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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930542/deep-brain-stimulation-foundations-and-future-trends
#1
David J Aum, Travis S Tierney
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a revolutionary treatment option for essential tremor (ET), Parkinson's disease (PD), idiopathic dystonia, and severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This article reviews the historical foundations of DBS including basal ganglia pathophysiological models, classic principles of electrical stimulation, technical components of the DBS system, treatment risks, and future directions for DBS. Chronic high frequency stimulation induces a number of functional changes from fast physiological to slower metabolic effects and ultimately leads to structural reorganization of the brain, so-called neuroplasticity...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926496/essential-tremor-parkinson-disease-recognizing-the-differences
#2
Gwyn M Vernon, Cheryl Leiningen, Cathi A Thomas, Susan Rebecca Dunlop
Tremor is a common movement disorder in adults and older adults. There are many different types of tremor and many conditions that present with tremor as a symptom. This article discusses the causes of tremor, and through the use of a case study, helps NPs understand the assessment of tremor and differentiate two common neurologic disorders that can present with tremor: essential tremor and Parkinson disease.
October 18, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922189/acr-acnm-practice-parameter-for-the-performance-of-dopamine-transporter-dat-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-for-movement-disorders
#3
Rathan M Subramaniam, Kirk A Frey, Christopher H Hunt, Gustavo A Mercier, Lilja B Solnes, Patrick M Colletti, Yang Lu, Bital Savir-Baruch, Hadyn T Williams
This American College of Radiology and American College of Nuclear Medicine joint clinical practice parameter is for performance of dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, for patients with movement disorders. Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) consists of a group of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson disease (PD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Accurate diagnosis of PS is critical for clinical management...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922166/clinical-tremor-severity-estimation-using-an-instrumented-eating-utensil
#4
Svjetlana Miocinovic, Ali H Shoeb, Sarah Wang, Erica A Byrd, Nicole C Swann, Anupam Pathak, Jill L Ostrem
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: We demonstrate the feasibility of estimating clinical tremor scores using an eating utensil with motion-sensing and tremor-cancellation technology in thirteen patients with tremor. METHODS: Three experts scored hand tremor using the modified Fahn-Tolosa-Marin (FTM) scale. A linear model was trained to estimate tremor severity using the recorded motion signals. RESULTS: The average neurologist FTM score was 1.6±0.7 for PD and 2...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917524/tremor-dominant-kyoto-trdk-rats-carry-a-missense-mutation-in-the-gene-encoding-the-sk2-subunit-of-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channel
#5
Takashi Kuramoto, Mayuko Yokoe, Naofumi Kunisawa, Kana Ohashi, Takahito Miyake, Yuki Higuchi, Kazuto Yoshimi, Tomoji Mashimo, Miyuu Tanaka, Mitusru Kuwamura, Shuji Kaneko, Saki Shimizu, Tadao Serikawa, Yukihiro Ohno
Tremor dominant Kyoto (Trdk) is an autosomal dominant mutation that appeared in F344/NSlc rats mutagenized with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). In this study, we characterized and genetically analyzed F344-Trdk/+ heterozygous rats. The rats exhibited a tremor that was especially evident around weaning but persisted throughout life. The tremors of F344-Trdk/+ rats were attenuated by drugs effective against essential tremor (ET) but not drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease-related tremor, indicating that the pharmacological phenotype of F344-Trdk/+ rats was similar to human ET...
