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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338827/strategies-for-halting-the-rise-of-multidrug-resistant-tb-epidemics-assessing-the-effect-of-early-case-detection-and-isolation
#1
Aquino L Espindola, Marie Varughese, Marek Laskowski, Affan Shoukat, Jane M Heffernan, Seyed M Moghadas
Background: The increasing rates of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) have posed the question of whether control programs under enhanced directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS-Plus) are sufficient or implemented optimally. Despite enhanced efforts on early case detection and improved treatment regimens, direct transmission of MDR-TB remains a major hurdle for global TB control. Methods: We developed an agent-based simulation model of TB dynamics to evaluate the effect of transmission reduction measures on the incidence of MDR-TB...
March 7, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337427/comparative-proteomics-analysis-of-human-macrophages-infected-with-virulent-mycobacterium-bovis
#2
Pei Li, Rui Wang, Wenqi Dong, Linlin Hu, Bingbing Zong, Yanyan Zhang, Xiangru Wang, Aizhen Guo, Anding Zhang, Yaozu Xiang, Huanchun Chen, Chen Tan
Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the most common pathogens of tuberculosis (TB), is virulent to human and cattle, and transmission between cattle and humans warrants reconsideration concerning food safety and public health. Recently, efforts have begun to analyze cellular proteomic responses induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). However, the underlying mechanisms by which virulent M. bovis affects human hosts are not fully understood. For the present study, we utilized a global and comparative labeling strategy of isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) to assess proteomic changes in the human monocyte cell line (THP-1) using a vaccine strain and two virulent strains H37Rv and M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333192/susceptibilities-of-mdr-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-to-unconventional-drugs-compared-with-their-reported-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-parameters
#3
Joseph S Cavanaugh, Ruwen Jou, Mei-Hua Wu, Tracy Dalton, Ekaterina Kurbatova, Julia Ershova, J Peter Cegielski
Background: The second-line drugs recommended to treat drug-resistant TB are toxic, expensive and difficult to procure. Given increasing resistance, the need for additional anti-TB drugs has become more urgent. But new drugs take time to develop and are expensive. Some commercially available drugs have reported anti-mycobacterial activity but are not routinely used because supporting laboratory and clinical evidence is sparse. Methods: We analysed 217 MDR M. tuberculosis isolates including 153 initial isolates from unique patients and 64 isolates from follow-up specimens during the course of treatment...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331043/world-health-organization-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update
#4
Dennis Falzon, Holger J Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9-12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330890/direct-detection-of-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistance-in-sputum-samples-from-tuberculosis-patients-by-high-resolution-melt-curve-analysis
#5
Divya Anthwal, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Manpreet Bhalla, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Jaya Sivaswami Tyagi, Sagarika Haldar
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat for TB control worldwide. Globally, only 40% of the 340,000 notified TB patients estimated to have multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) were detected in 2015. This study was carried out to evaluate the utility of High Resolution Melt curve analysis (HRM) for the rapid and direct detection of MDR-TB in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in sputum samples. A reference plasmid library was first generated of the most frequently observed mutations in the resistance determining regions of rpoB, katG and inhA promoter and used as positive controls in HRM...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330178/emergence-of-mixed-infection-of-beijing-non-beijing-strains-among-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-pakistan
#6
Samar Mustafa, Hasnain Javed, Jawairia Hashmi, Nazia Jamil, Zarfishan Tahir, Abdul Majeed Akhtar
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the deadliest diseases after HIV globally with 95 % of deaths confined to low-and-middle income countries. Pakistan is fifth among the 22 high-burden TB countries with the incidence rate of 230/100,000 persons, however, studies related to prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their spread, drug resistance pattern and evolutionary genetics are inadequate. The present study was undertaken to highlight the circulation of M. tuberculosis strains causing drug resistant TB in our community by targeting the molecular marker IS6110 and then characterization of these strains as Beijing and Non-Beijing genotypes...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326285/impact-of-telemonitoring-approaches-on-integrated-hiv-and-tb-diagnosis-and-treatment-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review
#7
REVIEW
Clarence S Yah, Ernest Tambo, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Jeanne Y Ngogang
