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Legionella incubation

K D Lucas, C Wheeler, P McLendon, B N Leistikow, J C Mohle-Boetani
A large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease occurred at a California state prison in August 2015. We conducted environmental and epidemiological investigations to identify the most likely source of exposure and characterise morbidity. Sixty-four inmates had probable Legionnaires' disease; 14 had laboratory-confirmed legionellosis. Thirteen (17%) inmates were hospitalised; there were no deaths. Ill inmates were more likely to be ⩾65 years old (P < 0.01), have the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < 0...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Natalia Valero, Mercè de Simón, Pau Gallés, Neus Izquierdo, Jaume Arimon, Raquel González, Sandra Manzanares-Laya, Ingrid Avellanes, Anna Gómez
In 2015, Legionnaires' disease was diagnosed in a street cleaning worker. We found Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in the water and internal foam from the tanks of 2 trucks used by the worker during the incubation period. The internal foam was removed, and a Legionella prevention program was implemented.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Harm R Veenendaal, Anke J Brouwer-Hanzens, Dick van der Kooij
Worldwide, over 90% of the notified cases of Legionnaires' disease are caused by Legionella pneumophila. However, the standard culture medium for the detection of Legionella in environmental water samples, Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract (BCYE) agar of pH 6.9 ± 0.4 with or without antimicrobial agents incubated at 36 ± 1 °C, supports the growth of a large diversity of Legionella species. BCYE agar of elevated pH or/and incubation at elevated temperature gave strongly reduced recoveries of most of 26 L...
October 15, 2017: Water Research
Martina Oder, Rok Fink, Klemen Bohinc, Karmen Godič Torkar
Bacterial adhesion is a complex process influenced by many factors, including hydrodynamic conditions. They affect the transfer of oxygen, nutrients, and bacterial cells in a water supply and cooling systems. The aim of this study was to identify hydrodynamic effects on bacterial adhesion to and detachment from stainless steel surfaces. For this purpose we observed the behaviour of bacterium L. pneumophila in no-flow and laminar and turbulent flow conditions simulated in a fluid flow chamber. The bacterial growth in no-flow and laminar flow conditions was almost identical in the first 24 h, while at 48 and 72 h of incubation, the laminar flow stimulated bacterial growth...
June 27, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Julian Schmid, Katharina Hoenes, Monika Rath, Petra Vatter, Martin Hessling
Background: Despite the great health significance of Legionella, there is only little information on their UV sensitivity. Besides Legionella pneumophila only L. longbeachae has been investigated so far. Methods: In this study L. rubrilucens has been spread on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar and irradiated with the 254 nm UV-C emission of a mercury vapor lamp. The disinfection success is measured by colony counting after incubation and comparison of the number of colonies on irradiated and unirradiated reference agar plates...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Paul Badoux, Sjoerd M Euser, Jacob P Bruin, Patrick P G Mulder, Ed P F Yzerman
In this study, we compared the bioNexia test (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France), a new immunochromatographic assay for the detection of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in urine, with the BinaxNOW urinary antigen test (Alere, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). After 15 min of incubation (in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions), the sensitivities and specificities were, respectively, 76.5% and 97.2% for the bioNexia test and 87.1% and 100% for the BinaxNOW test. After a prolonged incubation time of 60 min, the sensitivities and specificities increased to, respectively, 89...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
C Schönning, C Jernberg, D Klingenberg, S Andersson, A Pääjärvi, E Alm, E Tano, B Lytsy
In 2012, an elderly immunocompromised man died from legionellosis at a hospital in Uppsala, Sweden. The patient had visited a dental ward at the hospital during the incubation period. Legionella spp. at a concentration of 2000 colony-forming units/L were isolated from the cupfiller outlet providing water for oral rinsing. Isolates from the patient and the dental unit were Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, subgroup Knoxville and ST9. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing strongly suggested that the isolates were of common origin...
May 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
Helen Y Buse, Frank W Schaefer, Eugene W Rice
Transmission of Francisella tularensis, the etiologic agent of tularemia, has been associated with various water sources. Survival of many waterborne pathogens within free-living amoeba (FLA) is well documented; however, the role of amoebae in the environmental persistence of F. tularensis is unclear. In this study, axenic FLA cultures of Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Vermamoeba vermiformis were each inoculated with virulent strains of F. tularensis (Types A and B), the attenuated live vaccine strain, and Francisella novicida...
March 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Louise K Francois Watkins, Karrie-Ann E Toews, Aaron M Harris, Sherri Davidson, Stephanie Ayers-Millsap, Claressa E Lucas, Brian C Hubbard, Natalia A Kozak-Muiznieks, Edward Khan, Preeta K Kutty
OBJECTIVES To define the scope of an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD), to identify the source, and to stop transmission. DESIGN AND SETTING Epidemiologic investigation of an LD outbreak among patients and a visitor exposed to a newly constructed hematology-oncology unit. METHODS An LD case was defined as radiographically confirmed pneumonia in a person with positive urinary antigen testing and/or respiratory culture for Legionella and exposure to the hematology-oncology unit after February 20, 2014. Cases were classified as definitely or probably healthcare-associated based on whether they were exposed to the unit for all or part of the incubation period (2-10 days)...
December 6, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Thorsten Dilger, Holger Melzl, André Gessner
Detection and enumeration of Legionella bacteria in drinking water is regulated in Germany by ISO 11731-2. The mandatory method for species identification employs parallel subculturing of suspicious colonies on selective media requiring the handling of a large number of cultivation plates. After changes to the drinking water quality regulation in Germany in 2012 the demand for Legionella contamination testing increased drastically. A more reliable, faster and less laborious method for species identification is therefore desirable...
