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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736477/long-term-exposure-to-elevated-carbon-dioxide-does-not-alter-activity-levels-of-a-coral-reef-fish-in-response-to-predator-chemical-cues
#1
Josefin Sundin, Mirjam Amcoff, Fernando Mateos-González, Graham D Raby, Fredrik Jutfelt, Timothy D Clark
ABSTRACT: Levels of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) projected to occur in the world's oceans in the near future have been reported to increase swimming activity and impair predator recognition in coral reef fishes. These behavioral alterations would be expected to have dramatic effects on survival and community dynamics in marine ecosystems in the future. To investigate the universality and replicability of these observations, we used juvenile spiny chromis damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) to examine the effects of long-term CO2 exposure on routine activity and the behavioral response to the chemical cues of a predator (Cephalopholis urodeta)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735239/effects-of-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-in-pejerrey-odontesthes-humensis-embryonic-development
#2
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Bruna de Castro Knopp, Luize Real Lansini, Bruna Zafalon-Silva, Adalto Bianchini, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are the major pesticides used worldwide. Among them, the Roundup formulations are the most popular. Some aspects of GBH toxicity are well known, such as induction of oxidative stress. However, embryotoxicity is scarcely known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to different Roundup Transorb R concentrations (0.36, 1.80, 3.62 and 5.43 mg glyphosate a.e./L) on Odontesthes humensis embryonic development. Embryos were sampled at three exposure times (48, 72 and 96 h)...
July 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734991/endoscopic-full-thickness-resection-using-suture-loop-needle-t-tag-tissue-anchors-in-the-porcine-stomach-with-video
#3
Akira Dobashi, Elizabeth Rajan, Mary A Knipschield, Christopher J Gostout
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is still challenging and a reliable technique is desirable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of controlled EFTR using a pseudopolyp made from suture loop needle-T-tag (SLNT) tissue anchors in ex vivo porcine stomachs. METHODS: Five pig stomachs were used. Two concentric circumferential border mucosal incisions were made to facilitate isolating a target lesion for full-thickness excision and pseudopolyp formation...
July 19, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734043/enabling-reduction-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-seniors-pilot-study-concept-rationale-and-design
#4
Todd M Manini, Stephen D Anton, Daniel P Beavers, Jane A Cauley, Mark A Espeland, Roger A Fielding, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Kristina H Lewis, Christine Liu, Mary M McDermott, Michael E Miller, Russell P Tracy, Jeremy D Walston, Barbara Radziszewska, Jane Lu, Cindy Stowe, Samuel Wu, Anne B Newman, Walter T Ambrosius, Marco Pahor
OBJECTIVES: To test two interventions to reduce interleukin (IL)-6 levels, an indicator of low-grade chronic inflammation and an independent risk factor for impaired mobility and slow walking speed in older adults. DESIGN: The ENabling Reduction of low-Grade Inflammation in SEniors (ENRGISE) Pilot Study was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial of two interventions to reduce IL-6 levels. SETTING: Five university-based research centers...
July 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733712/fertility-and-ploidy-of-gametes-of-allodiploid-and-allotriploid-loaches-produced-by-diploid-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus-females-and-paramisgurnus-dabryanus-males
#5
Songqian Huang, Xiaojuan Cao, Weimin Wang, Mona Nasr
Artificial and natural hybridization of dojo loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (2N = 50, DD for short) and large-scale loach Paramisgurnus dabryanus (2N = 48, PP for short) are well-grown. However, these hybrid loaches have not yet been examined for fertility and ploidy of gametes. Here, histological observations, artificial propagation, observations of embryonic development, larval morphology, and ploidy analyses were conducted to determine the fertility and ploidy of gametes of allodiploid (DP for short) and allotriploid (DDP for short) loaches, produced by DD females × PP males and induced from fertilized eggs of DD females × PP males by cold shock to prevent the second polar body release, respectively...
July 21, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732787/molecular-characterization-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-atypical-citrobacter-gillenii-and-citrobacter-sp-isolated-from-diseased-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#6
Muhammed Duman, Izzet Burcin Saticioglu, Ayse Gul Buyukekiz, Fikri Balta, Soner Altun
AIM: Over the last decade, Citrobacter species have been responsible for infections in fish and many species and also new Citrobacter species have been identified. In this study, molecular identifications and the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial-resistance characteristics of atypical and typical Citrobacter species were determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven Citrobacter isolates were investigated from rainbow trout of different lengths with signs of disease...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732514/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-silver-and-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-against-fish-pathogens
#7
Mohamed Ibrahim Shaalan, Magdy Mohamed El-Mahdy, Sarah Theiner, Mansour El-Matbouli, Mona Saleh
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global issue that threatens public health. The excessive use of antibiotics contributes to this problem as the genes of antibiotic resistance can be transferred between the bacteria in humans, animals and aquatic organisms. Metallic nanoparticles could serve as future substitutes for some conventional antibiotics because of their antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against major fish pathogens and assess their safety in vitro...
