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Global TB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791949/the-global-neurological-burden-of-tuberculosis
#1
Kiran Thakur, Mitashee Das, Kelly E Dooley, Amita Gupta
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe manifestation of TB and accounts for approximately 5 to 10% of all extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) cases and approximately 1% of all TB cases. TB meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of CNS TB, though other forms occur, often in conjunction with TBM, including intracranial tuberculomas, tuberculous brain abscesses, and spinal tubercular arachnoiditis. CNS TB often presents with nonspecific clinical features that mimic symptoms of other neurological conditions, often making diagnosis difficult...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787596/survival-and-predictors-of-mortality-among-children-co-infected-with-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-at-university-of-gondar-comprehensive-specialized-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-a-retrospective-follow-up-study
#2
Kendalem Asmare Atalell, Nigusie Birhan Tebeje, Daniale Tekelia Ekubagewargies
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children globally. The aims of this study were to determine the mortality rate and to identify the predictors of mortality among TB/HIV co-infected children at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. METHOD: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among TB/HIV co-infected children from February 2005 to March 2017. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate the median survival time...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785129/performance-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-rif-inh-resistance-assay-when-used-to-test-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specimens-from-bangladesh
#3
Joshua Kostera, Gregor Leckie, Klara Abravaya, Hong Wang
Introduction: The Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance Assay (RT MTB RIF/INH) is an assay for the detection of rifampicin (RIF)- and/or isoniazid (INH)-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The assay can be used to test sputum, bronchial alveolar lavage, and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NALC)/NaOH pellets prepared from these samples. The assay can be used in direct testing mode, or in reflex mode following a MTB positive result produced by its companion assay, Abbott RT MTB. Methods: In this study, the direct testing mode was used to test paired sputum and NALC/NaOH pellets prepared from sputum collected from Bangladesh TB patients...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779778/identification-of-tb-e12-as-a-novel-ftsz-inhibitor-with-anti-tuberculosis-activity
#4
Yuan Lin, Hongjuan Zhang, Ningyu Zhu, Xia Wang, Yanxing Han, Minghua Chen, Jiandong Jiang, Shuyi Si
The global pandemic of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) drives for more effective anti-TB drugs with new drug target. Filamentous temperature sensitive protein Z (FtsZ), a GTP dependent prokaryotic cell division protein, forms a dynamic Z-ring in the center of the cell. Differences between bacterial FtsZ and eukaryotic tubulin make FtsZ a highly attractive drug target. In this study, we used phenotype screening of M. smegmatis and model screening targeting M. tuberculosis FtsZ (Mtb-FtsZ) to identify a hit compound TB-E12...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770053/tuberculosis-drug-resistance-in-canada-2006-2016
#5
V Gallant, J Vachon, W Siu
Background: Drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) pose a serious threat to TB prevention and control efforts. The Canadian Tuberculosis Laboratory Surveillance System (CTBLSS) was created in 1998 to monitor emerging trends and patterns in TB drug resistance in Canada. Objective: To present a descriptive overview of TB drug resistance data collected through the CTBLSS for the years 2006 to 2016 in Canada, with a focus on 2016. Methods: The CTBLSS is an isolate-based surveillance system designed to collect data on TB drug resistance across Canada...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768503/high-uptake-of-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-tb-patients-receiving-co-located-services-in-swaziland
#6
Ishani Pathmanathan, Munyaradzi Pasipamire, Sherri Pals, E Kainne Dokubo, Peter Preko, Trong Ao, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Janet Ongole, Themba Dhlamini, Samson Haumba
BACKGROUND: Swaziland has the highest adult HIV prevalence and second highest rate of TB/HIV coinfection globally. Recently, the Ministry of Health and partners have increased integration and co-location of TB/HIV services, but the timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) relative to TB treatment-a marker of program quality and predictor of outcomes-is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of programmatic data from 11 purposefully-sampled facilities to evaluate timely ART provision for HIV-positive TB patients enrolled on TB treatment between July-November 2014...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761774/-tuberculosis-among-asylum-seekers
#7
Kristina Langholz Kristensen, Marie Nørredam, Troels Lillebæk, Ebbe Munk-Andersen, Pernille Ravn
Global migration is increasing, including migration from tuberculosis (TB) high-incidence countries to TB low-incidence countries as Denmark. Asylum seekers are at increased risk of having TB, and screening for TB is potentially highly relevant in Europe. However, there is a large variation in the ways screening is carried out and in the yield of the different screening programmes. There is a need of more quality data on how effectively to target the screening among asylum seekers, considering both the TB incidence in the country of origin and the risk factors along the migration route...
