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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910741/drug-susceptibility-testing-in-microaerophilic-parasites-cysteine-strongly-affects-the-effectivities-of-metronidazole-and-auranofin-a-novel-and-promising-antimicrobial
#1
David Leitsch
The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia annually cause hundreds of millions of human infections which are treated with antiparasitic drugs. Metronidazole is the most often prescribed drug but also other drugs are in use, and novel drugs with improved characteristics are constantly being developed. One of these novel drugs is auranofin, originally an antirheumatic which has been relabelled for the treatment of parasitic infections. Drug effectivity is arguably the most important criterion for its applicability and is commonly assessed in susceptibility assays using in vitro cultures of a given pathogen...
September 5, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898487/structural-and-thermodynamic-characterization-of-metal-binding-in-vps29-from-entamoeba-histolytica-implication-in-retromer-function
#2
Vijay Kumar Srivastava, Rupali Yadav, Watanabe Natsuki, Priya Tomar, Madhumita Mukherjee, Samudrala Gourinath, Kumiko Nakada-Tsukui, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Sunando Datta
Vps29 is the smallest subunit of retromer complex with metallo-phosphatase fold. Although the role of metal in Vps29 is in quest, its metal binding mutants has been reported to affect the localization of the retromer complex in human cells. In this study, we report the structural and thermodynamic consequences of these mutations in Vps29 from the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica (EhVps29). EhVps29 is a zinc binding protein as revealed by X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry. The metal binding pocket of EhVps29 exhibits marked differences in its 3-dimensional architecture and metal coordination in comparison to its human homologs and other metallo-phosphatases...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894643/status-of-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-red-panda-of-nepal
#3
Damber Bista, Saroj Shrestha, Ajaya Jang Kunwar, Sakshi Acharya, Shant Raj Jnawali, Krishna Prasad Acharya
Red pandas are known to be highly susceptible to endoparasites, which can have a prominent impact on the population dynamics of this endangered species. There are very limited published reports on prevalence and risk of parasites in wild populations of red panda, especially localized reports. This study attempts to provide an in-depth insight of the status of endoparasites in red pandas, which is critical for strengthening conservation efforts. A total of 272 fecal samples were collected through systematic sampling across the red panda distribution range in Nepal and coprological examination was completed using standard techniques...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884488/uniqueness-of-entamoeba-sulfur-metabolism-sulfolipid-metabolism-that-plays-pleiotropic-roles-in-the-parasitic-life-cycle
#4
Fumika Mi-Ichi, Tomofumi Miyamoto, Hiroki Yoshida
Sulfur metabolism is ubiquitous and terminally synthesizes various biomolecules that are crucial for organisms, such as sulfur-containing amino acids and co-factors, sulfolipids, and sulfated saccharides. Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite responsible for amoebiasis, possesses the unique sulfur metabolism features of atypical localization and its terminal product being limited to sulfolipids. Here, we present an overall scheme of E. histolytica sulfur metabolism by relating all sulfotransferases and sulfatases to their substrates and products...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877704/coproscopy-and-molecular-screening-for-detection-of-intestinal-protozoa
#5
Marawan Abu-Madi, Sonia Boughattas, Jerzy M Behnke, Aarti Sharma, Ahmed Ismail
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitosis is one of several health concerns about immigrants who travel from endemic to non-endemic regions. Reliable rapid sensitive diagnostic tools, for use in non-endemic regions, are urgently required to enable frequent assessment of immigrant workers in jobs where risk of local transmission is a particular concern (e.g. food-handlers). We assessed the burden of intestinal protozoa in newly arrived immigrants and those applying for renewal of work permits in Qatar (n = 735), by both microscopic examination of stool samples and by Real Time PCR methodology...
September 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861400/entamoeba-histolytica-ehcp112-dislocates-and-degrades-claudin-1-and-claudin-2-at-tight-junctions-of-the-intestinal-epithelium
#6
Patricia Cuellar, Elizabeth Hernández-Nava, Guillermina García-Rivera, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Michael Schnoor, Abigail Betanzos, Esther Orozco
During intestinal invasion, Entamoeba histolytica opens tight junctions (TJs) reflected by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) dropping. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying this, we studied in vitro and in vivo the damage produced by the recombinant E. histolytica cysteine protease (rEhCP112) on TJ functions and proteins. rEhCP112 reduced TEER in Caco-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner; and EhCP112-overexpressing trophozoites provoked major epithelial injury compared to control trophozoites...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858041/no-detection-of-entamoeba-histolytica-by-multiplex-pcr-in-children-with-acute-non-bloody-diarrhea-in-guatemala
#7
Satoshi Kamidani, Mario Melgar, Christine Robinson, Edwin Asturias, Stephen Berman, James Gaensbauer
Entamoeba histolytica is believed to be a ubiquitous cause of pediatric non-bloody diarrhea. Using a multiplex PCR assay, we identified stool pathogens in 298 Guatemalan children presenting with acute, non-bloody diarrhea. Despite a high overall pathogen burden, we identified no cases of E. histolytica. Knowledge of local epidemiology is important to inform E. histolytica therapeutic strategies in low-income settings.