September 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917284/neurosurgical-applications-of-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-with-magnetic-resonance-thermometry
#6
REVIEW
Rivka R Colen, Iman Sahnoune, Jeffrey S Weinberg
Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) has potential noninvasive effects on targeted tissue. MRgFUS integrates MRI and focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) into a single platform. MRI enables visualization of the target tissue and monitors ultrasound-induced effects in near real-time during FUS treatment. MRgFUS may serve as an adjunct or replace invasive surgery and radiotherapy for specific conditions. Its thermal effects ablate tumors in locations involved in movement disorders and essential tremors...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913163/general-and-selective-brain-connectivity-alterations-in-essential-tremor-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#7
Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Martina Hoskovcová, Olga Ulmanová, Dušan Urgošík, Josef Vymazal, Evžen Růžička
Although essential tremor is the most common movement disorder, there is little knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease. Therefore, we explored brain connectivity based on slow spontaneous fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in patients with essential tremor (ET). A cohort of 19 ET patients and 23 healthy individuals were scanned in resting condition using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). General connectivity was assessed by eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906575/prevalence-correlates-and-impact-of-pain-and-cramps-in-anti-mag-neuropathy-a-multicentre-european-study
#8
Yusuf A Rajabally, Emilien Delmont, Fu Liong Hiew, Anne-Catherine Aubé-Nathier, Aude-Marie Grapperon, Julien Cassereau, Shahram Attarian
BACKGROUND: The frequency of pain and cramps is uncertain in anti-MAG (Anti-myelin associated glycoprotein antibody) neuropathy. Whether these symptoms may affect function/quality of life is unknown. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of the prevalence, correlates and impact of pain, pain subtypes and cramps, their severity, frequency and anatomical distribution, in 55 clinically stable patients with anti-MAG neuropathy. RESULTS: Pain of any type was reported by 80% of subjects...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905504/is-essential-tremor-a-single-entity
#9
Franziska Hopfner, Günther Deuschl
Essential tremor (ET) is a frequent movement disorder. A new tremor classification has subdivided ET, into the classical form with bilateral action tremor of the hands with or without involvement of further tremor locations and without any other explaining signs or symptoms for the tremor and into 'ET plus' which comes additionally with further neurologic signs of unknown origin. This will provide a better foundation for subclassifying the condition. The immediate cause of ET is a preformed oscillating network within the central nervous system as revealed with electrophysiologic methods...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904095/distinct-roles-for-motor-neuron-autophagy-early-and-late-in-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-als
#10
Noam D Rudnick, Christopher J Griffey, Paolo Guarnieri, Valeria Gerbino, Xueyong Wang, Jason A Piersaint, Juan Carlos Tapia, Mark M Rich, Tom Maniatis
Mutations in autophagy genes can cause familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the role of autophagy in ALS pathogenesis is poorly understood, in part due to the lack of cell type-specific manipulations of this pathway in animal models. Using a mouse model of ALS expressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1(G93A)), we show that motor neurons form large autophagosomes containing ubiquitinated aggregates early in disease progression. To investigate whether this response is protective or detrimental, we generated mice in which the critical autophagy gene Atg7 was specifically disrupted in motor neurons (Atg7 cKO)...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899012/reply-neuronal-intranuclear-hyaline-inclusion-disease-and-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome-a-morphological-and-molecular-dilemma
#11
Jun Sone, Tomohiko Nakamura, Haruki Koike, Masahisa Katsuno, Fumiaki Tanaka, Yasushi Iwasaki, Mari Yoshida, Gen Sobue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899011/neuronal-intranuclear-hyaline-inclusion-disease-and-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome-a-morphological-and-molecular-dilemma
#12
Ellen Gelpi, Teresa Botta-Orfila, Laia Bodi, Stefanie Marti, Gabor Kovacs, Oriol Grau-Rivera, Manuel Lozano, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Esteban Muñoz, Francesc Valldeoriola, Javier Pagonabarraga, Gian-Gaetano Tartaglia, Montserrat Milà
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898869/disrupted-brain-network-hubs-in-subtype-specific-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Ling-Yan Ma, Xiao-Dan Chen, Yong He, Hui-Zi Ma, Tao Feng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The topological organization of brain functional networks is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the altered patterns of functional network hubs in different subtypes of PD are not completely understood. METHODS: 3T resting-state functional MRI and voxel-based graph-theory analysis were employed to systematically investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of whole-brain networks. We enrolled 31 patients with PD (12 tremor dominant [TD] and 19 with postural instability/gait difficulty [PIGD]) and 22 matched healthy controls...
