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Global TB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225340/pattern-of-first-and-second-line-drug-resistance-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-retreatment-cases-in-pakistan
#1
A Javaid, R Hasan, A Zafar, M A Chaudry, S Qayyum, E Qadeer, Z Shaheen, N Agha, N Rizvi, M Z Afridi, M K Chima, A R Khan, A Ghafoor, S Khan, S R Awan, S Akhtar, K Choudry, Z H Iqbal, M Ansarie, N Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in general, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in particular, threatens global tuberculosis (TB) control efforts. Population-based estimates of drug resistance are needed to develop strategies for controlling drug-resistant TB in Pakistan. OBJECTIVE: To obtain population-based data on Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance in Pakistan. METHODS: To obtain drug resistance data, we conducted a population-based study of TB cases in all provinces of Pakistan...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225338/potential-biomarkers-associated-with-discrimination-between-latent-and-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#2
R Kamakia, S Kiazyk, J Waruk, A Meyers, J Ochanda, T B Ball, J Oyugi
SETTING: A third of the world's population has latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). Current TB diagnostics used in developing countries are ineffective and are unable to distinguish LTBI from active TB. Identifying biomarkers that could aid in the early detection of TB and in distinguishing TB states could be a major breakthrough in global TB control. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential immune biomarkers to distinguish active TB from LTBI. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 19 active TB patients, 8 TB-negative individuals (controls) and 16 LTBI non-human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals in Nairobi, Kenya...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222724/financial-barriers-and-coping-strategies-a-qualitative-study-of-accessing-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-tuberculosis-care-in-yunnan-china
#3
C Hutchison, M S Khan, J Yoong, X Lin, R J Coker
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) pose serious challenges to global health, particularly in China, which has the second highest case burden in the world. Disparities in access to care for the poorest, rural TB patients may be exacerbated for MDR-TB patients, although this has not been investigated widely. We examine whether certain patient groups experience different barriers to accessing TB services, whether there are added challenges for patients with MDR-TB, and how patients and health providers cope in Yunnan, a mountainous province in China with a largely rural population and high TB burden...
February 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209130/determination-of-antibacterial-activity-and-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-larval-extract-of-fly-via-resazurin-based-turbidometric-assay
#4
Chien Huey Teh, Wasi Ahmad Nazni, Ab Hamid Nurulhusna, Ahmad Norazah, Han Lim Lee
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is currently a major global issue. As the rate of emergence of antimicrobial resistance has superseded the rate of discovery and introduction of new effective drugs, the medical arsenal now is experiencing shortage of effective drugs to combat diseases, particularly against diseases caused by the dreadful multidrug-resistant strains, such as the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The ability of fly larvae to thrive in septic habitats has prompted us to determine the antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of larval extract of flies, namely Lucilia cuprina, Sarcophaga peregrina and Musca domestica against 4 pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S...
February 16, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195652/identification-of-the-anti-mycobacterial-functional-properties-of-piperidinol-derivatives
#5
Collette S Guy, Esther Tichauer, Gemma L Kay, Daniel J Phillips, Trisha L Bailey, James Harrison, Christopher M Furze, Andrew D Millard, Matthew I Gibson, Mark J Pallen, Elizabeth Fullam
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health threat and is now the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide. The current TB drug regimen is inadequate and new anti-tubercular agents are urgently required to be able to successfully combat the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant TB. The purpose of this study was to investigate a piperidinol compound derivative that is highly active against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The antibacterial properties of the piperidinol compound and its corresponding bis-Mannich base analogue were evaluated against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Gram-negative organisms...