August 26, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851845/inhibition-of-amebic-lysosomal-acidification-blocks-amebic-trogocytosis-and-cell-killing
#8
Allissia A Gilmartin, Katherine S Ralston, William A Petri
Entamoeba histolytica ingests fragments of live host cells in a nibbling-like process termed amebic trogocytosis. Amebic trogocytosis is required for cell killing and contributes to tissue invasion, which is a hallmark of invasive amebic colitis. Work done prior to the discovery of amebic trogocytosis showed that acid vesicles are required for amebic cytotoxicity. In the present study, we show that acidified lysosomes are required for amebic trogocytosis and cell killing. Interference with lysosome acidification using ammonium chloride, a weak base, or concanamycin A, a vacuolar H(+) ATPase inhibitor, decreased amebic trogocytosis and amebic cytotoxicity...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843417/evaluation-of-primitive-ground-water-supplies-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-major-waterborne-zoonosis-in-egyptian-children-living-in-rural-areas
#9
Hassan A Elfadaly, Nawal A Hassanain, Mohey A Hassanain, Ashraf M Barakat, Raafat M Shaapan
BACKGROUND: Endemic waterborne zoonosis frequently occurs in both developed and less developed countries. Thus, bio-surveillance of waterborne zoonosis is a "necessity" for the implementation of effective preventive public health measures in Egyptian rural areas. The primitive individual water supplies created by the rural agriculture population, primarily from ground water, usually maximize the customers' exposure to impurity pathogens via diffused humans and animal excreta or wastages...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842620/synthetic-analogs-of-an-entamoeba-histolytica-glycolipid-designed-to-combat-intracellular-leishmania-infection
#10
Siew Ling Choy, Hannah Bernin, Toshihiko Aiba, Eugenia Bifeld, Sarah Corinna Lender, Melina Mühlenpfordt, Jill Noll, Julia Eick, Claudia Marggraff, Hanno Niss, Nestor González Roldán, Shinji Tanaka, Masato Kitamura, Koichi Fukase, Joachim Clos, Egbert Tannich, Yukari Fujimoto, Hannelore Lotter
Intracellular pathogens belonging to the genus Leishmania have developed effective strategies that enable them to survive within host immune cells. Immunostimulatory compounds that counteract such immunological escape mechanisms represent promising treatment options for diseases. Here, we demonstrate that a lipopeptidephosphoglycan (LPPG) isolated from the membrane of a protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica (Eh), shows considerable immunostimulatory effects targeted against Leishmania (L.) major, a representative species responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837696/the-macrophage-cytoskeleton-acts-as-a-contact-sensor-upon-interaction-with-entamoeba-histolytica-to-trigger-il-1%C3%AE-secretion
#11
Joëlle St-Pierre, France Moreau, Steve Cornick, Jeanie Quach, Sharmin Begum, Luz Aracely Fernandez, Hayley Gorman, Kris Chadee
Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is the causative agent of amebiasis, one of the major causes of dysentery-related morbidity worldwide. Recent studies have underlined the importance of the intercellular junction between Eh and host cells as a determinant in the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Despite the fact that direct contact and ligation between Eh surface Gal-lectin and EhCP-A5 with macrophage α5β1 integrin are absolute requirements for NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release, many other undefined molecular events and downstream signaling occur at the interface of Eh and macrophage...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835648/bioflow-a-non-invasive-image-based-method-to-measure-speed-pressure-and-forces-inside-living-cells
#12
Aleix Boquet-Pujadas, Timothée Lecomte, Maria Manich, Roman Thibeaux, Elisabeth Labruyère, Nancy Guillén, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Alexandre C Dufour
Cell motility is governed by a complex molecular machinery that converts physico-chemical cues into whole-cell movement. Understanding the underlying biophysical mechanisms requires the ability to measure physical quantities inside the cell in a simple, reproducible and preferably non-invasive manner. To this end, we developed BioFlow, a computational mechano-imaging method and associated software able to extract intracellular measurements including pressure, forces and velocity everywhere inside freely moving cells in two and three dimensions with high spatial resolution in a non-invasive manner...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820699/in-vitro-testing-of-potential-entamoeba-histolytica-pyruvate-phosphate-dikinase-inhibitors
#13
Syazwan Saidin, Nurulhasanah Othman, Rahmah Noordin
Adverse effects and resistance to metronidazole have motivated the search for new antiamoebic agents against Entamoeba histolytica. Control of amoeba growth may be achieved by inhibiting the function of the glycolytic enzyme and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). In this study, we screened 10 compounds using an in vitro PPDK enzyme assay. These compounds were selected from a virtual screening of compounds in the National Cancer Institute database. The antiamoebic activity of the selected compounds was also evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and IC50 values using the nitro-blue tetrazolium reduction assay...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817707/microbiome-mediated-neutrophil-recruitment-via-cxcr2-and-protection-from-amebic-colitis
