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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822253/clout-or-doubt-perspectives-on-an-infant-mental-health-service-for-young-children-placed-in-foster-care-due-to-abuse-and-neglect
#1
Fiona Turner-Halliday, Gary Kainth, Genevieve Young-Southward, Richard Cotmore, Nicholas Watson, Lynn McMahon, Helen Minnis
Despite knowledge about the profound effects of child abuse and neglect, we know little about how best to assess whether maltreated children should return home. The effectiveness of the New Orleans Intervention Model (NIM) is being tested in a randomized controlled trial where the comparison is social work 'services as usual.' The future trial results will tell us which approach produces the best outcomes for children; meanwhile qualitative process evaluation is generating intriguing findings about the perceived impact of NIM on decision-making about childrens' futures...
August 16, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822216/women-s-status-in-disasters-a-gap-between-experts-desk-and-affected-fields-of-iran
#2
Sanaz Sohrabizadeh
Although international agreements have achieved significant milestones in the improvement of women's status, experiences from the fields show a discrepancy between words and actions. The aim of this brief communication was to identify the gap between experts' perceptions and the findings of a large qualitative field survey on women's status in the recent natural disasters of Iran. A total of 10 experts were asked to fill a checklist, which consisted of the concepts extracted from field data. The range of agreement between experts' perceptions and field data was between 40 and 100 percent...
January 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822214/risk-perception-and-perceived-self-efficacy-of-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-seniors-and-young-adults-in-emergencies
#3
Alina Engelman, Susan L Ivey, Winston Tseng, Linda Neuhauser
OBJECTIVES: The authors explored the factors influencing risk perception and perceived self-efficacy before and during an emergency for deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) seniors and young adults. METHODS: The authors collected demographic survey data and conducted four focus groups with 38 Deaf/HH residents of the San Francisco Bay Area; two groups were with young adults (ages 18-35), including one group of college students and one group of young professionals, and two were with older adults (ages 50-90)...
January 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821903/the-differential-effects-of-a-focus-on-symptoms-versus-recovery-in-reducing-stigma-of-schizophrenia
#4
Ross M G Norman, Yixian Li, Richard Sorrentino, Elizabeth Hampson, Yang Ye
PURPOSE: We extend investigations of the impact of the content of video contact with an individual with schizophrenia on stigma reduction. We examine whether differential impacts persist over a 2-week period and the extent to which they are mediated by perceived similarity and feelings of empathy and/or sympathy. METHOD: We used a randomized control trial wherein participants were exposed to a video in which an individual described his recovery from schizophrenia, or the same person described acute symptoms of schizophrenia, or a no-video control condition...
August 18, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821774/pre-coincidence-brain-activity-predicts-the-perceptual-outcome-of-streaming-bouncing-motion-display
#5
Song Zhao, Yajie Wang, Lina Jia, Chengzhi Feng, Yu Liao, Wenfeng Feng
When two identical visual discs move toward each other on a two-dimensional visual display, they can be perceived as either "streaming through" or "bouncing off" each other after their coincidence. Previous studies have observed a strong bias toward the streaming percept. Additionally, the incidence of the bouncing percept in this ambiguous display could be increased by various factors, such as a brief sound at the moment of coincidence and a momentary pause of the two discs. The streaming/bouncing bistable motion phenomenon has been studied intensively since its discovery...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821729/nonlinear-bayesian-filtering-and-learning-a-neuronal-dynamics-for-perception
#6
Anna Kutschireiter, Simone Carlo Surace, Henning Sprekeler, Jean-Pascal Pfister
The robust estimation of dynamical hidden features, such as the position of prey, based on sensory inputs is one of the hallmarks of perception. This dynamical estimation can be rigorously formulated by nonlinear Bayesian filtering theory. Recent experimental and behavioral studies have shown that animals' performance in many tasks is consistent with such a Bayesian statistical interpretation. However, it is presently unclear how a nonlinear Bayesian filter can be efficiently implemented in a network of neurons that satisfies some minimum constraints of biological plausibility...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821653/human-occipital-and-parietal-gaba-selectively-influence-visual-perception-of-orientation-and-size
#7
Chen Song, Kristian Sandberg, Lau Møller Andersen, Jakob Udby Blicher, Geraint Rees
