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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092415/the-cluster-micrornas-mir-194-and-mir-215-suppress-the-tumorigenicity-of-intestinal-tumor-organoids
#1
Toshiaki Nakaoka, Yoshimasa Saito, Yuriko Shimamoto, Toshihide Muramatsu, Masaki Kimura, Yae Kanai, Hidetsugu Saito
Tumor stem cells with self-renewal and multipotent capacity play critical roles in the initiation and progression of cancer. Recently, a new 3D culture system known as organoid culture has been developed, allowing Lgr5-positive stem cells to form organoids that resemble the properties of original tissues. Here we established organoids derived from intestinal tumors of Apc(min/+) mice and normal intestinal epithelia of C57BL/6J mice and investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in intestinal tumor organoids...
January 16, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089517/hypoxia-induces-a-hif-1-dependent-transition-from-collective-to-amoeboid-dissemination-in-epithelial-cancer-cells
#2
Steffi Lehmann, Veronika Te Boekhorst, Julia Odenthal, Roberta Bianchi, Sjoerd van Helvert, Kristian Ikenberg, Olga Ilina, Szymon Stoma, Jael Xandry, Liying Jiang, Reidar Grenman, Markus Rudin, Peter Friedl
Cancer metastases arise from a multi-step process that requires metastasizing tumor cells to adapt to signaling input from varying tissue environments [1]. As an early metastatic event, cancer cell dissemination occurs through different migration programs, including multicellular, collective, and single-cell mesenchymal or amoeboid migration [2-4]. Migration modes can interconvert based on changes in cell adhesion, cytoskeletal mechanotransduction [5], and/or proteolysis [6], most likely under the control of transcriptional programs such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [7, 8]...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088670/fibrin-hydrogels-induce-mixed-dorsal-ventral-spinal-neuron-identities-during-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
John M Edgar, Meghan Robinson, Stephanie M Willerth
: We hypothesized that generating spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neural aggregates (NAs) using a chemically-defined differentiation protocol would be more effective inside of 3D fibrin hydrogels compared to 2D poly-L-ornithine(PLO)/laminin-coated tissue culture plastic surfaces. We performed targeted RNA-Seq using next generation sequencing to determine the substrate-specific differences in gene expression that regulate cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077291/in-vitro-dentin-barrier-cytotoxicity-testing-of-some-dental-restorative-materials
#4
R D Jiang, H Lin, G Zheng, X M Zhang, Q Du, M Yang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cytotoxicity of four dental restorative materials in three-dimensional (3D) L929 cell cultures using a dentin barrier test. METHODS: The cytotoxicities of light-cured glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond), total-etching adhesive (GLUMA Bond5), and two self-etching adhesives (GLUMA Self Etch and Single Bond Universal) were evaluated. The permeabilities of human dentin disks with thicknesses of 300, 500, and 1000μm were standardized using a hydraulic device...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073315/metabolically-active-3-dimensional-brown-adipose-tissue-engineered-from-white-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#5
Jessica P Yang, Amy Elizabeth Anderson, Annemarie McCartney, Xavier Ory, Garret Ma, Elisa Pappalardo, Joel Bader, Jennifer Elisseeff
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a unique capacity to expend calories by decoupling energy expenditure from ATP production, therefore BAT could realize therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated markers and function of native BAT, however, successful therapies will rely on methods that supplement the small existing pool of brown adipocytes in adult humans. In this study, we engineered BAT from both human and rat adipose precursors and determined whether these ex vivo constructs could mimic in vivo tissue form and metabolic function...