#14
Koji Watanabe, Carol A Gilchrist, Md Jashim Uddin, Stacey L Burgess, Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Shannon N Moonah, Zannatun Noor, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Brittany N Schneider, Tuhinur Arju, Emtiaz Ahmed, Mamun Kabir, Masud Alam, Rashidul Haque, Patcharin Pramoonjago, Borna Mehrad, William A Petri
The disease severity of Entamoeba histolytica infection ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Recent human and animal data implicate the gut microbiome as a modifier of E. histolytica virulence. Here we have explored the association of the microbiome with susceptibility to amebiasis in infants and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Dysbiosis occurred symptomatic E. histolytica infection in children, as evidenced by a lower Shannon diversity index of the gut microbiota. To test if dysbiosis was a cause of susceptibility, wild type C57BL/6 mice (which are innately resistant to E...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808619/gastrointestinal-parasites-in-captive-and-free-ranging-cebus-albifrons-in-the-western-amazon-ecuador
#15
Sarah Martin-Solano, Gabriel A Carrillo-Bilbao, William Ramirez, Maritza Celi-Erazo, Marie-Claude Huynen, Bruno Levecke, Washington Benitez-Ortiz, Bertrand Losson
Currently, there is a lack of surveys that report the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in the white-headed capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons). We therefore assessed the presence and richness (= number of different parasite genera) of parasites in C. albifrons in wildlife refuges (n = 11) and in a free-ranging group near a human village (n = 15) in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In the 78 samples collected (median of 3 samples per animal), we identified a total of 6 genera of gastrointestinal parasites, representing protozoa, nematodes, acanthocephalans and cestodes...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797327/outbreak-of-intestinal-amoebiasis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-barcelona-spain-october-2016-and-january-2017
#16
Laura Escolà-Vergé, Maider Arando, Martí Vall, Roger Rovira, Mateu Espasa, Elena Sulleiro, Pere Armengol, Francesc Zarzuela, María-Jesús Barberá
Entamoeba histolytica has been recently recognised as an emerging sexually transmissible pathogen in men who have sex with men (MSM), causing sporadic outbreaks in countries where it is not endemic. Here we report two closed clusters of invasive amoebiasis occurring in Barcelona, Spain, in October 2016 (four cases) and in January 2017 (four cases).
July 27, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796788/different-behavior-of-myeloperoxidase-in-two-rodent-amoebic-liver-abscess-models
#17
Andrea Cruz-Baquero, Luz María Cárdenas Jaramillo, Manuel Gutiérrez-Meza, Rosa Adriana Jarillo-Luna, Rafael Campos-Rodríguez, Víctor Rivera-Aguilar, Angel Miliar-García, Judith Pacheco-Yepez
The protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis, which can spread to the liver and form amoebic liver abscesses. Histological studies conducted with resistant and susceptible models of amoebic liver abscesses (ALAs) have established that neutrophils are the first cells to contact invasive amoebae at the lesion site. Myeloperoxidase is the most abundant enzyme secreted by neutrophils. It uses hydrogen peroxide secreted by the same cells to oxidize chloride ions and produce hypochlorous acid, which is the most efficient microbicidal system of neutrophils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793307/larrea-tridentata-a-novel-source-for-anti-parasitic-agents-active-against-entamoeba-histolytica-giardia-lamblia-and-naegleria-fowleri
#18
Bharat Bashyal, Linfeng Li, Trpta Bains, Anjan Debnath, Daniel V LaBarbera
Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793024/socioenvironmental-conditions-and-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-brazilian-urban-slums-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Caroline Ferraz Ignacio, Milena Enderson Chagas da Silva, Natasha Berendonk Handam, Maria de Fatima Leal Alencar, Adriana Sotero-Martins, Martha Macedo de Lima Barata, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes
Methods: A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595) searching for intestinal parasites. Results: Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0%) and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9%) were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792380/evaluation-of-the-bd-max-enteric-parasite-panel-for-the-detection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-hominis-giardia-duodenalis-and-entamoeba-histolytica
#20
Michael D Perry, Sally A Corden, P Lewis White
PURPOSE: Conventional laboratory detection methods for gastrointestinal parasites are time consuming, require considerable technical expertise and may suffer from poor analytical sensitivity. This study sought to evaluate the automated BD MAX Enteric Parasite Panel (EPP) for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis.Methodolgy. A total of 104 known positive samples (43 Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis and 61 G. duodenalis), 15 simulated samples (E...
August 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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