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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147487/a-study-on-the-immune-response-induced-by-a-dna-vaccine-encoding-mtb32c-hbha-antigen-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Roghayeh Teimourpour, Hadi Peeridogaheh, Amir Teimourpour, Mohsen Arzanlou, Zahra Meshkat
Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) has still remained a global health issue. One third of the world's population is infected with tuberculosis and the current BCG vaccine has low efficiency; hence, it is necessary to develop a new vaccine against TB. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficiency of a novel DNA vaccine encoding Mtb32C-HBHA antigen in inducing specific immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: A DNA plasmid vaccine expressing Mtb32C-HBHA fusion protein was constructed and its ability in protein expression was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot methods...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145454/reduction-of-hiv-associated-excess-mortality-by-antiretroviral-treatment-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-kenya
#2
Dickens O Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Kevin P Cain, Faith Ngari, Enos O Masini, Martien W Borgdorff
BACKGROUND: Mortality from TB continues to be a global public health challenge. TB ranks alongside Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the leading infectious causes of death globally. HIV is a major driver of TB related morbidity and mortality while TB is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We sought to determine excess mortality associated with HIV and the effect of antiretroviral therapy on reducing mortality among tuberculosis patients in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of Kenya national tuberculosis program data of patients enrolled from 2013 through 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143676/the-future-of-viral-hepatitis-testing-innovations-in-testing-technologies-and-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, Debrah I Boeras, Francesco Marinucci, Philippa Easterbrook
A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141341/-spatial-temporal-distribution-of-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-liangshan-yi-autonomous-prefecture-sichuan-province-2011-2016
#4
T Li, C H Yang, J G He, Y K Li, Y Xiao, J Li, D X Wang, C Chen, J L Wu
Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture in Sichuan province from 2011 to 2016. Methods: The registration data of PTB in 618 townships of Liangshan from 2011 to 2016 were collected from "Tuberculosis Management Information System of National Disease Prevention and Control Information System" . Software ArcGIS 10.2 was used to establish the geographic information database and realize the visualization of the analysis results...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137626/treatment-outcomes-of-mdr-tuberculosis-patients-in-brazil-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#5
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Geisa Fregona, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Adelmo Inácio Bertolde, Eliana Zandonade, Mauro N Sanchez, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Afrânio Kritski, Anete Trajman, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST) are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133390/recovery-of-taste-organs-and-sensory-function-after-severe-loss-from-hedgehog-smoothened-inhibition-with-cancer-drug-sonidegib
#6
Archana Kumari, Alexandre N Ermilov, Marina Grachtchouk, Andrzej A Dlugosz, Benjamin L Allen, Robert M Bradley, Charlotte M Mistretta
Striking taste disturbances are reported in cancer patients treated with Hedgehog (HH)-pathway inhibitor drugs, including sonidegib (LDE225), which block the HH pathway effector Smoothened (SMO). We tested the potential for molecular, cellular, and functional recovery in mice from the severe disruption of taste-organ biology and taste sensation that follows HH/SMO signaling inhibition. Sonidegib treatment led to rapid loss of taste buds (TB) in both fungiform and circumvallate papillae, including disruption of TB progenitor-cell proliferation and differentiation...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122920/digital-health-to-end-tuberculosis-in-the-sustainable-development-goals-era-achievements-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#7
EDITORIAL
Dennis Falzon, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer, Guy Joos, Mario Raviglione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121654/burden-of-tuberculosis-in-xinjiang-between-2011-and-2015-a-surveillance-data-based-study
#8
Xiangyan He, Mingqin Cao, Tanmay Mahapatra, Xiangpin Du, Sanchita Mahapatra, Qifeng Li, Lei Feng, Songyuan Tang, Zhen Zhao, Jinbao Liu, Weiming Tang
BACKGROUND: Despite the reduction in reported incidence of tuberculosis globally, the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) remains high in low- and middle- income countries, including China. The current study aims to evaluate the distribution and trend of PTB incidence in Xinjiang, the region with the highest PTB burden in China. METHODS: We identified all confirmed PTB case records reported to the Chinese TB Information Management System (TBIMS) between 2011 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120360/elemental-ingredients-in-the-macrophage-cocktail-role-of-zip8-in-host-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
REVIEW
Charlie J Pyle, Abul K Azad, Audrey C Papp, Wolfgang Sadee, Daren L Knoell, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global epidemic caused by the infection of human macrophages with the world's most deadly single bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). M.tb resides in a phagosomal niche within macrophages, where trace element concentrations impact the immune response, bacterial metal metabolism, and bacterial survival. The manipulation of micronutrients is a critical mechanism of host defense against infection. In particular, the human zinc transporter Zrt-/Irt-like protein 8 (ZIP8), one of 14 ZIP family members, is important in the flux of divalent cations, including zinc, into the cytoplasm of macrophages...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116638/evolution-of-phenotypic-and-molecular-drug-susceptibility-testing
#10
Daniela M Cirillo, Paolo Miotto, Enrico Tortoli
Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (DRTB) is an emerging problem world-wide. In order to control the disease and decrease the number of cases overtime a prompt diagnosis followed by an appropriate treatment should be provided to patients. Phenotypic DST based on liquid automated culture has greatly reduced the time needed to generate reliable data but has the drawback to be expensive and prone to contamination in the absence of appropriate infrastructures. In the past 10 years molecular biology tools have been developed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116637/epidemiology-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#11
Anna S Dean, Helen Cox, Matteo Zignol
As we move into the era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the End TB strategy 2016-2035 with a goal to end the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. Achieving the targets laid out in the Strategy will require strengthening of the whole TB diagnosis and treatment cascade, including improved case detection, the establishment of universal drug susceptibility testing and rapid treatment initiation. An estimated 3.9% of new TB cases and 21% of previously treated cases had rifampicin-resistant (RR) or multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in 2015...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116629/the-evolution-of-strain-typing-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#12
Matthias Merker, Thomas A Kohl, Stefan Niemann, Philip Supply
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease with a complex epidemiology. Therefore, molecular typing (genotyping) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains is of primary importance to effectively guide outbreak investigations, define transmission dynamics and assist global epidemiological surveillance of the disease. Large-scale genotyping is also needed to get better insights into the biological diversity and the evolution of the pathogen. Thanks to its shorter turnaround and simple numerical nomenclature system, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, based on 24 standardized plus 4 hypervariable loci, optionally combined with spoligotyping, has replaced IS6110 DNA fingerprinting over the last decade as a gold standard among classical strain typing methods for many applications...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115933/new-variant-identified-in-major-susceptibility-locus-to-tuberculosis-on-chromosomal-region-8q12-q13-in-moroccan-population-a-case-control-study
#13
Mounia Qrafli, Imane Asekkaj, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi, Rajae El Aouad, Khalid Sadki
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Several studies have implicated genetic host factors in predisposing populations to TB disease. In this study, we have selected NSMAF (Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activation Associated Factor) as a candidate gene to evaluate its level of association with TB disease in a Moroccan population for two reasons: first, this gene is located in a major susceptibility locus on chromosomal region 8q12-q13 in the Moroccan population, closely linked to the CYP7A1 gene, which was previously shown to be associated with TB disease; second, NSMAF has an important role in immune system function...