February 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188492/serious-fungal-infections-in-portugal
#6
R Sabino, C Verissímo, J Brandão, C Martins, D Alves, C Pais, D W Denning
There is a lack of knowledge on the epidemiology of fungal infections worldwide because there are no reporting obligations. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of fungal disease in Portugal as part of a global fungal burden project. Most published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Portugal were identified. Where no data existed, specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations were used in order to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185619/diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#7
Alfred A Lardizabal, Lee B Reichman
For 2015, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the United States has plateaued at 3.0 per 100,000. This remains the lowest case rate since recording started. On the global level, although the TB epidemic is larger than previously estimated, TB deaths and incidence rate continue to fall. For both low and high incidence countries, accelerating the decline in TB incidence towards elimination goals requires that more emphasis be placed on strengthening systems for detection and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) in addition to improving TB care globally...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185618/tuberculosis-a-world-health-organization-perspective
#8
Giovanni Sotgiu, Giorgia Sulis, Alberto Matteelli
Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented and scaled-up three important global public health strategies (i.e., DOTS, Stop TB, and End TB) to improve the international scenario. Their epidemiological impact was relevant, as they decreased the number of potential new cases of disease and death. However, the emergence and spread of TB/HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant TB have hindered the progress towards the elimination of TB by 2050...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182726/spatial-patterns-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-relationships-to-socio-economic-demographic-and-household-factors-in-northwest-ethiopia
#9
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182700/pilot-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-the-supplement-food-nyaditum-resae%C3%A2-in-adults-with-or-without-latent-tb-infection-safety-and-immunogenicity
#10
Eva Montané, Ana Maria Barriocanal, Ana Lucía Arellano, Angelica Valderrama, Yolanda Sanz, Nuria Perez-Alvarez, Paula Cardona, Cristina Vilaplana, Pere-Joan Cardona
BACKGROUND: Nyaditum resae® (NR) is a galenic preparation of heat-killed Mycobacterium manresensis, a new species of the fortuitum complex, that is found in drinkable water, and that has demonstrated to protect against the development of active TB in a murine experimental model that develop human-like lesions. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Clinical Trial (51 volunteers included). Two different doses of NR and a placebo were tested, the randomization was stratified by Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI)-positive (n = 21) and LTBI-negative subjects (n = 30)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178936/successful-tb-treatment-outcome-and-its-associated-factors-among-tb-hiv-co-infected-patients-attending-gondar-university-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-an-institution-based-cross-sectional-study
#11
Yenework Sinshaw, Shitaye Alemu, Abel Fekadu, Mucheye Gizachew
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis/Human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) co-infection is bidirectional and synergistic which mainly affects interventions that have been taken on the area. Tb patients co-infected with HIV have poorer treatment outcome as compared to non-co-infected patients. There is limited information regarding successful TB treatment outcomes and its associated factors; a reason that this study was planned to investigate. METHODS: An institution based cross sectional study was carried out from July 2010 to January 2016...
February 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177961/new-concepts-in-understanding-latent-tuberculosis
#12
Claire E Dodd, Larry S Schlesinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, is a prominent global health threat because of the enormous reservoir of subclinical latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Current diagnostic approaches are limited in their ability to predict reactivation risk and LTBI is recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. The present review summarizes recent advances in our ability to detect, treat and model LTBI as well as our understanding of bacterial physiology during latency...
February 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173763/risk-factors-for-poor-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-kyiv-oblast-ukraine
#13
Omowunmi Aibana, Mariya Bachmaha, Viatcheslav Krasiuk, Natasha Rybak, Timothy P Flanigan, Vasyl Petrenko, Megan B Murray
BACKGROUND: Ukraine is among ten countries with the highest burden of multidrug- resistant TB (MDR-TB) worldwide. Treatment success rates for MDR-TB in Ukraine remain below global success rates as reported by the World Health Organization. Few studies have evaluated predictors of poor MDR-TB outcomes in Ukraine. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients initiated on MDR-TB treatment in the Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine between January 01, 2012 and March 31st, 2015...