August 25, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891942/automatic-classification-of-tremor-severity-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-a-wearable-device
#14
Hyoseon Jeon, Woongwoo Lee, Hyeyoung Park, Hong Ji Lee, Sang Kyong Kim, Han Byul Kim, Beomseok Jeon, Kwang Suk Park
Although there is clinical demand for new technology that can accurately measure Parkinsonian tremors, automatic scoring of Parkinsonian tremors using machine-learning approaches has not yet been employed. This study aims to fill this gap by proposing machine-learning algorithms as a way to predict the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which are similar to how neurologists rate scores in actual clinical practice. In this study, the tremor signals of 85 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) were measured using a wrist-watch-type wearable device consisting of an accelerometer and a gyroscope...
September 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889266/occupational-metal-exposure-and-parkinsonism
#15
W Michael Caudle
Parkinsonism is comprised of a host of neurological disorders with an underlying clinical feature of movement disorder, which includes many shared features of bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity. These clinical outcomes occur subsequent to pathological deficits focused on degeneration or dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopamine system and accompanying pathological inclusions of alpha-synuclein and tau. The heterogeneity of parkinsonism is equally matched with the complex etiology of this syndrome. While a small percentage can be attributed to genetic alterations, the majority arise from an environmental exposure, generally composed of pesticides, industrial compounds, as well as metals...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888928/an-update-on-new-and-unique-uses-of-botulinum-toxin-in-movement-disorders
#16
Joseph Jankovic
The therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin (BoNT) have grown manifold since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, and other facial spasms. Although it is the most potent biologic toxin known to man, long-term studies have established its safety in the treatment of a variety of neurologic and non-neurologic disorders. This review focuses on some novel and uncommon uses of BoNT in the treatment of movement disorders, such as oromandibular dystonia, including bruxism, anterocollis, camptocormia, tremor, tics, tardive and levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and restless legs syndrome...
September 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888471/altered-expression-of-the-fmr1-splicing-variants-landscape-in-premutation-carriers
#17
Elizabeth Tseng, Hiu-Tung Tang, Reem Rafik AlOlaby, Luke Hickey, Flora Tassone
FMR1 premutation carriers (55-200 CGG repeats) are at risk for developing Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS), an adult onset neurodegenerative disorder. In addition, 20% of female carriers will develop Fragile X-associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (FXPOI), in addition to a number of clinical problems affecting premutation carriers throughout their life span. Marked elevation in FMR1 mRNA levels have been observed with premutation alleles resulting in RNA toxicity, the leading molecular mechanism proposed for the FMR1 associated disorders observed in premutation carriers...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887904/thirty-first-annual-symposium-on-etiology-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-parkinson-disease-and-other-movement-disorders-presented-by-the-parkinson-study-group-huntington-study-group-dystonia-study-group-tourette-syndrome-study-group-cooperative-ataxia-group
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886144/pharmacological-characterisation-of-s-47445-a-novel-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-ampa-receptors
#19
Sylvie Bretin, Caroline Louis, Laure Seguin, Stéphanie Wagner, Jean-Yves Thomas, Sylvie Challal, Nathalie Rogez, Karine Albinet, Fabrice Iop, Nadège Villain, Sonia Bertrand, Ali Krazem, Daniel Bérachochéa, Stéphanie Billiald, Charles Tordjman, Alex Cordi, Daniel Bertrand, Pierre Lestage, Laurence Danober
S 47445 is a novel positive allosteric modulator of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPA-PAM). S 47445 enhanced glutamate's action at AMPA receptors on human and rat receptors and was inactive at NMDA and kainate receptors. Potentiation did not differ among the different AMPA receptors subtypes (GluA1/2/4 flip and flop variants) (EC50 between 2.5-5.4 μM), except a higher EC50 value for GluA4 flop (0.7 μM) and a greater amount of potentiation on GluA1 flop. A low concentration of S 47445 (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884425/can-a-neurosteroid-ameliorate-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#20
EDITORIAL
Dejan B Budimirovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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