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Immune cells

Marlen Vitales-Noyola, Rita Martínez-Martínez, Juan P Loyola-Rodríguez, Lourdes Baranda, Perla Niño-Moreno, Roberto González-Amaro
BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is chronic inflammatory process that affects the attachment structures of the teeth and constitutes a significant cause of tooth loss in adults. Although different bacteria play an important role in the triggering of this condition, the progression and severity of the disease are strongly affected by the host immune response, which is under the control of different immune-regulatory mechanisms, including T regulatory (Treg) cells. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and function of CD69(+) Treg lymphocytes in patients with chronic periodontal disease...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Sharon L I Wong, Maria B Sukkar
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein which regulates interactions between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), and thus governs fundamental cellular functions such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. SPARC also regulates the expression and activity of numerous growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases essential for ECM degradation and turnover. Studies in SPARC-null mice have revealed a critical role for SPARC in tissue development, injury and repair, and in the regulation of the immune response...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Zhengwei Wen, Qunying Jia, Xiaojuan Kang, Yongliang Lou, Lilin Zou, Jifeng Yang, Jimin Gao, Liping Han, Xiang Li
Interferon (IFN) regulates immune responses and antitumor activity. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides can specifically bind to integrin αvβ3, a transmembrane receptor that is highly expressed on the surface of various cancer cells. In this study, we expressed recombinant RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins and assessed their antitumor activity in vitro. Two RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins and a negative control protein were expressed in vitro. These two RGD-IFN-α2a-core fusion proteins could bind the tumor cell surface specifically and did not bind to normal cells...
October 18, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Qingsheng Li, Nejat K Egilmez
The critical contribution of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells (Treg) to immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment is well-established. Whereas the mechanisms that drive the generation and accumulation of Treg in tumors have been an active area of study, the information on their origin and population dynamics remains limited. In this review, we discuss the ontogeny of tumor-associated Treg in light of the recently identified lineage markers.
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Justin C Chia, P Régine Mydlarski
PURPOSE: Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits the binding of IgE to the high-affinity IgE receptor (FceRI) on the surface of mast cells and basophils. Omalizumab has been approved for use in asthma, and new reports show promise in a variety of dermatologic diseases. Herein, we review the literature on omalizumab in dermatology and discuss the safety, efficacy and mechanisms of action for this emerging therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMED, MEDLINE, and Embase databases were searched for the period January 1, 1990, to September 1, 2016...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi, Fariba Jousheghany, Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Development of cancer vaccines targeting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is an alternative approach to chemotherapy with sustained anti-tumor effects. The success of active immunotherapy has been hampered by tumor-induced immune suppressors. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a population of immune suppressors with a proven role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Removing or subduing Tregs activity leads to more robust anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we used a cell-based vaccination strategy in the 4T1 murine mammary model to examine whether bulk removal of certain TAAs, using their glycan profile, can affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Paula D Bos
A prerequisite for tumor evolution toward a malignant state is the establishment of cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of immune suppression (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000, 2011; Schreiber, Old, and Smyth, 2011). Widespread recruitment of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (TREG) is a prevailing means to dampen antitumor immunity. Advances in the characterization of TREG cell heterogeneity and physiological function of tissue resident TREG cells unfold new possibilities for nontraditional tumor-promoting functions of intratumoral TREG cells...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
G Chistyakova, I Gazieva, I Remizova, L Ustyantseva, V Lyapunov, S Bychkova
We conducted a study of markers of endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis regulation, as well as the identification of the main lymphocyte populations, activated CD3 (+) CD95(+)-cells and cytokine-producing CD4 (+) IFN-γ(+)-, CD4 (+) IL-4(+ )-lymphocytes in the 1st trimester of gestation in women with ART-induced pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancy. We used the same indicators to assess the immune status of ELBW infants at birth and at the post-conceptual age of 38-40 weeks. It was determined that the risk factors of very early preterm delivery are: threatened miscarriage, chronic placental insufficiency, endothelial dysfunction, increased spontaneous production of intracellular cytokines...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
M R Orazov, E N Nosenko, V E Radzinsky, M B Khamoshina, M G Lebedeva, M A Sounov
AIM: The study of peculiarities of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tissues of the endometrium and myometrium in patients with adenomyosis, associated with chronic pelvic pain syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Uterus macro-preparations obtained after hysterectomy in 60 patients with pelvic pain on a background of diffuse adenomyosis II-III degree were used for morphological examination, and macro-preparations received from 30 women with adenomyosis without pain syndrome...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
A M Kurmanova, G M Kurmanova, V N Lokshin
The viral hepatitis abnormalities in the female reproductive system are due to hepatic and extrahepatic damage. On the background of HBV- and HCV-infections, menstrual disorders prevail in the structure of reproductive system pathology; disorders of reproductive function in the form of pregnancy loss and infertility are detected in each second case. Depression of T-cell immunity in the immune status is observed in the patients with intact reproductive function. When miscarriage was in past medical history then divergent changes subpopulations of lymphocytes are found...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
N M Mamedalieva, A M Kurmanova, G N Moshkalova, V Kim
A study of the endometrium of women with herpetic infection has shown that early miscarriages (under 12 weeks) occurs as activation of cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells with CD16 + phenotype and a pronounced suppression level of CD56 + cells endometrial type, and late miscarriages (13-22 weeks of gestation) occurs as cell deficit, followed by reduction of all CD8 + cytotoxic lymphocytes, and of CD56 + and CD16 + NK cells.