February 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167256/turning-the-tide-against-tuberculosis
#14
Nesri Padayatchi, Naressa Naidu, Gerald Friedland, Kasavan Naidoo, Francesca Conradie, Kogieleum Naidoo, Max Roe O'Donnell
Despite affecting men, women, and children for millennia, tuberculosis (TB) is the most neglected disease. In contrast, the global response to HIV has reached a defining moment. By uniting efforts, promptly integrating major scientific findings for both treatment and prevention, and scaling up services, the once inconceivable end to the HIV epidemic may no longer be an illusion. "The world has made defeating AIDS a top priority. This is a blessing. But TB remains ignored" - Nelson Mandela. While there is no doubt that revolutionary diagnostics and new and repurposed drugs have provided some hope in the fight against TB, it is evident that scientific advances on their own are inadequate to achieve the World Health Organization's ambitious goal to end TB by 2035...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166912/tuberculosis-knowledge-and-attitude-in-aspiring-doctors-and-nurses-is-it-time-for-our-tb-teaching-methods-to-evolve
#15
Preetam Rajgopal Acharya, Monalisa D'Souza, Ramesh Chandra Sahoo
BACKGROUND: India accounts for nearly 24% of all the new tuberculosis (TB) cases globally. A good core knowledge and a positive outlook towards TB patients among our aspiring doctors and nurses are necessities for India to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) proposed by the WHO as a part of its post-2015 global TB strategy and to successfully combat the newer challenges posed by this disease in the future. AIMS: To evaluate knowledge related to transmission, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis amongst medical and nursing students...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166911/health-related-quality-of-life-among-tuberculosis-patients-under-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-programme-in-rural-and-urban-puducherry
#16
S Ramkumar, S Vijayalakshmi, N Seetharaman, R Pajanivel, A Lokeshmaran
BACKGROUND: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the major public health problem. Limited research is carried out on the impact of the disease on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). The study aims to assess the HR-QoL among TB patients during and after Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) therapy and to compare the HR-QoL of these patients with matched neighbourhood controls. METHODOLOGY: A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in Ariyankuppam and Bahour communes of Puducherry from January 2014 to April 2015...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163165/the-risk-of-global-epidemic-replacement-with-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#17
REVIEW
Emma S McBryde, Michael T Meehan, Tan N Doan, Romain Ragonnet, Ben J Marais, Vanina Guernier, James M Trauer
OBJECTIVES: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat to tuberculosis (TB) control. To guide TB control, it is essential to understand the extent to which and the circumstances in which MDR-TB will replace drug-susceptible TB (DS-TB) as the dominant phenotype. The issue was examined by assessing evidence from genomics, pharmacokinetics, and epidemiology studies. This evidence was then synthesized into a mathematical model. METHODS: This model considers two TB strains, one with and one without an MDR phenotype...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161740/serious-fungal-infections-in-ecuador
#18
J Zurita, D W Denning, A Paz-Y-Miño, M B Solís, L M Arias
There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161464/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteins-involved-in-cell-wall-lipid-biosynthesis-improve-bcg-vaccine-efficacy-in-a-murine-tb-model
#19
REVIEW
Martin Rao, Nathalie Cadieux, Megan Fitzpatrick, Steven Reed, Sergei Arsenian, Davide Valentini, Shreemanta Parida, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
OBJECTIVES: Advances in tuberculosis (TB) vaccine development are urgently required to enhance global disease management. We evaluated the potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb)-derived protein antigens Rv0447c, Rv2957 and Rv2958c to boost BCG vaccine efficacy in the presence or absence of glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant formulated in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE) adjuvant. METHODS: Mice received the BCG vaccine, followed by Rv0447c, Rv2957 and Rv2958c protein boosting with or without GLA-SE adjuvant 3 and 6 weeks later...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160362/globalization-of-pediatric-transplantation-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-or-not-tuberculosis
#20
Mignon McCulloch, Philana Ling Lin
The risk of TB among pediatric SOT recipients increases as the globalization of medical care continues to broaden. Unlike adults, children and especially infants are more susceptible to TB as a complication after transplantation. Little data exist regarding the true incidence of TB and the optimal risk-based management of this very vulnerable population. Here, we highlight the theoretical and practical issues that complicate the management of these patients and pose some questions that should be addressed when managing these patients...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
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