July 21, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731834/the-essential-oil-of-hyptis-mutabilis-in-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis-infection-and-its-effect-on-hematological-biochemical-and-immunological-parameters-in-silver-catfish-rhamdia-quelen
#8
Jessyka Arruda da Cunha, Fernando Jonas Sutili, Anita Motta Oliveira, Leticia Gressler, Cecilia de Ávila Scheeren, Lenise Lima Silva, Rodrigo Vaucher, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Berta Heinzmann
This study evaluated the activity of leaf essential oil (EO) from Hyptis mutabilis as well as its major constituent, (-)-globulol, in infections by the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). Effects on hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, exposed to same samples also were evaluated. In the first experiment, naturally infected fish were treated with EO (0, 10 and 20 mgL-1) and ethanol, using several methods of exposure. Fish mortality and the number of trophonts per fish were assessed after 48 and 96 hr...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731389/protease-hydrolysates-of-filefish-thamnaconus-modestus-byproducts-effectively-inhibit-foodborne-pathogens
#9
Shaimaa Hatab, Mei-Ling Chen, Wenhua Miao, Jiheng Lin, Dandan Wu, Changyu Wang, Pengxiang Yuan, Shanggui Deng
In this study, novel antimicrobial peptides had been derived by enzymatic hydrolysis of filefish (Thamnaconus modestus) byproduct (HFBP). Different proteases, (papain [P], trypsin [T], neutrase [N], pepsin [PE], and the mixture I [PN] and mixture II [PT]) and different hydrolysis time (60, 120, 180, and 240 min), have been used to generate peptides with different lengths and amino acid sequences. The antimicrobial properties of HFBPs were tested, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using disc diffusion method...
July 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731265/application-of-dead-end-knockout-zebrafish-as-recipients-of-germ-cell-transplantation
#10
Qian Li, Wataru Fujii, Kunihiko Naito, Goro Yoshizaki
Germ cell transplantation is a promising technology for the propagation of endangered or valuable fishes. In this technique, sterile male and female recipient fish are injected with donor germ cells so they can produce viable gametes derived from the donor cells. The dead end (dnd) gene is involved in the migration of primordial germ cells; therefore, dnd-knockout zebrafish are expected to be germ-cell-free, making them suitable recipients for germ cell transplantation. dnd mutants were produced by microinjecting 2 nl of 10 ng/μl cRNAs encoding zinc finger nucleases against dnd into the blastodisc of zebrafish embryos before the cell cleavage stage...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731211/comparative-pathogenicity-of-vibrio-spp-photobacterium-damselae-ssp-damselae-and-five-isolates-of-aeromonas-salmonicida-ssp-achromogenes-in-juvenile-atlantic-halibut-hippoglossus-hippoglossus
#11
T J Bowden, I R Bricknell, B M Preziosi
Juvenile Atlantic halibut (~100 mg, Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were exposed to Vibrio proteolyticus, a Vibrio spp. isolate, Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five different isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes via an hour-long bath immersion to ascertain their variation in pathogenicity to this fish species. Results were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Analysis of the data from challenges using A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes revealed three survival values of zero and a spread of values from 0 to 28...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729633/threats-to-large-brown-algal-forests-in-temperate-seas-the-overlooked-role-of-native-herbivorous-fish
#12
Fabrizio Gianni, Fabrizio Bartolini, Alexis Pey, Mathieu Laurent, Gustavo M Martins, Laura Airoldi, Luisa Mangialajo
Canopy-forming algae are declining globally due to multiple disturbances. This decline has recently been on the increase due to the spread of some tropical herbivorous fishes. This new phenomenon has drawn attention to the effects of fish herbivory in temperate areas, which have been assumed to be negligible compared to that of invertebrates, such as sea urchins. In this study, the impact of a Mediterranean native herbivorous fish (Sarpa salpa, salema) was assessed on the canopy-forming seaweed Cystoseira amentacea var...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728852/in%C3%A2-vitro-characteristics-of-an-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-hind-gut-microbial-community-in-relation-to-different-dietary-treatments
#13
Kamarul Zaman Zarkasi, Richard S Taylor, Brett D Glencross, Guy C J Abell, Mark L Tamplin, John P Bowman
In this study, microbial community dynamics were assessed within a simple in vitro model system in order to understand those changes influenced by diet. The abundance and diversity of bacteria were monitored within different treatment slurries inoculated with salmon faecal samples in order to mimic the effects of dietary variables. A total of five complete diets and two ingredients (plant meal) were tested. The total viable counts (TVCs) and sequencing data revealed that there was very clear separation between the complete diets and the plant meal treatments, suggesting a dynamic response by the allochthonous bacteria to the treatments...