January 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069506/one-step-fabrication-of-hydrogel-microcapsules-with-hollow-core-for-assembly-and-cultivation-of-hepatocyte-spheroids
#6
Christian Siltanen, Michaela Diakataou, Jeremy Lowen, Amranul Haque, Ali Rahimian, Gulnaz Stybayeva, Alexander Revzin
: 3D hepatic microtissues can serve as valuable liver analogues for cell-based therapies and for hepatotoxicity screening during preclinical drug development. However, hepatocytes rapidly dedifferentiate in vitro, and typically require 3D cultures systems or co-cultures for phenotype rescue. In this work we present a novel microencapsulation strategy, utilizing coaxial flow-focusing droplet microfluidics to fabricate microcapsules with liquid core and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) shell...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069038/motility-of-glioblastoma-cells-is-driven-by-netrin-1-induced-gain-of-stemness
#7
Irene Ylivinkka, Harri Sihto, Olli Tynninen, Yizhou Hu, Aki Laakso, Riku Kivisaari, Pirjo Laakkonen, Jorma Keski-Oja, Marko Hyytiäinen
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is an untreatable brain cancer. The tumors contain a population of stem-like cells which are highly invasive and resistant to therapies. These cells are the main reason for the lethality of glioblastoma. Extracellular guidance molecule netrin-1 promotes the invasiveness and survival of various cancer cell types. We have previously found that netrin-1 activates Notch signaling, and Notch signaling associates with cell stemness. Therefore, we have here investigated the effects of netrin-1 on glioblastoma pathogenesis and glioblastoma cell stemness...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068621/formation-of-porous-hpcl-lpcl-ha-scaffolds-with-supercritical-co2-gas-foaming-method
#8
M Zahedi Moghadam, Sh Hassanajili, F Esmaeilzadeh, M Ayatollahi, M Ahmadi
Scaffold is a 3D porous structure that is made of different materials, such as synthetic and natural polymers. It plays the role of a synthetic extracellular matrix and permits adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of the cells. Porosity and pore size are the important factors for any 3D scaffold used in bone tissue engineering. In this study, porous scaffolds were prepared by adding hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles as filler to the polymeric matrix of polycaprolactone (PCL) blends with two different molecular weight by using supercritical CO2 (ScCO2) foaming method...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063988/engineered-extracellular-microenvironment-with-a-tunable-mechanical-property-for-controlling-cell-behavior-and-cardiomyogenic-fate-of-cardiac-stem-cells
#9
Min-Young Choi, Jong-Tae Kim, Won-Jin Lee, Yunki Lee, Kyung Min Park, Young-Il Yang, Ki Dong Park
: Endogenous cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are known to play a certain role in the myocardial homeostasis of the adult heart. The extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding CSCs provides mechanical signals to regulate a variety of cell behaviors, yet the impact in the adult heart of these mechanical properties of ECM on CSC renewal and fate decisions is mostly unknown. To elucidate CSC mechanoresponses at the individual cell and myocardial level, we used the sol-to-gel transitional gelatin-poly(ethylene glycol)-tyramine (GPT) hydrogel with a tunable mechanical property to construct a three-dimensional (3D) matrix for culturing native myocardium and CSCs...
January 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060288/drosophila-preparation-and-longitudinal-imaging-of-heart-function-in-vivo-using-optical-coherence-microscopy-ocm
#10
Jing Men, Jason Jerwick, Penghe Wu, Mingming Chen, Aneesh Alex, Yutao Ma, Rudolph E Tanzi, Airong Li, Chao Zhou
Longitudinal study of the heartbeat in small animals contributes to understanding structural and functional changes during heart development. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) has been demonstrated to be capable of imaging small animal hearts with high spatial resolution and ultrahigh imaging speed. The high image contrast and noninvasive properties make OCM ideal for performing longitudinal studies without requiring tissue dissections or staining. Drosophila has been widely used as a model organism in cardiac developmental studies due to its high number of orthologous human disease genes, its similarity of molecular mechanisms and genetic pathways with vertebrates, its short life cycle, and its low culture cost...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058831/peptide-tethered-hydrogel-scaffold-promotes-recovery-from-spinal-cord-transection-via-synergism-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Li-Ming Li, Min Han, Xinchi Jiang, Xianzhen Yin, Fu Chen, Tian-Yuan Zhang, Hao Ren, Jiwen Zhang, Zhong Chen, Tingjun Hou, HongWei Ouyang, Yasuhiko Tabata, Youqing Shen, Jian-Qing Gao
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most devastating injuries. Treatment strategies for SCI are required to overcome comprehensive issues. Implantation of biomaterial scaffolds and stem cells has been demonstrated to be promising strategies. However, a comprehensive recovery effect is difficult to achieve. In the comprehensive treatment process, the specific roles of the implanted scaffolds and of stem cells in combined strategy are usually neglected. In this study, a peptide-modified scaffold is developed based on hyaluronic acid and an adhesive peptide PPFLMLLKGSTR...
