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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045238/hypergravity-induced-multicellular-spheroid-generation-with-different-morphological-patterns-precisely-controlled-on-a-centrifugal-microfluidic-platform
#1
Jiheum Park, Gi-Hun Lee, Joong Yull Park, Jung Chan Lee, Hee Chan Kim
In living tissue, cells exist in three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments with intricate cell-cell interactions. To model these cellular environments, numerous techniques for generating cell spheroids have been proposed and improved. However, previously reported methods still have limitations in uniformity, reproducibility, scalability, through-put, etc. Here, we present a centrifugal microfluidic-based spheroid (CMS) formation method for generating both co-culture and mono-culture 3D spheroids in a highly controlled manner...
October 18, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042614/3d-printed-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-scaffold-integrated-with-cell-laden-chitosan-hydrogels-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#2
Liang Dong, Shao-Jie Wang, Xin-Rong Zhao, Yu-Fang Zhu, Jia-Kuo Yu
Synthetic polymeric scaffolds are commonly used in bone tissue engineering (BTE) due to their biocompatibility and adequate mechanical properties. However, their hydrophobicity and the lack of specific cell recognition sites confined their practical application. In this study, to improve the cell seeding efficiency and osteoinductivity, an injectable thermo-sensitive chitosan hydrogel (CSG) was incorporated into a 3D-printed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold to form a hybrid scaffold. To demonstrate the feasibility of this hybrid system for BTE application, rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were encapsulated in CSG...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038872/a-novel-method-to-understand-tumor-cell-invasion-integrating-extracellular-matrix-mimicking-layers-in-microfluidic-chips-by-selective-curing
#3
H Eslami Amirabadi, S SahebAli, J P Frimat, R Luttge, J M J den Toonder
A major challenge in studying tumor cell invasion into its surrounding tissue is to identify the contribution of individual factors in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to the process. One of the important elements of the TME is the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) which is known to influence cancer cell invasion, but exactly how remains unclear. Therefore, there is a need for new models to unravel mechanisms behind the tumor-ECM interaction. In this article, we present a new microfabrication method, called selective curing, to integrate ECM-mimicking layers between two microfluidic channels...
October 17, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038247/constitutive-activation-of-integrin-%C3%AE-9-augments-self-directed-hyperplastic-and-proinflammatory-properties-of-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Takashi Emori, Jun Hirose, Kotoko Ise, Jun-Ichiro Yomoda, Michiko Kasahara, Tadanobu Shinkuma, Hiroyuki Yoshitomi, Hiromu Ito, Motomu Hashimoto, Shingo Sugahara, Hirotada Fujita, Nobuchika Yamamoto, Yoshiaki Morita, Shuh Narumiya, Ichiro Aramori
Despite advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), currently approved medications can have significant side effects due to their direct immunosuppressive activities. Additionally, current therapies do not address residual synovial inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the role of integrin α9 and its ligand, tenascin-C (Tn-C), on the proliferative and inflammatory response of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from RA patients grown in three-dimensional (3D)-micromass culture. FLSs from osteoarthritis patients, when grown in the 3D-culture system, formed self-directed lining-like structures, whereas FLSs from RA tissues (RA-FLSs) developed an abnormal structure of condensed cellular accumulation reflective of the pathogenic features of RA synovial tissues...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033593/expression-profiling-of-adhesion-proteins-during-prenatal-and-postnatal-liver-development-in-rats
#5
Mehwish Yousaf, Asima Tayyeb, Gibran Ali
Culturing of primary hepatocytes and stem cell-derived hepatocytes faces a major issue of dedifferentiation due to absence of cell-cell adhesion and 3D structures. One of the possible ways to eliminate the problem of dedifferentiation is mimicking the expression pattern of adhesion proteins during the normal developmental process of liver cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression pattern of some key adhesion proteins, namely, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, epithelial CAM (EpCAM), intracellular CAM (ICAM), collagen 1α1, α-actinin, β-catenin and vimentin, in the liver tissue during prenatal and postnatal stages...
2017: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032507/a-novel-lab-on-a-chip-platform-for-spheroid-metabolism-monitoring
#6
Frank Alexander, Sebastian Eggert, Joachim Wiest
Sensor-based cellular microphysiometry is a technique that allows non-invasive, label-free, real-time monitoring of living cells that can greatly improve the predictability of toxicology testing by removing the influence of biochemical labels. In this work, the Intelligent Mobile Lab for In Vitro Diagnostics (IMOLA-IVD) was utilized to perform cellular microphysiometry on 3D multicellular spheroids. Using a commercial 3D printer, 3 × 3 microwell arrays were fabricated to maintain nine previously cultured HepG2 spheroids on a single BioChip...