Background: This paper explores telemonitoring/mhealth approaches as a promising real time and contextual strategy in overhauling HIV and TB interventions quality access and uptake, retention,adherence and coverage impact in endemic and prone-epidemic prevention and control in sub-Sahara Africa. Methods: The scoping review method was applied in acknowledged journals indexing platforms including Medline, Embase, Global Health, PubMed, MeSH PsycInfo, Scopus and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles pertaining to telemonitoring as a proxy surrogate method in reinforcing sustainability of HIV/TB prevention/treatment interventions in sub-Saharan Africa...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322251/modulation-of-central-carbon-metabolism-by-acetylation-of-isocitrate-lyase-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Jing Bi, Yihong Wang, Heguo Yu, Xiaoyan Qian, Honghai Wang, Jun Liu, Xuelian Zhang
Several enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism such as isocitrate lyase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase are key determinants of pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). In this study, we found that lysine acetylation plays an important role in the modulation of central carbon metabolism in M. tb. Mutant of M. tb defective in sirtuin deacetylase exhibited improved growth in fatty acid-containing media. Global analysis of lysine acetylome of M. tb identified three acetylated lysine residues (K322, K331, and K392) of isocitrate lyase (ICL1)...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320336/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-ethiopian-settings-and-its-association-with-previous-history-of-anti-tuberculosis-treatment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Setegn Eshetie, Mucheye Gizachew, Mulat Dagnew, Gemechu Kumera, Haile Woldie, Fekadu Ambaw, Belay Tessema, Feleke Moges
BACKGROUND: Efforts to control the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) have been jeopardized by the rapid evolution of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Previous studies have documented variable prevalences of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and its risk factors in Ethiopia. Therefore, this meta-analysis is aimed, firstly, to determine the pooled prevalence of MDR-TB among newly diagnosed and previously treated TB cases, and secondly, to measure the association between MDR-TB and a history of previous anti-TB drugs treatment...
March 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319425/overcoming-challenges-in-the-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-pediatric-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#10
Sylvie Jonckheree, Jennifer Furin
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a growing global health threat and children are especially vulnerable to becoming infected and sick with DR-TB. There is a growing body of evidence on the optimal diagnosis, treatment and prevention of DR-TB in this vulnerable population. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of the literature on DR-TB in children was done using PubMed and Ovid databases up to December 31, 2016. Topic areas covered included diagnosis of DR-TB, treatment of DR-TB-including novel medications and regimens, prevention of DR-TB, community-based care, and stigma/discrimination...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319170/antibody-response-against-phop-efficiently-discriminates-among-healthy-individuals-tuberculosis-patients-and-their-contacts
#11
Aurobind Vidyarthi, Nargis Khan, Tapan Agnihotri, Kaneez F Siddiqui, Girish R Nair, Ashish Arora, Ashok K Janmeja, Javed N Agrewala
Tuberculosis continues to be one of the most devastating global health problem. Its diagnosis will benefit in timely initiation of the treatment, cure and therefore reduction in the transmission of the disease. Tests are available, but none can be comprehensively relied on for its diagnosis; especially in TB-endemic zones. PhoP is a key player in Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence but nothing has been known about its role in the diagnosis of TB. We monitored the presence of anti-PhoP antibodies in the healthy, patients and their contacts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317853/terbium-ion-doping-in-ca3co4o9-a-step-towards-high-performance-thermoelectric-materials
#12
Shrikant Saini, Haritha Sree Yaddanapudi, Kun Tian, Yinong Yin, David Magginetti, Ashutosh Tiwari
The potential of thermoelectric materials to generate electricity from the waste heat can play a key role in achieving a global sustainable energy future. In order to proceed in this direction, it is essential to have thermoelectric materials that are environmentally friendly and exhibit high figure of merit, ZT. Oxide thermoelectric materials are considered ideal for such applications. High thermoelectric performance has been reported in single crystals of Ca3Co4O9. However, for large scale applications single crystals are not suitable and it is essential to develop high-performance polycrystalline thermoelectric materials...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317814/the-medicinal-plants-in-the-control-of-tuberculosis-laboratory-study-on-medicinal-plants-from-the-northern-area-of-pakistan
#13
Sami Ullah, Shah Hussain, Sadiq Noor Khan, Mohammad Khurram, Iqbal Khan, Murad Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) ranks as the second leading cause of deaths due to infectious diseases. Although global efforts have been made to control TB, still, this is a serious threat as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) produced resistance against both the first- and second-line drugs. The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant, extremely drug resistant, and totally drug-resistant TB worldwide requires extra efforts to search for new anti-TB drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study evaluated the antimycobacterial activities of Citrullus colocynthis, Calotropis procera, Ricinus communis, Capparis decidua, and Fagonia cretica plants' extracts against rifampicin-sensitive (H37Rv) and rifampicin-resistant (TMC331) strains of MTB...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317813/association-between-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-type-2-diabetes-in-sudanese-patients
