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Perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913388/perception-of-direct-vs-averted-gaze-in-portrait-paintings-an-fmri-and-eye-tracking-study
#1
Ladislav Kesner, Dominika Grygarová, Iveta Fajnerová, Jiří Lukavský, Tereza Nekovářová, Jaroslav Tintěra, Yuliya Zaytseva, Jiří Horáček
In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
June 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913382/the-perception-of-text-triggers-reflexive-oculomotor-orienting
#2
Keren Taub, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
As you read this text, your brain is busy integrating numerous different processes-perceptual, cognitive and motor. While you acquire the semantic and linguistic contents of this abstract, your eyes traverse its lines with speed and coordination. The oculomotor response to text is so rapid and precise that it is hypothesized it to be partially based on reflexive orienting mechanisms. In this study we examined the hypothesis that the presentation of written text triggers reflexive orienting toward the direction of reading, similarly to the effect of peripheral stimulation or that of symbolic directional cues (arrows or gazing eyes)...
May 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913330/discriminating-autism-and-language-impairment-and-specific-language-impairment-through-acuity-of-musical-imagery
#3
Pamela Heaton, Wai Fung Tsang, Kelly Jakubowski, Daniel Mullensiefen, Rory Allen
Deficits in auditory short-term memory have been widely reported in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and recent evidence suggests that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and co-morbid language impairment (ALI) experience similar difficulties. Music, like language relies on auditory memory and the aim of the study was to extend work investigating the impact of auditory short-term memory impairments to musical perception in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Groups of children with SLI and ALI were matched on chronological age (CA), receptive vocabulary, non-verbal intelligence and digit span, and compared with CA matched typically developing (TD) controls, on tests of pitch and temporal acuity within a voluntary musical imagery paradigm...
June 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913314/visual-similarity-modulates-visual-size-contrast
#4
N Bruno, G Garofalo, O Daneyko, L Riggio
Perception is relational: object properties are perceived in comparison to the spatiotemporal context rather than absolutely. This principle predicts well known contrast effects: For instance, the same sphere will feel smaller after feeling a larger sphere and larger after feeling a smaller sphere (the Uznadze effect). In a series of experiments, we used a visual version of the Uznadze effect to test whether such contrast effects can be modulated by organizational factors, such as the similarity between the contrasting inducer stimulus and the contrasted induced stimulus...
June 15, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913283/tuning-functions-for-automatic-detection-of-brief-changes-of-facial-expression-in-the-human-brain
#5
Arnaud Leleu, Milena Dzhelyova, Bruno Rossion, Renaud Brochard, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, Jean-Yves Baudouin
Efficient decoding of even brief and slight intensity facial expression changes is important for social interactions. However, robust evidence for the human brain ability to automatically detect brief and subtle changes of facial expression remains limited. Here we built on a recently developed paradigm in human electrophysiology with full-blown expressions (Dzhelyova et al., 2017), to isolate and quantify a neural marker for the detection of brief and subtle changes of facial expression. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 18 participants during stimulation of a neutral face changing randomly in size at a rapid rate of 6 Hz...
June 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913247/the-use-of-visual-cues-in-gravity-judgements-on-parabolic-motion
#6
Björn Jörges, Lena Slupinski, Joan López-Moliner
Evidence suggests that humans rely on an earth gravity prior for sensory-motor tasks like catching or reaching. Even under earth-discrepant conditions, this prior biases perception and action towards assuming a gravitational downwards acceleration of 9.81 m/s2 . This can be particularly detrimental in interactions with virtual environments employing earth-discrepant gravity conditions for their visual presentation. The present study thus investigates how well humans discriminate visually presented gravities and which cues they use to extract gravity from the visual scene...
June 15, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913245/spontaneous-recovery-and-time-course-of-biological-motion-adaptation
#7
Gaoxing Mei, Qi Yuan, Guoqing Liu, Yun Pan, Min Bao
Adaptation to changes of the environment is an essential function of the visual system. Recent studies have revealed that prolonged viewing of a point-light display of a human walker can produce the perception of a point-light walker facing in the opposite direction in a subsequent ambiguous test. Similar effects of biological motion adaptation have been documented for various properties of the point-light walkers. However, the time course and controlling mechanisms for biological motion adaptation have not yet been examined...
