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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092911/behaviour-of-cd11b-positive-cells-in-an-animal-model-of-laser-induced-choroidal-neovascularisation
#1
Lu Li, Peter Heiduschka, Anne F Alex, Daniel Niekämper, Nicole Eter
BACKGROUND/AIM: Immune cells, e.g. microglial cells of the retina, appear to be involved in pathological processes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to immunohistochemically check the expression of various factors and cytokines by CD11b-positive (CD11b+) immune cells in an animal model of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). METHODS: We used the animal model of laser-induced CNV in mice. Eyes were isolated at 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after laser treatment...
January 17, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092909/immune-mediated-neuropathies-following-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-for-multiple-myeloma-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Ghulam Rehman Mohyuddin, Jacqueline Uy, Honhar Medhavi, Muhammad Salman Faisal, Muzaffar H Qazilbash
Neuropathy is a common finding in patients with multiple myeloma. Several different factors can cause neuropathy in these patients, such as the underlying disease itself, medications used for treatment, or immune-mediated processes. Immune-mediated neuropathies (IMN) consist of a heterogeneous spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders. Although IMN is associated with several hematological disorders, it remains a very rare complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We describe our experiences of 3 patients with multiple myeloma who experienced IMN following autologous HCT (auto-HCT)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092866/transmembrane-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-promotes-the-recruitment-of-mdscs-to-tumor-tissue-by-upregulating-cxcr4-expression-via-tnfr2
#3
Hongping Ba, Baihua Li, Xiaoyan Li, Cheng Li, Anlin Feng, Yazhen Zhu, Jing Wang, Zhuoya Li, Bingjiao Yin
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated in tumor sites promote immune evasion. We found that TNFR deficiency-induced rejection of transplanted tumor was accompanied with markedly decreased accumulation of MDSCs. However, the mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon is not completely understood. Here, we demonstrated that TNFR deficiency did not affect the amount of MDSCs in bone marrow (BM), but decreased accumulation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) MDSCs in the spleen and tumor tissues. The chemotaxis of Tnfr(-/-) MDSCs was prominently decreased in response to both tumor cell culture supernatants and tumor tissue homogenates from Tnfr(-/-) and wild-type mice, indicating an effect of TNFR signaling on chemokine receptor expression in MDSCs...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092864/augmentation-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-in-response-to-tetanus-and-diphtheria-toxoids-by-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-extracts-of-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-leaves
#4
Bindhya Jayashankar, Divya Singh, Himanshi Tanwar, K P Mishra, Swetha Murthy, Sudipta Chanda, Jigni Mishra, R Tulswani, K Misra, S B Singh, Lilly Ganju
Hippophae rhamnoides L. commonly known as Seabuckthorn (SBT), a wild shrub of family Elaegnacea, has extensively used for treating various ailments like skin diseases, jaundice, asthma, lung troubles. SBT leaves have been reported to possess several pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and tissue regeneration etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adjuvant property of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts (SCEs 300ET and 350ET) of SBT leaves in balb/c mice immunized with Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoids...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092744/quercetin-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-primary-effusion-lymphoma-cells-by-inhibiting-pi3k-akt-mtor-and-stat3-signaling-pathways
#5
Marisa Granato, Celeste Rizzello, Maria Saveria Gilardini Montani, Laura Cuomo, Marina Vitillo, Roberta Santarelli, Roberta Gonnella, Gabriella D'Orazi, Alberto Faggioni, Mara Cirone
Quercetin, a bioflavonoid contained in several vegetables daily consumed, has been studied for long time for its antiinflammatory and anticancer properties. Quercetin interacts with multiple cancer-related pathways such as PI3K/AKT, Wnt/β-catenin and STAT3. These pathways are hyperactivated in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), an aggressive B cell lymphoma whose pathogenesis is strictly linked to the oncogenic virus Kaposis' Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV). In this study, we found that quercetin inhibited PI3K/AKT/mTOR and STAT3 pathways in PEL cells, and as a consequence, it down-regulated the expression of the prosurvival cellular proteins such as c-FLIP, cyclin D1 and cMyc...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092673/irf7-regulates-the-development-of-granulocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-through-s100a9-transrepression-in-cancer
#6
Q Yang, X Li, H Chen, Y Cao, Q Xiao, Y He, J Wei, J Zhou
Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is one of the major obstacles against achieving appropriate anti-tumor immune responses and successful tumor immunotherapy. Granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) are common in tumor-bearing hosts. However, the mechanisms regulating the development of MDSCs, especially G-MDSCs, remain poorly understood. In this report, we showed that interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) plays an important role in the development of G-MDSCs, but not monocytic MDSCs. IRF7 deficiency caused significant elevation of G-MDSCs, and therefore enhanced tumor growth and metastasis in mice...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092661/interactions-between-the-microbiota-immune-and-nervous-systems-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson, Elaine Y Hsiao
The diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, collectively called the gut microbiota, profoundly influences many aspects of host physiology, including nutrient metabolism, resistance to infection and immune system development. Studies investigating the gut-brain axis demonstrate a critical role for the gut microbiota in orchestrating brain development and behavior, and the immune system is emerging as an important regulator of these interactions. Intestinal microbes modulate the maturation and function of tissue-resident immune cells in the CNS...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092619/concentration-of-lactoferrin-and-immunoglobulin-g-in-cows-milk-in-relation-to-health-status-of-the-udder-lactation-and-season
#9
K Musayeva, A Sederevičius, R Želvytė, I Monkevičienė, D Beliavska-Aleksiejūnė, S Kerzienė
The aim of this study was to analyze an effect of udder health status, somatic cell count (SCC), stage and number of lactations, and different seasons on the concentration of lactoferrin (LF) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in quarter milk samples (n=120) from crossbreed (Lithuanian Black-and-White & Holstein) dairy cows. Quarter health status was based on SCC and microbiological analysis. The highest mean value of LF and IgG were observed in quarters with subclinical mastitis 0.1 ± 0.02 mg/ml and 0.41 ± 0.06 mg/ml, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092616/generation-and-characterization-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-duck-tembusu-virus-envelope-protein
#10
K Han, D Zhao, Y Liu, Q Liu, X Huang, J Yang, K Bi, T Xu, Y Li
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused massive economic losses to the duck industry in China. Envelope (E) protein of DTMUV is an important structural protein, which is able to induce protective immune response in target animals and can be used as specific serological diagnosis tool. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody, designated mAb 3E9, was generated against DTMUV E protein. It is positive in indirect ELISA against both His-E protein and the purified whole viral antigen...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092612/evaluation-of-serum-cytokine-levels-in-recurrent-airway-obstruction
#11
A Niedźwiedź, H Borowicz, K Kubiak, J Nicpoń, P Skrzypczak, Z Jaworski, M Cegielski, J Nicpoń
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) represents a serious health problem and is traditionally classified as an allergic disease, where contact with an antigen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and reversible airway obstruction. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of the Th2 response in the lungs of human patients with asthma and horses with heaves. These cells are involved in the production of cytokines which regulate the synthesis of immunoglobulins. 40 horses were evaluated: 30 horses with RAO and 10 healthy animals...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092486/use-of-polyclonal-monoclonal-antibody-therapies-in-transplantation
#12
Melissa Y Yeung, Steven Gabardi, Mohamed H Sayegh
For over thirty years, antibody (mAb)-based therapies have been a standard component of transplant immunosuppression, and yet much remains to be learned in order for us to truly harness their therapeutic capabilities. Current mAbs used in transplant directly target and destroy graft-destructive immune cells, interrupt cytokine and costimulation-dependent T and B cell activation, and prevent down-stream complement activation. Areas covered: This review summarizes our current approaches to using antibody-based therapies to prevent and treat allograft rejection...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092420/immune-modulation-by-the-hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein
#13
Cecilia Fernández-Ponce, Juan Pedro Muñoz-Miranda, Mikel M Arbulo-Echevarria, Rocío Litrán, Enrique Aguado, Francisco García-Cozar
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently the most important cause of chronic viral hepatitis in the world and one of the most frequent indications for liver transplantation. HCV uses different strategies to evade the innate and adaptive immune response, and this evasion plays a key role in determining viral persistence. Several HCV viral proteins have been described as immune modulators. In this review, we will focus on the effect of HCV nucleocapsid core protein in the function of immune cells and its correlation with the findings observed in HCV chronically infected patients...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092405/thrombin-contributes-to-protective-immunity-in-pneumonia-derived-sepsis-via-fibrin-polymerization-and-platelet-neutrophil-interactions
#14
Theodora A M Claushuis, Sacha F de Stoppelaar, Ingrid Stroo, Joris J T H Roelofs, Roelof Ottenhoff, Tom van der Poll, Cornelis van 't Veer