November 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114781/self-administered-versus-directly-observed-once-weekly-isoniazid-and-rifapentine-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-a-randomized-trial
#14
Robert Belknap, David Holland, Pei-Jean Feng, Joan-Pau Millet, Joan A Caylà, Neil A Martinson, Alicia Wright, Michael P Chen, Ruth N Moro, Nigel A Scott, Bert Arevalo, José M Miró, Margarita E Villarino, Marc Weiner, Andrey S Borisov
Background: Expanding latent tuberculosis treatment is important to decrease active disease globally. Once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 doses is effective but limited by requiring direct observation. Objective: To compare treatment completion and safety of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine by self-administration versus direct observation. Design: An open-label, phase 4 randomized clinical trial designed as a noninferiority study with a 15% margin...
November 7, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099000/enhancing-the-role-of-private-practitioners-in-tuberculosis-prevention-and-care-activities-in-india
#15
REVIEW
Tanu Anand, Ranjith Babu, Anil G Jacob, Karuna Sagili, Sarabjit S Chadha
India accounts for the highest number of incident tuberculosis (TB) cases globally. Hence, to impact the TB incidence world over, there is an urgent need to address and accelerate TB control activities in the country. Nearly, half of the TB patients first seek TB care in private sector. However, the participation of private practitioners (PPs) has been patchy in TB prevention and care and distrust exists between public and private sector. PPs usually have varied diagnostic and treatment practices that are inadequate and amplify the risk of drug resistance...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098330/mycobacterial-membrane-proteins-qcrb-and-atpe-roles-in-energetics-antibiotic-targets-and-associated-mechanisms-of-resistance
#16
Luke Bown, Santosh K Srivastava, Brandon M Piercey, Clarissa K McIsaac, Kapil Tahlan
Infections caused by mycobacteria are difficult to treat due to their inherent physiology, cellular structure, and intracellular lifestyle. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogen of global concern as it causes tuberculosis (TB) in humans, which requires 6-9 months of chemotherapy. The situation is further exacerbated in the case of infections caused by drug-resistant strains, which necessitate the prolonged use of agents associated with increased host toxicities. Great effort has been invested into the development of new agents for the treatment of drug-resistant infections, in addition to novel strategies to reduce treatment time...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097809/the-burden-and-challenges-of-tuberculosis-in-china-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#17
Sui Zhu, Lan Xia, Shicheng Yu, Saobing Chen, Juying Zhang
To achieve the End Tuberculosis (TB) Strategy, it is important to understand the characteristics of TB in China, which may provide the government with important clues for controlling TB by 2030. Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015) and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) were reviewed and analysed. The age-standardized death rate decreased by 83.79% [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 73.06-87.10] from 1990 to 2015. The age-standardized prevalence of TB in males decreased steadily by 33...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097470/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-first-confirmed-isolate-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-tasmania
#18
Sanjay S Gautam, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Ronan F O'Toole
The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has become a major global challenge. In 2016, Tasmania recorded its first known incidence of MDR-TB. Here, we report the draft whole-genome sequence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate from this case, TASMDR1, and describe single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with its drug resistance.
November 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094039/host-directed-therapeutic-strategies-for-tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
Afsal Kolloli, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Currently, the standard treatment for TB involves multiple antibiotics administered for at least 6 months. Although multiple antibiotics therapy is necessary to prevent the development of drug resistance, the prolonged duration of treatment, combined with toxicity of drugs, contributes to patient non-compliance that can leads to the development of drug-resistant Mtb (MDR and XDR) strains...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090235/construction-of-mtb72f-plasmid-as-a-dna-vaccine-candidate-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Maryam Sadat Nabavinia, Mohammad Ramezani, Aida Gholoobi, Mahboubeh Naderinasab, Zahra Meshkat
BACKGROUND: With one-third of the world's population infected, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common infectious diseases and a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. The efficacy of the BCG vaccine for controlling the disease in adults is poor. The development of an effective TB vaccine is a global objective. An effective tuberculosis vaccine should stimulate cellular immunity. DNA vaccines are a new generation of vaccines with the potential to achieve this goal...
October 2017: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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