May 7, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755957/molecular-targets-related-drug-resistance-mechanisms-in-mdr-xdr-and-tdr-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#8
REVIEW
H M Adnan Hameed, Md Mahmudul Islam, Chiranjibi Chhotaray, Changwei Wang, Yang Liu, Yaoju Tan, Xinjie Li, Shouyong Tan, Vincent Delorme, Wing W Yew, Jianxiong Liu, Tianyu Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a formidable infectious disease that remains a major cause of death worldwide today. Escalating application of genomic techniques has expedited the identification of increasing number of mutations associated with drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Unfortunately the prevalence of bacillary resistance becomes alarming in many parts of the world, with the daunting scenarios of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and total drug-resistant tuberculosis (TDR-TB), due to number of resistance pathways, alongside some apparently obscure ones...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755620/human-genomic-loci-important-in-common-infectious-diseases-role-of-high-throughput-sequencing-and-genome-wide-association-studies
#9
REVIEW
Gerald Mboowa, Ivan Sserwadda, Marion Amujal, Norah Namatovu
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria are 3 major global public health threats that undermine development in many resource-poor settings. Recently, the notion that positive selection during epidemics or longer periods of exposure to common infectious diseases may have had a major effect in modifying the constitution of the human genome is being interrogated at a large scale in many populations around the world. This positive selection from infectious diseases increases power to detect associations in genome-wide association studies (GWASs)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754051/label-free-nano-biosensing-on-the-road-to-tuberculosis-detection
#10
REVIEW
Behrouz Golichenari, Kelly Velonia, Rahim Nosrati, Alireza Nezami, Aref Farokhi-Fard, Khalil Abnous, Javad Behravan, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
Tuberculosis, an ailment caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex, is one of the catastrophic transmittable diseases that affect human. Reports published by WHO indicate that in 2017 about 6.3 million people progressed to TB and 53 million TB patients died from 2000 to 2016. Therefore, early diagnosis of the disease is of great importance for global health care programs. Common diagnostics like the traditional PPD test and antibody-assisted assays suffer the lack of sensitivity, long processing time and cumbersome post-test proceedings...
August 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740001/predictors-of-in-hospital-mortality-among-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Carlos Podalirio Borges de Almeida, Patrícia Klarmann Ziegelmann, Rachel Couban, Li Wang, Jason Walter Busse, Denise Rossato Silva
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty regarding which factors are associated with in-hospital mortality among patients with pulmonary TB (PTB). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality among patients with PTB. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health, for cohort and case-control studies that reported risk factors for in-hospital mortality in PTB. We pooled all factors that were assessed for an association, and presented relative associations as pooled odds ratios (ORs)...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724218/potential-effect-of-household-environment-on-prevalence-of-tuberculosis-in-india-evidence-from-the-recent-round-of-a-cross-sectional-survey
#12
S K Singh, Gyan Chandra Kashyap, Parul Puri
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) has been a major health problem globally since ages, and even today, it is a major cause of morbidity in millions of people each year. In 2015 alone, TB accounted for about 1.4 million deaths globally, with India carrying the biggest burden of the disease. The physical environment of the household, an individual living in, has a significant influence on the incidence of TB. Thus, an understanding of the socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors that individuals are exposed to is of importance...
May 3, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721826/importance-of-differential-identification-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-for-understanding-differences-in-their-prevalence-treatment-efficacy-and-vaccine-development
#13
REVIEW
Hansong Chae, Sung Jae Shin
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a serious global health problem in the 21st century because of its high mortality. Mtb is an extremely successful human-adapted pathogen that displays a multifactorial ability to control the host immune response and to evade killing by drugs, resulting in the breakdown of BCG vaccine-conferred anti-TB immunity and development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mtb. Although genetic components of the genomes of the Mtb complex strains are highly conserved, showing over 99% similarity to other bacterial genera, recently accumulated evidence suggests that the genetic diversity of the Mtb complex strains has implications for treatment outcomes, development of MDR/XDR Mtb, BCG vaccine efficacy, transmissibility, and epidemiological outbreaks...