June 15, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913202/event-related-potentials-modulated-by-the-perception-of-sexual-dimorphism-the-influence-of-attractiveness-and-sex-of-faces
#8
M L Carrito, P Bem-Haja, C F Silva, D I Perrett, I M Santos
Sexual dimorphism has been proposed as one of the facial traits to have evolved through sexual selection and to affect attractiveness perception. Even with numerous studies documenting its effect on attractiveness and mate choice, the neurophysiological correlates of the perception of sexual dimorphism are not yet fully understood. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during visualisation of faces that had been previously transformed in shape to appear more masculine or more feminine...
June 15, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913179/tobacco-product-initiation-is-correlated-with-cross-product-changes-in-tobacco-harm-perception-and-susceptibility-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-youth-cohort
#9
Benjamin W Chaffee, Jing Cheng
Youth initiation with one tobacco product is associated with risk of using additional tobacco types. How use of one product potentially encourages use of others could result from changing tobacco-related perceptions. This study aimed to evaluate how tobacco product initiation correlates with changes in susceptibility (curiosity and willingness) and perceived harm of other tobacco products. For each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, hookah, and smokeless tobacco, youth (ages 12-16; N = 8005) rated perceived harm, curiosity, and willingness to try in Waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (United States, 2013-2015)...
June 15, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913096/what-does-it-take-to-graduate-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-perceptions-of-successful-physiotherapy-graduates-from-one-university-in-the-uk
#10
Elizabeth Cassidy, Meriel Norris, Annabel Williams
Little is known about the complex factors that underpin persistence and success for preregistration physiotherapy students. This article presents findings from a qualitative study which explored the perceptions of eight recent graduates from one UK university about their experiences of their physiotherapy undergraduate degree program, and what they considered important in their success. Data were collected via one-to-one, semi-structured interviews. An in-depth thematic analysis was undertaken from which three overarching themes were inferred...
June 18, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913093/recent-advances-in-the-etiology-and-treatment-of-burning-mouth-syndrome
#11
A Ritchie, J M Kramer
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a debilitating condition that has a striking female predilection. Although the oral mucosa is normal in appearance, patients with BMS experience oral burning that most commonly localizes to the lips and tongue. BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion, and all underlying pathoses associated with allodynia must be ruled out prior to rendering the diagnosis. The etiopathogenesis of BMS remains poorly understood, and thus patient management is challenging. Data indicate that oral and systemic factors both contribute to the development and persistence of the condition...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913052/measure-of-processes-of-care-mpoc-translation-and-validation-for-use-in-korea
#12
M An, J G Kim, J Kim
BACKGROUND: The measure of processes of care (MPOC) is a widely used instrument to assess parents' perception of the extent to which healthcare services they and their child receive are family centred. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Korean translation of the MPOC (Korean MPOC). METHODS: The Korean MPOC was completed by 198 parents of children receiving rehabilitation services in five provinces in South Korea. According to the Canadian validation procedures, analyses for internal consistency, construct and concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability were performed...