January 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058781/multi-photon-microscope-measurement-based-biphasic-multi-scale-analyses-of-knee-joint-articular-cartilage-and-chondrocyte-by-using-visco-anisotropic-hyperelastic-finite-element-method-and-smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics-method
#12
Eiji Nakamachi, Tomohiro Noma, Kaito Nakahara, Yoshihiro Tomita, Yusuke Morita
The articular cartilage of a knee joint has a variety of functions including dispersing stress and absorbing shock in the tissue, and lubricating the surface region of cartilage. The metabolic activity of chondrocytes under the cyclic mechanical stimulations regenerates the morphology and function of tissues. Hence, the stress evaluation of the chondrocyte is vital subject to assess the regeneration cycle in the normal walking condition, and predict the injury occurrence in the accidents. Further, the threshold determination of stress for the chondrocytes activation is valuable for development of regenerative bio-reactor of articular cartilage...
January 5, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057791/from-microscale-devices-to-3d-printing-advances-in-fabrication-of-3d-cardiovascular-tissues
#13
REVIEW
Anton V Borovjagin, Brenda M Ogle, Joel L Berry, Jianyi Zhang
Current strategies for engineering cardiovascular cells and tissues have yielded a variety of sophisticated tools for studying disease mechanisms, for development of drug therapies, and for fabrication of tissue equivalents that may have application in future clinical use. These efforts are motivated by the need to extend traditional 2-dimensional (2D) cell culture systems into 3D to more accurately replicate in vivo cell and tissue function of cardiovascular structures. Developments in microscale devices and bioprinted 3D tissues are beginning to supplant traditional 2D cell cultures and preclinical animal studies that have historically been the standard for drug and tissue development...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054585/osseous-differentiation-of-human-fat-tissue-grafts-from-tissue-engineering-to-tissue-differentiation
#14
Maryna Bondarava, Chiara Cattaneo, Bin Ren, Wolfgang E Thasler, Volkmar Jansson, Peter E Müller, Oliver B Betz
Conventional bone tissue engineering approaches require isolation and in vitro propagation of autologous cells, followed by seeding on a variety of scaffolds. Those protracted procedures impede the clinical applications. Here we report the transdifferentiation of human fat tissue fragments retrieved from subcutaneous fat into tissue with bone characteristics in vitro without prior cell isolation and propagation. 3D collagen-I cultures of human fat tissue were cultivated either in growth medium or in osteogenic medium (OM) with or without addition of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) BMP-2, BMP-7 or BMP-9...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052996/a-novel-bioengineered-3d-human-intestinal-model-for-long-term-infection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#15
Maria A DeCicco RePass, Ying Chen, Yinan Lin, Wenda Zhou, David L Kaplan, Honorine D Ward
Cryptosporidium spp. are apicomplexan parasites of global importance that cause human diarrheal disease. In vitro culture models to study this parasite with physiological relevance to in vivo infection remain sub-optimal. Thus, the pathogenesis of cryptosporidiosis remains poorly characterized, and interventions for the disease are limited. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a novel bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model (which we developed previously) to support long term infection by C. parvum...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049497/two-differentially-structured-collagen-scaffolds-for-potential-urinary-bladder-augmentation-proof-of-concept-study-in-a-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-model
#16
Dorothea Leonhäuser, Katja Stollenwerk, Volker Seifarth, Isabella M Zraik, Michael Vogt, Pramod K Srinivasan, Rene H Tolba, Joachim O Grosse
