journal of Translational Medicine
Steven M Kawut, Hooman D Poor, Megha A Parikh, Katja Hueper, Benjamin M Smith, David A Bluemke, João A C Lima, Martin R Prince, Eric A Hoffman, John H M Austin, Jens Vogel-Claussen, R Graham Barr
BACKGROUND: The classic cardiovascular complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is cor pulmonale or right ventricular (RV) enlargement. Most studies of cor pulmonale were conducted decades ago. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine RV changes in contemporary COPD and emphysema using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. METHODS: We performed a case-control study nested predominantly in 2 general population studies of 310 participants with COPD and control subjects 50 to 79 years of age with ≥10 pack-years of smoking who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease...
November 11, 2014: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Craig P Hersh, Barry J Make, David A Lynch, R Graham Barr, Russell P Bowler, Peter M A Calverley, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Harvey O Coxson, Dawn L DeMeo, Marilyn G Foreman, MeiLan K Han, Benjamin J Harshfield, John E Hokanson, Sharon Lutz, Joe W Ramsdell, Elizabeth A Regan, Stephen I Rennard, Joyce D Schroeder, Frank C Sciurba, Robert M Steiner, Ruth Tal-Singer, Edwin van Beek, Edwin K Silverman, James D Crapo
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been classically divided into blue bloaters and pink puffers. The utility of these clinical subtypes is unclear. However, the broader distinction between airway-predominant and emphysema-predominant COPD may be clinically relevant. The objective was to define clinical features of emphysema-predominant and non-emphysematous COPD patients. METHODS: Current and former smokers from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study (COPDGene) had chest computed tomography (CT) scans with quantitative image analysis...
October 24, 2014: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Jin Hwa Lee, Michael H Cho, Merry-Lynn N McDonald, Craig P Hersh, Peter J Castaldi, James D Crapo, Emily S Wan, Jennifer G Dy, Yale Chang, Elizabeth A Regan, Megan Hardin, Dawn L DeMeo, Edwin K Silverman
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by marked phenotypic heterogeneity. Most previous studies have focused on COPD subjects with FEV1 < 80% predicted. We investigated the clinical and genetic heterogeneity in subjects with mild airflow limitation in spirometry grade 1 defined by the Global Initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 1). METHODS: Data from current and former smokers participating in the COPDGene Study (NCT00608764) were analyzed...
October 2014: Respiratory Medicine
Emily S Wan, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, John E Hokanson, Elizabeth A Regan, Barry J Make, Terri H Beaty, MeiLan K Han, Jeffrey L Curtis, Douglas Curran-Everett, David A Lynch, Dawn L DeMeo, James D Crapo, Edwin K Silverman
BACKGROUND: Preserved Ratio Impaired Spirometry (PRISm), defined as a reduced FEV1 in the setting of a preserved FEV1/FVC ratio, is highly prevalent and is associated with increased respiratory symptoms, systemic inflammation, and mortality. Studies investigating quantitative chest tomographic features, genetic associations, and subtypes in PRISm subjects have not been reported. METHODS: Data from current and former smokers enrolled in COPDGene (n = 10,192), an observational, cross-sectional study which recruited subjects aged 45-80 with ≥10 pack years of smoking, were analyzed...
August 6, 2014: Respiratory Research
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