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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821574/mosaic-loss-of-non-muscle-myosin-iia-and-iib-is-sufficient-to-induce-mammary-epithelial-proliferation
#1
Kim-Vy Nguyen-Ngoc, Vanesa L Silvestri, Dan Georgess, Amanda N Fairchild, Andrew J Ewald
The mammary epithelium elaborates through hormonally-regulated changes in proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Non-muscle myosin II (NMII) functions at the interface between contractility, adhesion, and signal transduction. It was therefore a plausible regulator of mammary morphogenesis. We tested the genetic requirement for NMIIA and NMIIB through deletion of the myosin heavy chains (NMHC) that confer specificity to the complex. Surprisingly, mosaic loss, but not ubiquitous loss, of NMHCIIA and IIB induced high levels of proliferation in 3D culture...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819205/fast-wide-volume-functional-imaging-of-engineered-in-vitro-brain-tissues
#2
G Palazzolo, M Moroni, A Soloperto, G Aletti, G Naldi, M Vassalli, T Nieus, F Difato
The need for in vitro models that mimic the human brain to replace animal testing and allow high-throughput screening has driven scientists to develop new tools that reproduce tissue-like features on a chip. Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cultures are emerging as an unmatched platform that preserves the complexity of cell-to-cell connections within a tissue, improves cell survival, and boosts neuronal differentiation. In this context, new and flexible imaging approaches are required to monitor the functional states of 3D networks...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816826/tissue-engineered-bone-differentiated-from-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-inhibit-posterolateral-fusion-in-an-athymic-rat-model
#3
Comron Saifi, Jonahtan Bernhard, Jamal N Shillingford, Petros Petridis, Samuel Robinson, X Edward Guo, Mark Weidenbaum, Ronald A Lehman, Howard S An, Lawrence G Lenke, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Joseph L Laratta
STUDY DESIGN: Biological augmentation spinal arthrodesis trial in athymic rats OBJECTIVE.: To assess the efficacy of tissue-engineered bone to promote L4-L5 intertransverse process fusion in an athymic rat model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Each year in the United States, over 400,000 spinal fusion surgeries are performed requiring bone graft. The current gold standard for posterolateral lumbar fusion is autogenous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG), but the harvesting of ICBG is associated with increased operative time and significant complications...
August 14, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815607/a-3d-tri-culture-system-reveals-that-activin-receptor-like-kinase-5-and-connective-tissue-growth-factor-drive-human-glomerulosclerosis
#4
John P Waters, Yvonne C Richards, Jeremy N Skepper, Mark Southwood, Paul D Upton, Nicholas W Morrell, Jordan S Pober, John R Bradley
Glomerular scarring, known as glomerulosclerosis, occurs in many chronic kidney diseases and involves interaction between glomerular endothelial cells (GEC), podocytes and mesangial cells (MCs), leading to signals that promote extracellular matrix deposition and endothelial cell dysfunction and loss. We describe a 3D tri-culture system to model human glomerulosclerosis. In 3D monoculture, each cell type alters its phenotype in response to TGFβ, which has been implicated as an important mediator of glomerulosclerosis...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815516/gastrointestinal-epithelial-organoid-cultures-from-postsurgical-tissues
#5
Soojung Hahn, Jongman Yoo
An organoid is a cellular structure three-dimensionally (3D) cultured from self-organizing stem cells in vitro, which has a cell population, architectures, and organ specific functions like the originating organs. Recent advances in the 3D culture of isolated intestinal crypts or gastric glands have enabled the generation of human gastrointestinal epithelial organoids. Gastrointestinal organoids recapitulate the human in vivo physiology because of all the intestinal epithelial cell types that differentiated and proliferated from tissue resident stem cells...