BACKGROUND: The repair of urinary bladder tissue is a necessity for tissue loss due to cancer, trauma, or congenital abnormalities. Use of intestinal tissue is still the gold standard in the urological clinic, which leads to new problems and dysfunctions like mucus production, stone formation, and finally malignancies. Therefore, the use of artificial, biologically derived materials is a promising step towards the augmentation of this specialised tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate potential bladder wall repair by two collagen scaffold prototypes, OptiMaix 2D and 3D, naïve and seeded with autologous vesical cells, as potential bladder wall substitute material in a large animal model...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043967/microtubules-in-3d-cell-motility
#17
REVIEW
Benjamin P Bouchet, Anna Akhmanova
Three-dimensional (3D) cell motility underlies essential processes, such as embryonic development, tissue repair and immune surveillance, and is involved in cancer progression. Although the cytoskeleton is a well-studied regulator of cell migration, most of what we know about its functions originates from studies conducted in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. This research established that the microtubule network mediates polarized trafficking and signaling that are crucial for cell shape and movement in 2D. In parallel, developments in light microscopy and 3D cell culture systems progressively allowed to investigate cytoskeletal functions in more physiologically relevant settings...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041907/polarity-reversal-by-centrosome-repositioning-primes-cell-scattering-during-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#18
Mithila Burute, Magali Prioux, Guillaume Blin, Sandrine Truchet, Gaëlle Letort, Qingzong Tseng, Thomas Bessy, Sally Lowell, Joanne Young, Odile Filhol, Manuel Théry
During epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cells lining the tissue periphery break up their cohesion to migrate within the tissue. This dramatic reorganization involves a poorly characterized reorientation of the apicobasal polarity of static epithelial cells into the front-rear polarity of migrating mesenchymal cells. To investigate the spatial coordination of intracellular reorganization with morphological changes, we monitored centrosome positioning during EMT in vivo, in developing mouse embryos and mammary gland, and in vitro, in cultured 3D cell aggregates and micropatterned cell doublets...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039458/multicellular-spheroids-from-normal-and-neoplastic-thyroid-tissues-as-a-suitable-model-to-test-the-effects-of-multikinase-inhibitors
#19
Valentina Cirello, Valentina Vaira, Elisa Stellaria Grassi, Valeria Vezzoli, Dario Ricca, Carla Colombo, Silvano Bosari, Leonardo Vicentini, Luca Persani, Stefano Ferrero, Laura Fugazzola
Multicellular three-dimensional (3D) spheroids represent an experimental model that is intermediate in its complexity between monolayer cultures and patients' tumor. In the present study, we characterize multicellular spheroids from papillary (PTC) and follicular (FTC) thyroid cancers and from the corresponding normal tissues. We show that these 3D structures well recapitulate the features of the original tissues, in either the differentiated and "stem-like" components. As a second step, we were aimed to test the effects of a small multikinase inhibitor, SP600125 (SP), previously shown to efficiently induce cell death in undifferentiated thyroid cancer monolayer cultures...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035373/cancer-associated-peritoneal-mesothelial-cells-lead-the-formation-of-pancreatic-cancer-peritoneal-dissemination
#20
Toshiya Abe, Kenoki Ohuchida, Kazuhiro Koikawa, Sho Endo, Takashi Okumura, Masafumi Sada, Kohei Horioka, Biao Zheng, Taiki Moriyama, Kohei Nakata, Yoshihiro Miyasaka, Tatsuya Manabe, Takao Ohtsuka, Eishi Nagai, Kazuhiro Mizumoto, Makoto Hashizume, Masafumi Nakamura
The interaction between the cancer cells and the peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) plays an important role in the peritoneal dissemination in several types of cancer. However, the role of PMCs in the peritoneal dissemination of pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between thr pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs) and the PMCs in the formation of peritoneal dissemination in vitro and in vivo. The tumor-stromal interaction of PCCs and PMCs significantly enhanced their mobility and invasiveness and enhanced the proliferation and anoikis resistance of PCCs...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
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