August 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Bidya Prasad, Kerry A Hamilton, Charles N Haas
A novel method was used to incorporate in vivo host-pathogen dynamics into a new robust outbreak model for legionellosis. Dose-response and time-dose-response (TDR) models were generated for Legionella longbeachae exposure to mice via the intratracheal route using a maximum likelihood estimation approach. The best-fit TDR model was then incorporated into two L. pneumophila outbreak models: an outbreak that occurred at a spa in Japan, and one that occurred in a Melbourne aquarium. The best-fit TDR from the murine dosing study was the beta-Poisson with exponential-reciprocal dependency model, which had a minimized deviance of 32...
February 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Anna Lena Jung, Cornelia Stoiber, Christina E Herkt, Christine Schulz, Wilhelm Bertrams, Bernd Schmeck
The formation and release of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a phenomenon of Gram-negative bacteria. This includes Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), a causative agent of severe pneumonia. Upon its transmission into the lung, L. pneumophila primarily infects and replicates within macrophages. Here, we analyzed the influence of L. pneumophila OMVs on macrophages. To this end, differentiated THP-1 cells were incubated with increasing doses of Legionella OMVs, leading to a TLR2-dependent classical activation of macrophages with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
April 2016: PLoS Pathogens
María Reyes-Batlle, Carolina Wagner, Jonadab Zamora-Herrera, Alejandro Vargas-Mesa, Ines Sifaoui, Ana C González, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed protozoa in the environment and have been isolated from many sources such as dust, soil and water. Furthermore, some genera/species of FLA such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. are also able to cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals. More recently, FLA have been reported to be environmental carriers of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses, and thus have gained further importance from the public health point of view...
July 2016: Current Microbiology
Jessie A Gleason, Natalie R Kratz, Rebecca D Greeley, Jerald A Fagliano
The incidence of legionellosis, caused by the bacteria Legionella which are commonly found in the environment, has been increasing in New Jersey (NJ) over the last decade. The majority of cases are sporadic with no known source of exposure. Meteorological factors may be associated with increases in legionellosis. Time series and case-crossover study designs were used to evaluate associations of legionellosis and meteorological factors (temperature (daily minimum, maximum, and mean), precipitation, dew point, relative humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed (daily maximum and mean), gust, and visibility)...
June 2016: EcoHealth
Aruna Dorairaj, Sridharan Sathyamoorthy Kopula, Kennedy Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is one of the leading infectious causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Atypical respiratory pathogens account for 30 - 40% of these infections. The three most important atypical pathogens are Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila. AIM: To screen for atypical pathogens as cause for community acquired pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done with 107 patients who had clinical suspicion of atypical pneumonia...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Masoumeh Ahmadi Jalali Moghadam, Hamidreza Honarmand, Sajad Asfaram Meshginshahr
This study is designed to determine the contamination degree of hospital water supplies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, and E. coli in Gilan, Iran. Samples were collected directly into sterile containers and concentrated by centrifuge. Half part of any sample transferred to yeast extract broth and the second part transferred to Trypticase Soy Broth and incubated for 3 days. DNA was extracted by using commercial kit. Four rounds of PCR were performed as follows: multiplex PCR for detecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Integron 1, and Metallo-β-lactamases gene; PCR for detecting Legionella pneumophila and mip gene separately; PCR for detecting E...
2015: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Nilmini Mendis, Peter McBride, Sébastien P Faucher
Legionella pneumophila (Lp) is the etiological agent responsible for Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal pulmonary infection. Lp lives and multiplies inside protozoa in a variety of natural and man-made water systems prior to human infection. Fraquil, a defined freshwater medium, was used as a highly reproducible medium to study the behaviour of Lp in water. Adopting a reductionist approach, Fraquil was used to study the impact of temperature, pH and trace metal levels on the survival and subsequent intracellular multiplication of Lp in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a freshwater protozoan and a natural host of Legionella...
2015: PloS One
Miriam Martín, Pedro Salazar, Carmen Jiménez, María Lecuona, Ma José Ramos, Jesús Ode, Julia Alcoba, Rossany Roche, Reynaldo Villalonga, Susana Campuzano, José Manuel Pingarrón, José Luis González-Mora
A novel amperometric magnetoimmunoassay, based on the use of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles and screen-printed carbon electrodes, was developed for the selective determination of Legionella pneumophila SG1. A specific capture antibody (Ab) was linked to the poly(dopamine)-modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs@pDA-Ab) and incubated with bacteria. The captured bacteria were sandwiched using the antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase (Ab-HRP), and the resulting MNPs@pDA-Ab-Legionella neumophila-Ab-HRP were captured by a magnetic field on the electrode surface...
August 5, 2015: Analytica Chimica Acta
Osvalda De Giglio, Christian Napoli, Grazia Lovero, Giusy Diella, Serafina Rutigliano, Giuseppina Caggiano, Maria Teresa Montagna
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the susceptibility of environmental strains of Legionella spp. to 10 antimicrobials commonly used for legionellosis therapy. A study of environmental strains could be useful to timely predict the onset of antibiotic resistance in the environment before it is evidenced in clinical specimens. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 100 environmental Legionella pneumophila (Lpn) strains belonging to serogroups (sgs) 1, 6, 8, and 10 were tested using the E-test methodology on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar supplemented with α-ketoglutarate...
October 2015: Environmental Research
S Collins, F Jorgensen, C Willis, J Walker
AIMS: Culture remains the gold-standard for the enumeration of environmental Legionella. However, it has several drawbacks including long incubation and poor sensitivity, causing delays in response times to outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. This study aimed to validate real-time PCR assays to quantify Legionella species (ssrA gene), Legionella pneumophila (mip gene) and Leg. pneumophila serogroup-1 (wzm gene) to support culture-based detection in a frontline public health laboratory...
October 2015: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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