October 14, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030824/distinguishing-states-of-arrest-genome-wide-descriptions-of-cellular-quiescence-using-chip-seq-and-rna-seq-analysis
#7
Surabhi Srivastava, Hardik P Gala, Rakesh K Mishra, Jyotsna Dhawan
Regenerative potential in adult stem cells is closely associated with the establishment of-and exit from-a temporary state of quiescence. Emerging evidence not only provides a rationale for the link between lineage determination programs and cell cycle regulation but also highlights the understanding of quiescence as an actively maintained cellular program, encompassing networks and mechanisms beyond mitotic inactivity or metabolic restriction. Interrogating the quiescent genome and transcriptome using deep-sequencing technologies offers an unprecedented view of the global mechanisms governing this reversibly arrested cellular state and its importance for cell identity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029505/the-deubiquitinating-enzyme-usp5-promotes-pancreatic-cancer-via-modulating-cell-cycle-regulators
#8
Brajesh P Kaistha, Anja Krattenmacher, Johannes Fredebohm, Harald Schmidt, Diana Behrens, Miriam Widder, Thilo Hackert, Oliver Strobel, Jörg D Hoheisel, Thomas M Gress, Malte Buchholz
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal solid tumors. With an overall five-year survival rate remaining below 6%, there is an explicit need to search for new molecular targets for therapeutic interventions. We undertook a barcode labelled short-hairpin (shRNA) library screen in pancreatic cancer cells in order to identify novel genes promoting cancer survival and progression. Among the candidate genes identified in this screen was the deubiquitinase USP5, which subsequent gene expression analyses demonstrated to be significantly upregulated in primary human pancreatic cancer tissues...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028070/gene-expression-in-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-comparison-of-2d-films-3d-electrospun-meshes-or-co-cultured-scaffolds-with-two-way-paracrine-effects
#9
S C Hess, W J Stark, D Mohn, N Cohrs, S Märsmann, M Calcagni, P Cinelli, J Buschmann
Finding the appropriate cues to trigger the desired differentiation is a challenge in tissue engineering when stem cells are involved. In this regard, three-dimensional environments are often compared to cells' two-dimensional culture behaviour (plastic culture dish). Here, we compared the gene expression pattern of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) seeded in a three-dimensional (3D) electrospun mesh and on a two-dimensional (2D) film - both of exactly the same material. Additionally, we conducted experiments with a scaffold floating above a film to investigate two-way paracrine effects (co-system)...
October 13, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025868/in-situ-visualization-of-glucocerebrosidase-in-human-skin-tissue-zymography-vs-activity-based-probe-labeling
#10
Jeroen van Smeden, Irini M Dijkhoff, Richard W J Helder, Hanin Al-Khakany, Daphne E C Boer, Anne Schreuder, Wouter W Kallemeijn, Samira Absalah, Herman S Overkleeft, Johannes M F G Aerts, Joke A Bouwstra
Epidermal glucocerebrosidase (GBA1), an acid β-glucosidase normally located in lysosomes, converts (glucosyl)ceramides into ceramides, which is crucial to generate an optimal barrier function of the outermost skin layer, the stratum corneum. Here we report on two developed in-situ methods to localize active GBA in human epidermis: i) an optimized zymography method that is less labour intensive and visualizes enzymatic activity with higher resolution than currently reported methods using either substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside or resorufin-β-D-glucopyranoside...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025676/a-simple-and-efficient-feeder-free-culture-system-to-up-scale-ipscs-on-polymeric-material-surface-for-use-in-3d-bioprinting
#11
Chui-Wei Wong, You-Tzung Chen, Chung-Liang Chien, Tien-Yu Yu, Syang-Peng Rwei, Shan-Hui Hsu
The 3D bioprinting and cell/tissue printing techniques open new possibilities for future applications. To facilitate the 3D bioprinting process, a large amount of living cells are required. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a promising cell source for bioprinting. However, the maintenance and expansion of undifferentiated iPSCs are expensive and time consuming. Therefore, in this study a culture method to obtain a sufficient amount of healthy and undifferentiated iPSCs in a short-term period was established...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024204/establishment-of-a-dog-primary-prostate-cancer-organoid-using-the-urine-cancer-stem-cells
#12
Tatsuya Usui, Masashi Sakurai, Shimpei Nishikawa, Koji Umata, Yuki Nemoto, Tomoya Haraguchi, Kazuhito Itamoto, Takuya Mizuno, Shunsuke Noguchi, Takashi Mori, Satomi Iwai, Takayuki Nakagawa, Hideyuki Yamawaki, Takashi Ohama, Koichi Sato
Dog spontaneously develops prostate cancer (PC) like human. Since most dogs with PC have poor prognosis, they are expected to become a translational model for human advanced PC. Stem cell-derived 3D organoid culture could recapitulate organ structures and physiology. Using patient tissues, human PC organoid culture system was established. Recent study showed that urine cells also possess the characteristic of stem cells. However, the urine cell-derived PC organoids have never been produced. We therefore generated PC organoids using the dog urine samples...