August 17, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815373/autologous-nasal-chondrocytes-delivered-by-injectable-hydrogel-for-in-vivo-articular-cartilage-regeneration
#6
Wenliang Chen, Changhua Li, Maoxiu Peng, Bingju Xie, Lei Zhang, Xiaojun Tang
Cell based tissue engineering serves as a promising strategy for articular cartilage repair, which remains a challenge both for researchers and clinicians. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of autologous nasal chondrocytes (NCs) combined with alginate hydrogel as injectable constructs for rabbit articular cartilage repair. Autologous nasal chondrocytes were isolated from rabbit nasal septum, expanded either on monolayer or in 3D alginate hydrogel. In vitro, DNA quantification revealed that NCs can proliferate stable in 3D alginate matrix, but slower than that cultured in monolayer...
August 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813592/3d-printed-phema-materials-for-topographical-and-biochemical-modulation-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-cell-response
#7
Adina Badea, Joselle M McCracken, Emily G Tillmaand, Mikhail Eugene Kandel, Aaron W Oraham, Molly B Mevis, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Gabriel Popescu, Jonathan V Sweedler, Ralph G Nuzzo
Understanding and controlling the interactions occurring between cells and engineered materials are central challenges towards progress in the development of biomedical devices. In this work, we describe materials for direct ink writing (DIW), an extrusion-based type of 3D printing, that embed a custom synthetic protein (RGD-PDL) within the microfilaments of 3D-hydrogel scaffolds to modify these interactions and differentially direct tissue-level organization of complex cell populations in vitro. The RGD-PDL is synthesized by modifying poly-ᴅ-lysine (PDL) to varying extents with peptides containing the integrin-binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812179/a-hybrid-co-culture-model-with-endothelial-cells-designed-for-the-hepatic-tissue-engineering
#8
Xiaoning Yang, Xin Wang, Xiaobo Huang, Ruiqiang Hang, Xiangyu Zhang, Bin Tang
The cultured hepatic cells in vitro are prone to losing their characteristic morphologies and biological functions. To avoid this problem, a hybrid co-culture system was proposed to elucidate the effect of cellular communication on the phenotype of hepatic cells. A monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs) was co-cultured on the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold embedded with HepG2 cells. In this hybrid co-culture system, the growth of encapsulated hepatic cells is barely influenced by the co-cultured ECs...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809979/raman-and-infrared-spectroscopy-differentiate-senescent-from-proliferating-cells-in-a-human-dermal-fibroblast-3d-skin-model
#9
Katharina Eberhardt, Christian Matthäus, Doreen Winter, Cornelia Wiegand, Uta-Christina Hipler, Stephan Diekmann, Jürgen Popp
Senescent cells contribute to tissue aging and dysfunction. Therefore, detecting senescent cells in skin is of interest for skin tumor diagnostics and therapy. Here, we studied the transition into senescence of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) in a three-dimensional (3D) human fibroblast-derived matrix (FDM). Senescent and proliferating cells were imaged by Raman spectroscopy (RS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The obtained averaged spectra were analyzed using PLS-LDA. For these 3D cultured cells, RS and FTIR could clearly distinguish senescent from proliferating cells...
August 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809529/multiphoton-fabrication-of-fibronectin-functionalized-protein-micropatterns-stiffness-induced-maturation-of-cell-matrix-adhesions-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Jiaoni Ma, Chuen Wai Li, Nan Huang, Xinna Wang, Minghui Tong, Alfonso H W Ngan, Barbara P Chan
Cell-matrix adhesions are important structures governing the interactions between cells and their microenvironment at the cell-matrix interface. Focal complex (FC) and focal adhesion (FA) have been substantially investigated in conventional 2D culture system using fibroblast as in vitro model. However, the formation of more mature types of cell-matrix adhesion in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), including fabrillar adhesion (FBA) and 3D matrix adhesion (3DMA), have not been fully elucidated. Here, we try to provide some hints on which niche factor(s) dominate(s) the maturation of FBA and 3DMA by using multiphoton fabrication-based micropatterning technique...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809418/native-extracellular-matrix-derived-semipermeable-optically-transparent-and-inexpensive-membrane-inserts-for-microfluidic-cell-culture
#11
Mark J Mondrinos, Yoon-Suk Yi, Nan-Kun Wu, Xueting Ding, Dongeun Huh
Semipermeable cell culture membranes are commonly used in multilayered microfluidic devices to mimic the basement membrane in vivo and to create compartmentalized microenvironments for physiological cell growth and differentiation. However, existing membranes are predominantly made up of synthetic polymers, providing limited capacity to replicate cellular interactions with native extracellular matrices that play a crucial role in the induction of physiological phenotypes. Here we describe a new type of cell culture membranes engineered from native extracellular matrix (ECM) materials that are thin, semipermeable, optically transparent, and amenable to integration into microfluidic cell culture devices...