July 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912967/patients-perceptions-of-their-experiences-with-nurse-patient-communication-in-oncology-settings-a-focused-ethnographic-study
#13
Engle Angela Chan, Fiona Wong, Man Yin Cheung, Winsome Lam
BACKGROUND: The nursing shortage and its impact on patient care are well-documented global issues. Patients living with cancer as a chronic illness have many psychosocial problems and often lack adequate support as a result of ineffective nurse-patient communication. A review of the literature on factors influencing the delivery of psychosocial care to cancer patients indicates that the delivery of psychosocial care in routine cancer nursing within a biomedical healthcare system has not been widely explored...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912883/acceptability-of-hpv-vaccines-and-associations-with-perceptions-related-to-hpv-and-hpv-vaccines-among-male-baccalaureate-students-in-hong-kong
#14
Teris Cheung, Joseph T F Lau, Johnson Z Wang, P K H Mo, Y S Ho
OBJECTIVES: The highly infectious human papillomavirus (HPV) causes both genital warts and cervical cancer in women. In 2009, the prevalence of genital warts in Hong Kong was 203.7 per 100,000 person-years. Cervical cancer, more seriously, was the eight most common cancer among women and girls in Hong Kong, accounting for 2.3% of all new cancer cases in females in 2014. Cervical cancer is a significant global public health problem and HPV is a major risk factor leading to the development of cervical cancer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912858/effect-of-caffeine-on-sprint-cycling-in-experienced-cyclists
#15
Dawn E Anderson, Sarah E LeGrand, Reece D McCart
Anderson, DE, LeGrand, SE, and McCart, RD. Effect of caffeine on sprint cycling in experienced cyclists. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Research regarding the ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF) in anaerobic activity remains inconclusive. However, some researchers have found significant improvements in anaerobic performance when testing specifically trained athletes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, cross-over design was implemented to assess the impact of CAF on a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) in experienced cyclists...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912705/perceptions-of-zika-virus-risk-during-2016-outbreak-miami-dade-county-florida-usa
#16
Imelda K Moise, Joseph Kangmennaang, Tricia Caroline S G Hutchings, Ira M Sheskin, Douglas O Fuller
We conducted a survey on Zika virus perceptions and behaviors during the 2016 outbreak in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Among women, Zika knowledge was associated with having a bachelor's degree. Among men, knowledge was associated with knowing someone at risk. Interventions during future outbreaks could be targeted by sex and education level.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912677/does-the-sequence-of-rotations-in-multiple-mini-interview-stations-influence-the-candidates-performance
#17
Kyong-Jee Kim, Bum Sun Kwon
In Multiple Mini Interviews (MMIs), the candidates start out with different stations depending on the sequence of rotation they are assigned; thus, their perceived difficulty level and nervousness with their first station may differ. We examined whether such differences influenced the candidates' overall performance in the MMI. A 32-item questionnaire was developed and administered to candidates for admission interviews at a medical school regarding their perceptions of the MMI. Candidates' interview scores were also obtained and were compared across groups who differed in the sequence of rotation of MMI stations...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912655/does-segmentation-really-work-effectiveness-of-matched-graphic-health-warnings-on-cigarette-packaging-by-race-gender-and-chronic-disease-conditions-on-cognitive-outcomes-among-vulnerable-populations
#18
Hana Hayashi, Andy Tan, Ichiro Kawachi, Sara Minsky, Kasisomayajula Viswanath
We examined the differential impact of exposure to smoking-related graphic health warnings (GHWs) on risk perceptions and intentions to quit among different audience segments characterized by gender, race/ethnic group, and presence of chronic disease condition. Specifically, we sought to test whether GHWs that portray specific groups (in terms of gender, race, and chronic disease conditions) are associated with differences in risk perception and intention to quit among smokers who match the portrayed group...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912583/pixantrone-novel-mode-of-action-and-clinical-readouts
#19
Giorgio Minotti, Haiyong Han, Valérie Cattan, Anton Egorov, Francesco Bertoni
Pixantrone is a first-in-class aza-anthracenedione approved as monotherapy for treatment of relapsed or refractory aggressive diffuse B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), a patient group which is notoriously difficult to treat. It has a unique chemical structure and pharmacologic properties distinguishing it from anthracyclines and anthracenediones. Areas covered: The chemical structure and mode of action of pixantrone versus doxorubicin and mitoxantrone; preclinical evidence for pixantrone's therapeutic effect and cardiac tolerability; efficacy and safety of pixantrone in clinical trials; ongoing and completed trials of pixantrone alone or as combination therapy; and the risk of cardiotoxicity of pixantrone versus doxorubicin and mitoxantrone...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912579/parents-perceptions-of-power-wheelchair-prescription-for-children-with-a-neuromuscular-disorder-a-scoping-review
#20
Sarah-Grace Paguinto, Nadine A Kasparian, Paula Bray, Michelle Farrar
PURPOSE: To conduct a scoping review of the published evidence on parents' perceptions of power wheelchair prescription for children with a neuromuscular disorder and clinicians' influence on timely wheelchair implementation. METHOD: Nine electronic databases and reference lists of all retrieved full-text articles were searched up to March 2017. Eligibility criteria included (1) at least one child participant with a neuromuscular disorder, (2) power wheelchair as an intervention, and (3) qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods parent-reported outcomes related to power wheelchair equipment...
June 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
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