BACKGROUND: Innate immunity and coagulation are closely linked during sepsis. Their interaction can be detrimental for outcome due to microvascular failure but can also enhance host defense. The role of thrombin herein has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the contribution of thrombin to the host response during pneumonia derived sepsis. METHODS: Mice treated with the specific thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran or control chow were infected with the common human sepsis pathogen Klebsiella (K...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092376/infectious-immunity-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-brain-function
#15
REVIEW
Robyn S Klein, Charise Garber, Nicole Howard
Inflammation is emerging as a critical mechanism underlying neurological disorders of various etiologies, yet its role in altering brain function as a consequence of neuroinfectious disease remains unclear. Although acute alterations in mental status due to inflammation are a hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) infections with neurotropic pathogens, post-infectious neurologic dysfunction has traditionally been attributed to irreversible damage caused by the pathogens themselves. More recently, studies indicate that pathogen eradication within the CNS may require immune responses that interfere with neural cell function and communication without affecting their survival...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092374/the-movers-and-shapers-in-immune-privilege-of-the-cns
#16
REVIEW
Britta Engelhardt, Peter Vajkoczy, Roy O Weller
Discoveries leading to an improved understanding of immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) have repeatedly provoked dismissal of the existence of immune privilege of the CNS. Recent rediscoveries of lymphatic vessels within the dura mater surrounding the brain, made possible by modern live-cell imaging technologies, have revived this discussion. This review emphasizes the fact that understanding immune privilege of the CNS requires intimate knowledge of its unique anatomy. Endothelial, epithelial and glial brain barriers establish compartments in the CNS that differ strikingly with regard to their accessibility to immune-cell subsets...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092372/direct-control-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-keratinocytes
#17
Mariko Kashiwagi, Junichi Hosoi, Jen-Feng Lai, Janice Brissette, Steven F Ziegler, Bruce A Morgan, Katia Georgopoulos
Environmental challenges to epithelial cells trigger gene expression changes that elicit context-appropriate immune responses. We found that the chromatin remodeler Mi-2β controls epidermal homeostasis by regulating the genes involved in keratinocyte and immune-cell activation to maintain an inactive state. Mi-2β depletion resulted in rapid deployment of both a pro-inflammatory and an immunosuppressive response in the skin. A key target of Mi-2β in keratinocytes is the pro-inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092371/neuroimmune-regulation-during-intestinal-development-and-homeostasis
#18
REVIEW
Henrique Veiga-Fernandes, Vassilis Pachnis
Interactions between the nervous system and immune system are required for organ function and homeostasis. Evidence suggests that enteric neurons and intestinal immune cells share common regulatory mechanisms and can coordinate their responses to developmental challenges and environmental aggressions. These discoveries shed light on the physiology of system interactions and open novel perspectives for therapy designs that target underappreciated neurological-immunological commonalities. Here we highlight findings that address the importance of neuroimmune cell units (NICUs) in intestinal development, homeostasis and disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092370/api5-confers-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-through-the-fgf2-nanog-axis
#19
K-H Song, H Cho, S Kim, H-J Lee, S J Oh, S R Woo, S-O Hong, H S Jang, K H Noh, C H Choi, J-Y Chung, S M Hewitt, J-H Kim, M Son, S-H Kim, B I Lee, H-C Park, Y-K Bae, T W Kim
Immune selection drives the evolution of tumor cells toward an immune-resistant and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype. We reported that apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5) acts as an immune escape factor, which has a significant role in controlling immune resistance to antigen-specific T cells, but its functional association with CSC-like properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that API5 confers CSC-like properties, including NANOG expression, the frequency of CD44-positive cells and sphere-forming capacity...
January 16, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092363/mouse-models-of-uv-induced-melanoma-genetics-pathology-and-clinical-relevance
#20
Chi-Ping Day, Rachel Marchalik, Glenn Merlino, Helen Michael
Melanocytes, a neural crest cell derivative, produce pigment to protect keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although melanocytic lesions such as nevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas are known to be associated with sun exposure, the role of UVR in oncogenesis is complex and has yet to be clearly elucidated. UVR appears to have a direct mutational role in inducing or promoting melanoma formation as well as an indirect role through microenvironmental changes. Recent advances in the modeling of human melanoma in animals have built platforms upon which prospective studies can begin to investigate these questions...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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