August 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808032/mechanical-constraint-from-growing-jaw-facilitates-mammalian-dental-diversity
#12
Elodie Renvoisé, Kathryn D Kavanagh, Vincent Lazzari, Teemu J Häkkinen, Ritva Rice, Sophie Pantalacci, Isaac Salazar-Ciudad, Jukka Jernvall
Much of the basic information about individual organ development comes from studies using model species. Whereas conservation of gene regulatory networks across higher taxa supports generalizations made from a limited number of species, generality of mechanistic inferences remains to be tested in tissue culture systems. Here, using mammalian tooth explants cultured in isolation, we investigate self-regulation of patterning by comparing developing molars of the mouse, the model species of mammalian research, and the bank vole...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807411/timp3-is-regulated-by-pericytes-upon-shear-stress-detection-leading-to-a-modified-endothelial-cell-response
#13
C Schrimpf, T Koppen, J S Duffield, U Böer, S David, W Ziegler, A Haverich, O E Teebken, M Wilhelmi
OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is a hallmark of cardiovascular disease. Shear stress on endothelial cells has been linked to atherogenesis and to fibrous cap thinning and rupture. Pericytes reside in the sub-endothelial space of vessels and have vasoprotective effects. They are subjected to shear stress when endothelial cell integrity is disrupted. The aim was to investigate the susceptibility and response of pericytes to shear stress. METHODS: Endothelial cells and pericytes were seeded in two dimensional monocultures and co-cultures, and in a novel three dimensional co-culture system and were subjected to no, low and high shear stress (0, 10, 30 dyne/cm(2)) for 48 h...
August 11, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804996/in-vitro-evaluation-of-3d-bioprinted-tri-polymer-network-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-regeneration
#14
Stephanie T Bendtsen, Mei Wei
In vitro evaluations provide vital information on the ability of tissue engineered scaffolds to support cell life and promote natural physiological behaviors in culture. Such assessments are necessary to conduct before implementation of the scaffolds for tissue healing in vivo. The scaffold extracellular matrix must provide the biochemical and mechanical cues necessary to promote cellular attachment, migration and proliferation before differentiation and new tissue deposition can occur. In this study, an in vitro evaluation was conducted to assess the ability of scaffolds 3D printed with a previously developed alginate-polyvinyl alcohol-hydroxyapatite formulation to promote proliferation of encapsulated MC3T3 cells...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802849/silk-fibroin-chitosan-scaffold-with-tunable-properties-and-low-inflammatory-response-assists-the-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Da-Wei Li, Xiaohua Lei, Feng-Li He, Jin He, Ya-Li Liu, Ya-Jing Ye, Xudong Deng, Enkui Duan, Da-Chuan Yin
The physical and chemical properties of the scaffold are known to play important roles in three-dimensional (3D) cell culture, which always determine the cellular fate or the results of implantation. To control these properties becomes necessary for meeting the requirements of a variety of tissue engineering applications. In this study, a series of silk fibroin/chitosan (SF/CS) scaffolds with tunable properties were prepared using freeze-drying method, and the rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were seeded in these scaffolds to evaluate their availability of use in tissue engineering...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802252/exploiting-radiation-induced-signaling-to-increase-the-susceptibility-of-resistant-cancer-cells-to-targeted-drugs-akt-and-mtor-inhibitors-as-an-example
#16
Iris Eke, Adeola Y Makinde, Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Veit Sandfort, Sanjeewani T Palayoor, Barbara H Rath, Lance Liotta, Mariaelena Pierobon, Emanuel F Petricoin, Matthew F Brown, Jayne M Stommel, Mansoor M Ahmed, C Norman Coleman