#14
Mona Ahmed, Ibtihal Omer, Sannaa M A Osman, Eltayib H Ahmed-Abakur
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are both important health issues, and the association between DM and TB may be the next challenge for global TB control worldwide, type 2 DM (T2DM) responsible for 90% of DM cases. Persons with diabetes have a significantly increased risk of active TB, which is two to three times higher than in persons without diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the association between pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and T2DM among Sudanese patients and also to determine the association between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) percentage in diabetic patients and development of PTB and effect of duration of T2DM in developing PTB...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317812/evaluation-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-case-detection-improvement-with-the-deployment-of-xpertmtb-rif-in-the-tuberculosis-control-program-of-cross-river-state-nigeria
#15
Ernest Afu Ochang, Ubleni E Emanghe, Atana Ewa, Akaninyene Otu, Jonah B Offor, Micheal Odo, Aniekan Etokidem, Barinadaa Afirima, Oju Eni Owuna, Sunday M Obeten, Martin M Meremikwu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Global indices show that Nigeria has the highest tuberculosis (TB)-related mortality rate. Overdependence on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy for diagnosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS has limited control efforts. The new polymerase chain reaction-based XpertMTB/Rif (Cepheid Inc., CA, USA), which detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, was introduced in Cross River State in 2014. We evaluated the increment in pulmonary TB case detection following introduction of XpertMTB/Rif into the Cross River State TB control program...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317811/performance-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#16
Pascal Polepole, Mwila Kabwe, Mpanga Kasonde, John Tembo, Aaron Shibemba, Justin O'Grady, Nathan Kapata, Alimuddin Zumla, Matthew Bates
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which accounts for 10%-40% of the global burden of TB, with the highest incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa, is strongly associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosing EPTB is challenging, and recently, there has been a concerted effort to evaluate the latest molecular diagnostics for diagnosing TB in a range of specimen types. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is one such technology, which simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302528/association-between-enteric-protozoan-parasites-and-gastrointestinal-illness-among-hiv-and-tuberculosis-infected-individuals-in-the-chowke-district-southern-mozambique
#17
María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September-December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique...
March 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300991/spatial-analysis-of-tuberculosis-in-rio-de-janeiro-in-the-period-from-2005-to-2008-and-associated-socioeconomic-factors-using-micro-data-and-global-spatial-regression-models
#18
Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, Roberto de Andrade Medronho
The present study analyses the spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) from 2005 to 2008 by identifying relevant socioeconomic variables for the occurrence of the disease through spatial statistical models. This ecological study was performed in Rio de Janeiro using new cases. The census sector was used as the unit of analysis. Incidence rates were calculated, and the Local Empirical Bayesian method was used. The spatial autocorrelation was verified with Moran's Index and local indicators of spatial association (LISA)...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298223/migration-to-middle-income-countries-and-tuberculosis-global-policies-for-global-economies
#19
Julia Moreira Pescarini, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, M Gabriela M Gomes, Eliseu Alves Waldman
BACKGROUND: International migration to middle-income countries is increasing and its health consequences, in particular increasing transmission rates of tuberculosis (TB), deserve consideration. Migration and TB are a matter of concern in high-income countries and targeted screening of migrants for active and latent TB infection is a main strategy to manage risk and minimize transmission. In this paper, we discuss some aspects of TB control and migration in the context of middle-income countries, together with the prospect of responding with equitable and comprehensive policies...
March 15, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293159/intensified-tuberculosis-case-finding-implementation-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-and-associated-factors-among-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-at-public-health-facilities-of-harari-region-eastern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Ayele Geleto, Degu Abate, Gudina Egata
OBJECTIVE: Globally, the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) particularly in sub-Saharan Africa is growing. This has been resulted in increased number of tuberculosis (TB) new cases. To control burden of TB among PLHIV, a number of collaborative TB/HIV activities were recommended. However, data about collaborative TB/HIV services in the study area is scarce. The objective of this study is to assess intensified TB case finding, implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and associated factors among PLHIV...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
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