October 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024164/understanding-role-of-steroids-in-typical-and-atypical-brain-development-advantages-of-using-a-brain-in-a-dish-approach
#13
REVIEW
Dwaipayan Adhya, Emily Annuario, Madeline A Lancaster, Jack Price, Simon Baron-Cohen, Deepak P Srivastava
Steroids have an important role in growth, development, sexual differentiation and reproduction. All four classes of steroids, androgens, estrogens, progestogens and glucocorticoids, have varying effects on the brain. Androgens and estrogens are involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain, and also influence cognition. Progestogens such as progesterone and its metabolites have been shown to be involved in neuroprotection, although their protective effects are timing dependent. Glucocorticoids are linked with stress and memory performance, also in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989119/effects-of-protein-coated-nanofibers-on-conformation-of-gingival-fibroblast-spheroids-potential-utility-for-connective-tissues-regeneration
#14
Gili Kaufman, Ryan Whitescarver, Laiz Nunes, Xavier-Lewis Palmer, Drago Skrtic, Wojtek Tutak
Deep wounds in the gingiva caused by trauma or surgery require a rapid and robust healing of connective tissues. We propose utilizing gas-brushed nanofibers coated with collagen and fibrin for that purpose. Our hypotheses are that protein-coated nanofibers will: (i) attract and mobilize cells in various spatial orientations, and (ii) regulate the expression levels of specific extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated proteins, determining the initial conformational nature of dense and soft connective tissues. Gingival fibroblast monolayers and 3D spheroids were cultured on ECM substrate and covered with gas-blown poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanofibers (uncoated/coated with collagen and fibrin)...
October 9, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988229/studying-kidney-disease-using-tissue-and-genome-engineering-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Elena Garreta, Federico González, Núria Montserrat
Kidney morphogenesis and patterning have been extensively studied in animal models such as the mouse and zebrafish. These seminal studies have been key to define the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex multistep process. Based on this knowledge, the last 3 years have witnessed the development of a cohort of protocols allowing efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) towards defined kidney progenitor populations using two-dimensional (2D) culture systems or through generating organoids...
October 7, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984079/two-dimensional-2d-and-three-dimensional-3d-models-for-studying-atherosclerosis-pathogenesis-induced-by-periodontopathogenic-microorganisms
#16
REVIEW
Diego F Gualtero, Gloria I Lafaurie, Marta Raquel Fontanilla
Epidemiological studies have established a clinical association between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis. Bacteremia and endotoxemia episodes in patients with periodontitis appear to link these two diseases by inducing a body-wide production of cardiovascular markers. The presence of oral bacteria in atherosclerotic lesions in patients with periodontitis suggests that bacteria, or their antigenic components, induce alterations in the endothelium associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, a causal mechanism explaining the association between both diseases can be constructed using in vitro models...
October 6, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983454/organoid-and-organ-on-a-chip-systems-new-paradigms-for-modeling-neurological-and-gastrointestinal-disease
#17
Aslam Abbasi Akhtar, Samuel Sances, Robert Barrett, Joshua J Breunig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The modeling of biological processes in vitro provides an important tool to better understand mechanisms of development and disease, allowing for the rapid testing of therapeutics. However, a critical constraint in traditional monolayer culture systems is the absence of the multicellularity, spatial organization, and overall microenvironment present in vivo. This limitation has resulted in numerous therapeutics showing efficacy in vitro, but failing in patient trials...
June 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982361/distribution-of-plga-modified-nanoparticles-in-3d-cell-culture-models-of-hypo-vascularized-tumor-tissue
#18
Lee B Sims, Maya K Huss, Hermann B Frieboes, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
BACKGROUND: Advanced stage cancer treatments are often invasive and painful-typically comprised of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation treatment. Low transport efficiency during systemic chemotherapy may require high chemotherapeutic doses to effectively target cancerous tissue, resulting in systemic toxicity. Nanotherapeutic platforms have been proposed as an alternative to more safely and effectively deliver therapeutic agents directly to tumor sites. However, cellular internalization and tumor penetration are often diametrically opposed, with limited access to tumor regions distal from vasculature, due to irregular tissue morphologies...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980771/electrospun-fibers-for-recruitment-and-differentiation-of-stem-cells-in-regenerative-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Sharanya Sankar, Chandra S Sharma, Subha N Rath, Seeram Ramakrishna
Electrospinning is a popular technique used to mimic the natural sub-micron features of the native tissue. The ultra-fine fibers provide a favorable extracellular matrix-like environment for regulation of cellular functions. This article summarizes and reviews the current advances in electrospun fiber application and focuses on the novel strategies applied for tissue regeneration and repair. It explores the different factors affecting the attachment and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the electrospun substrates...
October 5, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980043/how-imaging-membrane-and-cell-processes-involved-in-electropermeabilization-can-improve-its-development-in-cell-biology-and-in-clinics
#20
Laure Gibot, Muriel Golzio, Marie-Pierre Rols
Cell membranes can be transiently permeabilized under the application of electric pulses. This process, called electropermeabilization or electroporation, allows hydrophilic molecules, such as anticancer drugs and DNA, to enter into cells and tissues. The method is nowadays used in clinics to treat cancers. Vaccination and gene therapy are other fields of application of DNA electrotransfer. A description of the mechanisms can be assayed by using different complementary systems with increasing complexities (models of membranes, cells cultivated in 2D and 3D culture named spheroids, and tissues in living mice) and different microscopy tools to visualize the processes from single molecules to entire animals...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
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