Implementing targeted drug therapy in radio-oncologic treatment regimens has greatly improved the outcome of cancer patients. However, the efficacy of molecular targeted drugs such as inhibitory antibodies or small molecule inhibitors essentially depends on target expression and activity, which both can change during the course of treatment. Radiotherapy has previously been shown to activate pro-survival pathways which can help tumor cells to adapt and thereby survive treatment. Therefore, we aimed to identify changes in signaling induced by radiation and evaluate the potential of targeting these changes with small molecules to increase the therapeutic efficacy on cancer cell survival...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802102/pnipaam-co-jeffamine-%C3%A2-pnj-scaffolds-as-in%C3%A2-vitro-models-for-niche-enrichment-of-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells
#17
John M Heffernan, James B McNamara, Sabine Borwege, Brent L Vernon, Nader Sanai, Shwetal Mehta, Rachael W Sirianni
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor, and the 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. GBM malignancy is driven in part by a population of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) that exhibit indefinite self-renewal capacity, multipotent differentiation, expression of neural stem cell markers, and resistance to conventional treatments. GSCs are enriched in specialized niche microenvironments that regulate stem phenotypes and support GSC radioresistance. Therefore, identifying GSC-niche interactions that regulate stem phenotypes may present a unique target for disrupting the maintenance and persistence of this treatment resistant population...
May 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800960/ets-transcription-factor-elf5-induces-lumen-formation-in-a-3d-model-of-mammary-morphogenesis-and-its-expression-is-inhibited-by-jak2-inhibitor-tg101348
#18
Jennifer Chean, Charng-Jui Chen, John E Shively
The loss of expression of a single gene can revert normal tissue to a malignant phenotype. For example, while normal breast has high lumenal expression of CEACAM1, the majority of breast cancers exhibit the early loss of this gene with the concurrent loss of their lumenal phenotype. MCF7 cells that lack CEACAM1 expression and fail to form lumena in 3D culture, regain the normal phenotype when transfected with CEACAM1. In order to probe the mechanism of this gain of function, we treated these cells with the clinically relevant Jak2 inhibitor TG101348 (TG), expecting that disruption of the prolactin receptor signaling pathway would interfere with the positive effects of transfection of MCF7 cells with CEACAM1...
August 8, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798911/tissue-engineering-approaches-in-the-design-of-healthy-and-pathological-in-vitro-tissue-models
#19
REVIEW
Silvia Caddeo, Monica Boffito, Susanna Sartori
In the tissue engineering (TE) paradigm, engineering and life sciences tools are combined to develop bioartificial substitutes for organs and tissues, which can in turn be applied in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, and basic research to elucidate fundamental aspects of cell functions in vivo or to identify mechanisms involved in aging processes and disease onset and progression. The complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which cells are organized in vivo allows the interaction between different cell types and between cells and the extracellular matrix, the composition of which varies as a function of the tissue, the degree of maturation, and health conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798857/the-role-of-shear-stress-and-altered-tissue-properties-on-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transformation-and-tumor-endothelial-cell-interaction
#20
Sara G Mina, Peter Huang, Bruce T Murray, Gretchen J Mahler
Tumor development is influenced by stromal cells in aspects including invasion, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Activated fibroblasts are one group of stromal cells involved in cancer metastasis, and one source of activated fibroblasts is endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EndMT). EndMT begins when the endothelial cells delaminate from the cell monolayer, lose cell-cell contacts, lose endothelial markers such as vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), gain mesenchymal markers like alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and acquire mesenchymal cell-like properties...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
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