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. GABA level varies substantially across individuals and this variability is associated with inter-individual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition, or whether GABA level of different cortical regions selectively influences perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how GABA level in parietal and occipital cortices related to inter-individual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception, in a group of healthy young male participants...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821647/plasticity-beyond-v1-reinforcement-of-motion-perception-upon-binocular-central-retinal-lesions-in-adulthood
#8
Kalina Burnat, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Małgorzata Kossut, Ulf T Eysel, Lutgarde Arckens
Induction of a central retinal lesion in both eyes of adult mammals is a model for macular degeneration and leads to retinotopic map reorganization in the primary visual cortex (V1). Here we characterized the spatio-temporal dynamics of molecular activity levels in the central and peripheral representation of five higher order visual areas, V2/18, V3/19, V4/21a,V5/PMLS, area 7, and V1/17, in adult cats with central 10° retinal lesions (both sexes), by means of real-time PCR for the neuronal activity reporter gene zif268...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821642/super-optimal-perceptual-integration-suggests-a-place-based-representation-of-pitch-at-high-frequencies
#9
Bonnie K Lau, Anahita H Mehta, Andrew J Oxenham
Pitch, the perceptual correlate of sound repetition rate or frequency, plays an important role in speech perception, music perception, and listening in complex acoustic environments. Despite its perceptual importance, the neural mechanisms underlying pitch remain poorly understood. Although cortical regions responsive to pitch have been identified, little is known about how pitch information is extracted from the inner ear itself. The two primary theories of peripheral pitch coding involve stimulus-driven spike timing, or phase locking, in the auditory nerve (time code), and the spatial distribution of responses along the length of the cochlear partition (place code)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821526/development-and-testing-of-the-culture-of-care-barometer-cocb-in-healthcare-organisations-a-mixed-methods-study
#10
Anne Marie Rafferty, Julia Philippou, Joanne M Fitzpatrick, Geoff Pike, Jane Ball
OBJECTIVE: Concerns about care quality have prompted calls to create workplace cultures conducive to high-quality, safe and compassionate care and to provide a supportive environment in which staff can operate effectively. How healthcare organisations assess their culture of care is an important first step in creating such cultures. This article reports on the development and validation of a tool, the Culture of Care Barometer, designed to assess perceptions of a caring culture among healthcare workers preliminary to culture change...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821447/time-perception-pacing-and-exercise-intensity-maximal-exercise-distorts-the-perception-of-time
#11
A M Edwards, A McCormick
INTRODUCTION: Currently there are no data examining the impact of exercise on the perception of time which is surprising as optimal competitive performance is dependent on accurate pacing using knowledge of time elapsed. METHODS: With institutional ethics approval, 12 recreationally active adult participants (f=7, m=5) undertook both 30s Wingate cycles and 20min (1200s) rowing ergometer bouts as short and long duration self-paced exercise trials, in each of three conditions on separate occasions: 1) light exertion: RPE 11, 2) heavy exertion: RPE 15, 3) maximal exertion: RPE 20...
August 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821178/oil-perception-detection-thresholds-for-varying-fatty-stimuli-and-inter-individual-differences
#12
Jaana M Heinze, Andrew Costanzo, Inga Baselier, Andreas Fritsche, Melanie Lidolt, Jörg Hinrichs, Sabine Frank-Podlech, Russell Keast
Multiple lines of research have demonstrated that humans can perceive fat in the form of free fatty acids (FFAs). However, the dietary concentration of FFAs is generally very low and fat is mainly consumed as triacylglycerol (TAG). The aim of this study was to examine the perception of different fatty stimuli and possible associations between them. Therefore, detection thresholds for 4 fatty stimuli (oleic acid [FFA], paraffin oil [mixture of hydrocarbon molecules], canola oil [TAG-rich], and canola oil spiked with oleic acid [rich in TAGs and FFAs]) were determined in 30 healthy participants...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821127/a-comparative-study-on-cellulose-nanocrystals-extracted-from-bleached-cotton-and-flax-and-used-for-casting-films-with-glycerol-and-sorbitol-plasticisers
#13
Emilia Csiszár, Sebestyén Nagy
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were released from bleached cotton and flax by a sulphuric acid hydrolysis with about 40 and 34% yield, respectively. The rod-like cotton-CNC particles were slightly longer and wider and had a less pronounced aggregation ability in aqueous suspension than the flax-CNC ones. Films were cast from the CNC suspensions with sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers. The concept behind this research was to explore how the plasticisers - with similar structure but different molecular weight - and their concentrations affect the perceptible and measured properties of CNC films...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820898/perceived-effort-for-motor-control-and-decision-making
#14
Ignasi Cos