May 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720074/tuberculosis-notifications-in-australia-2014
#14
Cindy Toms, Richard Stapledon, Chris Coulter, Paul Douglas
In 2014, the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,339 tuberculosis (TB) notifications, representing a rate of 5.7 per 100,000 population. Australia has achieved and maintained good tuberculosis (TB) control since the mid-1980s, sustaining a low annual TB incidence rate of approximately 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 population. The number of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases diagnosed in Australia is low by international standards, with approximately 1-2% of notifications per year being classified as MDR-TB...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720069/how-much-does-tuberculosis-cost-an-australian-healthcare-perspective-analysis
#15
Eddie Chan, Aine Nolan, Justin Denholm
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a disease of high morbidity in Australia, with implications for both public health and the individual. Cost analyses is relevant for programmatic evaluation of TB. There is minimal published TB cost data in the Australian setting. Patients with drug sensitive active pulmonary TB (DS-PTB) and latent TB (LTBI) were enrolled in a single tertiary referral centre to evaluate healthcare provider costs. The median cost of treating drug susceptible pulmonary TB in this case series was 11,538 AUD...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720068/national-position-statement-for-the-management-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#16
David Stock
The primary role of any tuberculosis (TB) control program is to ensure the prompt identification and effective treatment of active disease. The host immune system often succeeds in containing the initial (or primary) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but may fail to eliminate the pathogen. The persistence of viable organisms explains the potential for the development of active disease years or even decades after infection. This is known as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) although, rather than a distinct entity, this probably represents part of a dynamic spectrum...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720065/tuberculosis-screening-in-an-aged-care-residential-facility-in-a-low-incidence-setting
#17
Nompilo Moyo, James Trauer, Peter Trevan, Ann-Marie Baker, Joseph Musemburi, Kerry McGrath, Aine Nolan, Eamon McIntyre, Jane Hulls, Justin T Denholm
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a disease of high morbidity in Australia, with implications for both public health and the individual. Cost analyses is relevant for programmatic evaluation of TB. There is minimal published TB cost data in the Australian setting. Patients with drug sensitive active pulmonary TB (DS-PTB) and latent TB (LTBI) were enrolled in a single tertiary referral centre to evaluate healthcare provider costs. The median cost of treating drug susceptible pulmonary TB in this case series was 11,538 AUD...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719807/comparison-of-acid-fast-bacilli-afb-smear-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-adult-pulmonary-tuberculosis-tb-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-dm-and-without-type-2-dm
#18
Muhammad Fachri, Mochammad Hatta, Sahlan Abadi, Slamet Sudi Santoso, Tri Ariguntar Wikanningtyas, Amir Syarifuddin, Ressy Dwiyanti, Rizki Amelia Noviyanthi
Background: According to the Global Tuberculosis Report 2015, Indonesia ranked as second country in the world with the highest number of pulmonary tuberculosis cases. By 2015, the number of pulmonary TB new cases in Indonesia has increased to 330.910 cases of 2014 where 324.539 cases. DM is one of the most important factors that influence the occurrence worsening TB. Now is known that DM patients have body's immune response disorder thereby facilitating M. tuberculosis infection and causing TB...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718990/a-multi-antigenic-mva-vaccine-increases-efficacy-of-combination-chemotherapy-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Stéphane Leung-Theung-Long, Charles-Antoine Coupet, Marie Gouanvic, Doris Schmitt, Aurélie Ray, Chantal Hoffmann, Huguette Schultz, Sandeep Tyagi, Heena Soni, Paul J Converse, Lilibeth Arias, Patricia Kleinpeter, Benoît Sansas, Khisimuzi Mdluli, Cristina Vilaplana, Pere-Joan Cardona, Eric Nuermberger, Jean-Baptiste Marchand, Nathalie Silvestre, Geneviève Inchauspé
Despite the existence of the prophylactic Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major public health issue causing up to 1.8 million annual deaths worldwide. Increasing prevalence of Mtb strains resistant to antibiotics represents an urgent threat for global health that has prompted a search for alternative treatment regimens not subject to development of resistance. Immunotherapy constitutes a promising approach to improving current antibiotic treatments through engagement of the host's immune system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718745/use-of-whole-genome-sequencing-in-surveillance-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#20
Ruth McNerney, Matteo Zignol, Taane G Clark
The threat of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is of global concern. Current efforts to monitor resistance rely on phenotypic testing where cultured bacteria are exposed to critical concentrations of the drugs. Capacity for such testing is low in TB endemic countries. Drug resistance is caused by mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome and whole genome sequencing to detect these mutations offers an alternative means of assessing resistance. Areas covered: The challenges of assessing TB drug resistance are discussed...
May 2, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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