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Sa Liu, Yulong Chen, Shiping Xie, Qianlei Xu, Jianshe Chen, Changhai Wang, Zhao Wang, Suna Ma, Xingwei Wu, Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applied in the clinic as a complementary and alternative therapy has helped improve immunity and reduce side effects and symptomatic treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the mechanisms of TCM syndromes are not clear. Transcriptomics enables the study of such TCM syndromes. DESIGN: This study compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of healthy persons and patients with HIV/AIDS who had two common TCM syndromes, qi-yin deficiency and dampness-heat retention, to find the difference in HIV/AIDS with TCM syndromes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Jinhua Sun, Yinglin Chen, Feiyue Qin, Xueting Guan, Wei Xu, Liangmei Xu
Interferons have attracted considerable attention due to their vital roles in the host immune response and low induction of antibiotic resistance. In this study, total RNA was extracted from spleen cells of chicken embryos inoculated with Newcastle disease vaccine, and the full-length chicken interferon-γ (ChIFN-γ) gene was amplified by RT-PCR. The full complementary DNA sequence of the ChIFN-γ gene was 495 bp long and was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pProEX™HTb . The plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α and the expression of ChIFN-γ was induced by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside...
October 17, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Jun P Ren, Lin Wang, Juan Zhao, Ling Wang, Shun B Ning, Mohamed El Gazzar, Jonathan P Moorman, Zhi Q Yao
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to attenuating immune responses during chronic viral infection; however, the precise mechanisms underlying their suppressive activities remain incompletely understood. We have recently shown marked expansion of MDSCs that promote regulatory T (Treg) cell development in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here we further investigated whether the HCV-induced expansion of MDSCs and Tregs is regulated by a miRNA-mediated mechanism...
October 18, 2016: Immunology
Richard J Lin, Catherine S Diefenbach
Hodgkin lymphoma is a unique disease entity characterized by a low number of neoplastic tumor cells surrounded by an inflammatory microenvironment composed of dysfunctional immune cells. Recent molecular and genetic studies have revealed that upregulation of the immune checkpoint pathway programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 is a key oncogenic driver of Hodgkin lymphoma. Corroborating these mechanistic studies, early-phase clinical trials using the checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab in treatment regimens for relapsed and/or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma have demonstrated impressive response rates, a promising durability of response, and a favorable side-effect profile...
October 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Grigory A Stepanov, Julia A Filippova, Anna A Nushtaeva, Elena V Kuligina, Olga A Koval, Vladimir A Richter, Dmitriy V Semenov
Fragments of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were found among various non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) circulating in human blood. Currently, the function of such cell-free sno-derived-RNAs is not clearly defined. This work is aimed at identifying regulatory pathways controlled by extracellular snoRNAs. In order to determine the molecular targets and pathways affected by artificial snoRNAs, we performed Illumina array analysis of MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells transfected with box C/D RNAs. The genes related to the innate immune response and apoptotic cascades were found to be activated in transfected cells compared with control cells...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Anna V Cherepanova, Zhanna K Nazarkina, Pavel P Laktionov
Oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) analogues of cell-surface-bound circulating DNA inhibit the dsRNA-induced production of pro-inflammatory interleukin 6, interferon beta and antibacterial peptide beta-defensin 2 not only in human gingival fibroblasts, but also in human primary endothelial and transformed cells (Hela and A431). ODN analogues do not effect dendritic cells activation by poly(I:C). The data obtained indicate that the early stages of the signal transduction cascade are violated by ODN analogues and the effects depend on the cell type...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xiao-Wen Zhu, Hai-Zhen Zhu, You-Qing Zhu, Mao-Hui Feng, Jian Qi, Zhi-Fen Chen
The mechanism underlying CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) promoting the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) was elucidated in the present study. Forty-eight cases of colorectal carcinomas, 22 cases of colon polyps and 21 cases of normal colorectal tissues were collected. The correlation among Foxp3, IL-10 and Stat3, and the clinical relevance of these three indexes were analyzed. The results showed that the levels of Foxp3 expressed in infiltrating CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Tregs, and IL-10 and Stat3 in CRC tissues were all significantly higher than those in polypus tissues and normal colon tissues (P< 0...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Tatjana Taubitz, Laura-Pia Steinbrenner, Alexander V Tschulakow, Antje Biesemeier, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer, Ulrich Schraermeyer
PURPOSE: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are used to treat neovascular eye diseases. Some of these drugs contain Fc fragments (Fc), but it is unknown how their mode of action is influenced by Fc. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of Fc on rat eyes after intravitreal injection. METHODS: Eighteen Long-Evans rats were intravitreally injected with sterile, biotin-labeled rat Fc (9.1 μg in 5 μl PBS). For control, 5 μl PBS was injected in another nine rats...
October 17, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Huiting Su, Ning Na, Xiaodong Zhang, Yong Zhao
CD74 (MHC class II invariant chain, Ii) is a non-polymorphic type II transmembrane glycoprotein. It is clear that, in addition to be an MHC class II chaperone, CD74 has a diversity of biological functions in physiological and pathological situations. CD74 also participates in other non-MHC II protein trafficking, such as angiotensin II type I receptor. In addition, CD74 is a cell membrane high-affinity receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT/MIF-2) and bacterial proteins...
October 17, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
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