How effort is internally quantified and how it influences both movement generation and decisions between potential movements are 2 difficult questions to answer. Physical costs are known to influence motor control and decision-making, yet we lack a general, principled characterization of how the perception of effort operates across tasks and conditions. Morel and colleagues introduce an insightful approach to that end, assessing effort indifference points and presenting a quadratic law between perceived effort and force production...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820891/scene-text-detection-via-extremal-region-based-double-threshold-convolutional-network-classification
#15
Wei Zhu, Jing Lou, Longtao Chen, Qingyuan Xia, Mingwu Ren
In this paper, we present a robust text detection approach in natural images which is based on region proposal mechanism. A powerful low-level detector named saliency enhanced-MSER extended from the widely-used MSER is proposed by incorporating saliency detection methods, which ensures a high recall rate. Given a natural image, character candidates are extracted from three channels in a perception-based illumination invariant color space by saliency-enhanced MSER algorithm. A discriminative convolutional neural network (CNN) is jointly trained with multi-level information including pixel-level and character-level information as character candidate classifier...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820859/-it-s-not-an-obvious-issue-is-it-office-based-employees-perceptions-of-prolonged-sitting-at-work-a-qualitative-study
#16
Stuart William Flint, Helen Crank, Garry Tew, Simon Till
OBJECTIVE: Current UK workplace health promotion guidance recommends that employers minimize sedentary behaviors, but understanding the issues relating to prolonged workplace sitting has received little empirical attention. This study aimed to explore employees' perceptions of sitting time. METHODS: Participants at a small to medium-sized UK company were invited to join one of five focus groups. A framework analysis approach was used. RESULTS: Self-reported mean estimate of occupational sitting time was 6...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820796/provider-approachability-an-all-staff-survey-approach-to-creating-a-culture-of-safety
#17
Mark E Deyo-Svendsen, Karl B Palmer, Jill K Albright, Michael R Phillips, Keith A Schilling, Matthew E Cabrera Svendsen
OBJECTIVES: A culture-of-safety survey of our hospital staff revealed fear-based reluctance to question those in authority. We aimed to examine provider approachability (words and actions that promote trust and reduce or eliminate fear of interaction). METHODS: Providers and staff completed an anonymous facility-wide survey (survey 1) regarding perceptions of provider approachability. Results were safely communicated to providers, and improvement resources were offered...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820785/collective-efficacy-physical-activity-and-health-outcomes-among-mothers
#18
Deirdre Dlugonski, Bhibha M Das, Tiesha R Martin, Autumn Palmer
Motherhood is associated with low rates of physical activity that increase disease risk. Most theory-based approaches to increasing physical activity focus on personal rather than social factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among perceptions of community collective efficacy and objectively measured physical activity, self-efficacy, social support, and health. Mothers completed questionnaires and wore a pedometer for 7 days. There was a significant, positive association between physical activity and collective efficacy-social cohesion subscale...
October 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820773/self-care-management-in-corrections-perspectives-from-persons-with-an-incarceration-experience
#19
Annette T Maruca, Kimberly Dion, Adrial A Lobelo, Olivia Ampiah-Bonney, Chunfang Chen, Kirk Sanger, Donna Zucker
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and beliefs of what self-care management looks like for a person with an incarceration experience. This is the first phase of a two-phase study. This qualitative study, held in three county jails in Massachusetts, utilized a focus group methodology. The Rediscovery of Self-Care: A Care Intervention for Persons with Incarceration Experience (RSC) model served as the framework for this study. On the basis of a priori constructs from the RSC model, a protocol was established and targeted questions outlined...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820701/the-sustainable-development-goals-for-water-the-need-to-consider-perception-preference-and-safety
#20
Christine Stauber
In this month's issue, Brooks et al.(1) examine the role of organoleptic perception and its association with bacteriologic drinking water quality in the Nyanza Province of western Kenya. This study focuses on two important issues relevant for drinking water in the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)(2): human sensory perception and the measures of water safety, and the need to be able to measure drinking water quality in resource limited settings. To address the lack of studies, the authors researched how household members' perception of taste, odor, or overall quality were linked to measured levels of Escherichia coli via two detection methods: IDEXX Colilert(™) Quantitray (Colilert) and the Compartment Bag Test (CBT)...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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