July 17, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728128/radionuclide-biokinetics-in-the-russian-sturgeon-and-phylogenetic-consistencies-with-cartilaginous-and-bony-marine-fishes
#14
Ross A Jeffree, Scott J Markich, Francois Oberhaensli, Jean-Louis Teyssie
The biokinetics of eight radionuclides ((241)Am, (109)Cd, (134)Cs, (75)Se, (54)Mn, (110m)Ag, (65)Zn, (60)Co) absorbed from the aquatic medium by juvenile Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) were experimentally determined in fresh (0.42‰) and brackish (9.0‰) waters, of a similar salinity range to the Caspian Sea, and in conjunction with chemical speciation modelling. Uptake and loss rate constants were determined for each radionuclide for a 14 day exposure at each salinity and during 28 days of exposure to radionuclide-free conditions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728110/development-of-a-bioanalytical-test-battery-for-water-quality-monitoring-fingerprinting-identified-micropollutants-and-their-contribution-to-effects-in-surface-water
#15
Peta A Neale, Rolf Altenburger, Selim Aït-Aïssa, François Brion, Wibke Busch, Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Michael S Denison, David Du Pasquier, Klára Hilscherová, Henner Hollert, Daniel A Morales, Jiří Novák, Rita Schlichting, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Helene Serra, Ying Shao, Andrew J Tindall, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Timothy D Williams, Beate I Escher
Surface waters can contain a diverse range of organic pollutants, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds. While bioassays have been used for water quality monitoring, there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of individual micropollutants and their relationship to the overall mixture effect in water samples. In this study, a battery of in vitro bioassays based on human and fish cell lines and whole organism assays using bacteria, algae, daphnids and fish embryos was assembled for use in water quality monitoring...
July 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727201/gene-expression-stasis-and-plasticity-following-migration-into-a-foreign-environment
#16
Brian K Lohman, William E Stutz, Daniel I Bolnick
Selection against migrants is key to maintaining genetic differences between populations linked by dispersal. However, migrants may mitigate fitness costs by proactively choosing among available habitats, or by phenotypic plasticity. We previously reported that a reciprocal transplant of lake and stream stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) found little support for divergent selection. Here, we revisit that experiment to test whether phenotypic plasticity in gene expression may have helped migrants adjust to unfamiliar habitats...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727099/identification-of-differentially-expressed-proteins-in-testicular-semen-of-sex-reversed-female-xx-and-normal-male-xy-rainbow-trout
#17
J Nynca, M Adamek, A Ciereszko
Masculinized females, named sex-reversed females (SRF), have a male phenotype but retain the female genotype (XX) and all spermatozoa produced in their testes carry the X chromosome. Masculinization of females leads to incomplete testicular development and the production of lower-quality semen. The mechanism of masculinization is unknown at present. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify differentially abundant proteins in testicular semen of normal males and SRF using a difference in-gel electrophoresis approach...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725393/water-mold-infection-but-not-paternity-induces-selective-filial-cannibalism-in-a-goby
#18
Martin Vallon, Nils Anthes, Katja U Heubel
Many animals heavily invest in parental care but still reject at least some of their offspring. Although seemingly paradoxical, selection can favor parents to neglect offspring of particularly low reproductive value, for example, because of small survival chances. We here assess whether filial cannibalism (FC), where parents routinely eat some of their own young, is selective in response to individual offspring reproductive value. We performed two independent laboratory experiments in the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps) to test whether caring fathers preferentially cannibalize eggs of a given infection history and paternity...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725388/swimming-with-the-giant-coexistence-patterns-of-a-new-redfin-minnow-pseudobarbus-skeltoni-from-a-global-biodiversity-hot-spot
#19
Wilbert T Kadye, Albert Chakona, Martine S Jordaan
Ecological niche theory predicts that coexistence is facilitated by resource partitioning mechanisms that are influenced by abiotic and biotic interactions. Alternative hypotheses suggest that under certain conditions, species may become phenotypically similar and functionally equivalent, which invokes the possibility of other mechanisms, such as habitat filtering processes. To test these hypotheses, we examined the coexistence of the giant redfin Pseudobarbus skeltoni, a newly described freshwater fish, together with its congener Pseudobabus burchelli and an anabantid Sandelia capensis by assessing their scenopoetic and bionomic patterns...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724932/simultaneous-identification-of-ten-bacterial-pathogens-using-the-multiplex-ligation-reaction-based-on-the-probe-melting-curve-analysis
#20
Yixiang Jiang, Lianhua He, Pingfang Wu, Xiaolu Shi, Min Jiang, Yinghui Li, Yiman Lin, Yaqun Qiu, Fang Bai, Yiqun Liao, Qingge Li, RenLi Zhang, Qinghua Hu
Pathogenic Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides are associated with human gastroenteritis and wound infections, as well as fish diseases. The comprehensive and accurate identification of these pathogens is crucial for the current public health. The present study describes the development of a multiplex assay for the simultaneous identification of ten bacterial pathogens in a single reaction by using a multiplex ligation reaction based on probe melting curve analysis (MLMA). The specificity for target genes was 100%, as assessed with a panel of 67 bacterial pathogens, which indicated no cross-reactions...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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