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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434936/defining-a-research-agenda-to-address-the-converging-epidemics-of-tuberculosis-and-diabetes-part-1-epidemiology-and-clinical-management
#1
REVIEW
Julia A Critchley, Blanca I Restrepo, Katharina Ronacher, Anil Kapur, Andrew A Bremer, Larry S Schlesinger, Randall Basaraba, Hardy Kornfeld, Reinout van Crevel
There is growing interest in the interaction between type 2 diabetes (DM) and tuberculosis (TB), but many research questions remain unanswered. Epidemiologists, basic scientists and clinical experts recently convened and identified priorities. This is the first of two reviews on this topic, summarising priority areas of research with regard to epidemiology, clinical management and public health. First, from an epidemiological point of view, more study is needed to determine the importance of transient hyperglycemia in TB patients, and on the importance of DM for the global epidemic of multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB...
April 19, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432172/why-tuberculosis-control-programmes-fail-role-of-microlevel-and-macrolevel-factors-an-analysis-from-india
#2
Sudip Bhattacharya, Amarjeet Singh
India accounts for one-fourth of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden. The National TB Program was started in 1962. Over a period of time, some lacunae such as poor case detection rate and incomplete treatment were observed. Later, the government formulated the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), which achieved a case detection rate of 70% and a cure rate of 85%. Still, the problem of relapse and defaulter cases persists. In 2014, 6% defaulter cases were reported from India. RNTCP has also focused on microlevel aspects, that is, newer diagnostics such as GenXpert, line probe assay and medicines such as bedaquiline for drug-resistant TB...
April 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431548/water-pipe-smoke-condensate-increases-the-internalization-of-mycobacterium-bovis-of-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cells-a549
#3
Esmaeil Mortaz, Shamila D Alipoor, Masoud Movassaghi, Mohammad Varahram, Jahangir Ghorbani, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen, Ian M Adcock
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, and there is an association between tobacco smoke and TB. Water pipe smoking has become an increasing problem not only in Middle Eastern countries but also globally because users consider it as safer than cigarettes. The presence of high levels of toxic substances in water-pipe smoke may be a predisposing factor that enhances the incidence of pulmonary disorders. For example, uncontrolled macropinocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells following exposure to water-pipe smoke may predispose subjects to pulmonary infection...
April 21, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430824/suppressors-of-cytokine-signaling-in-tuberculosis
#4
Shih-Wei Lee, Chi-Wei Liu, Jia-Ying Hu, Li-Mei Chiang, Chih-Pin Chuu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu, Yung-Hsi Kao
Tuberculosis (TB), a global disease mainly infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains leading public health problem worldwide. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCSs) play important roles in the protection against microbial infection. However, the relationship between members of the SOCS family and tuberculosis infection remains unclear. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of SOCS subfamilies among active TB, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and healthy individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430796/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-tuberculosis-and-diabetes-mellitus-comorbidity-a-systematic-review
#5
Mahteme Haile Workneh, Gunnar Aksel Bjune, Solomon Abebe Yimer
INTRODUCTION: The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a major global public health concern. There is mounting evidence from different countries on the burden of TB and DM comorbidity. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the existing evidence on prevalence and associated/risk factors of TBDM comorbidity at global and regional levels. METHODS: Ovid Medline, Embase, Global health, Cochrane library, Web of science and Scopus Elsevier databases were searched to identify eligible articles for the systematic review...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424035/coexistence-of-tuberculosis-and-malignancy-a-mere-coincidence-or-a-causal-association
#6
Mukta Pujani, Zeeba S Jairajpuri, Sabina Khan, Mohd Jaseem Hassan, Sujata Jetley, Safia Rana
Tuberculosis (TB) and malignancy are among the most important current global health problems. Many authors suggest that their coexistence is a chance association owing to their high prevalence. There is, however, enough evidence that one condition may predispose the other. In our retrospective report of two cases, TB in draining lymph nodes was discovered incidentally on histopathology, following surgical resection for malignancy. The possibility of coexistent lesions, especially in regions endemic for TB, mandate a detailed histopathological examination to prevent the chances of diagnostic failure and thus therapeutic error...
April 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414012/reasons-for-optimism-in-the-search-for-new-vaccines-for-tuberculosis
#7
T G Evans
In the development of vaccines for tuberculosis (TB), the combination of the will, funding, scientific rigor, new tools, refined animal models and improved clinical trial designs are all converging at an opportune moment. The lack of optimism that has surrounded the likelihood for finding novel TB vaccines has resulted from a lack of correlates of vaccine-induced protection, a lack of tool candidate vaccines to probe the immunologic space, which may be needed, and the negative result of one recent trial. A vaccine for TB that can be delivered at a reasonable cost to the marketplace will have greater impact on the incidence of new cases of TB than any intervention in world history...
April 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413722/performance-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-lymphadenitis-a-meta-analysis
#8
Qianqian Liu, Wenzhang Li, Yunfeng Chen, Xinmiao Du, Chengdi Wang, Binmiao Liang, Yin Tang, Yulin Feng, Chuanmin Tao, Jian-Qing He
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic values of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) in tuberculosis (TB) vary a lot with different site of infections, with especially higher sensitivities in chronic forms of TB such as tuberculosis of the lymph node. We conducted a meta-analysis to comprehensively evaluate the overall accuracy of diagnostic IGRA for tuberculous lymphadenitis. METHODS: Pubmed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Wanfang and CNKI databases up to February 17, 2017 were searched to identify published studies...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412202/the-immunosuppressive-effects-of-a-novel-recombinant-lipq-rv2485c-protein-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-on-human-macrophage-cell-lines
#9
Anjani Kumar, Manisha, Gurkamaljit Kaur Sangha, Anju Shrivastava, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), an intracellular pathogen, still represents a major global health challenge. A number of mycobacterial macromolecules have been shown to target biological processes within host macrophages; however, the exact mechanism for the majority of these host pathogen interactions is still poorly understood. Moreover, the lipid metabolic pathway is one of the most important physiologic pathways that plays a vital role in the survival and infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In present study, we investigated the effect of rLipQ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv on macrophage functions in vitro...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409555/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#10
Connie A Haley
There are approximately 56 million people who harbor Mycobacterium tuberculosis that may progress to active tuberculosis (TB) at some point in their lives. Modeling studies suggest that if only 8% of these individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) were treated annually, overall global incidence would be 14-fold lower by 2050 compared to incidence in 2013, even in the absence of additional TB control measures. This highlights the importance of identifying and treating latently infected individuals, and that this intervention must be scaled up to achieve the goals of the Global End TB Strategy...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405634/adolescents-with-idiopathic-scoliosis-and-their-parents-have-a-positive-attitude-towards-the-thermobrace-monitor-results-from-a-survey
#11
Sabrina Donzelli, Fabio Zaina, Gregorio Martinez, Francesca Di Felice, Alberto Negrini, Stefano Negrini
BACKGROUND: A temperature monitor is used to objectively measure brace wear time in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The reliability of this device have been demonstrated, and some specialists introduced the use of a compliance monitor as a standard of care in everyday clinical practice, as we did since 2010 with the Thermobrace (TB). The attitude towards these objective monitors has never been investigated. The present study aims to investigate the attitude of parents and patients towards the use of temperature sensors for measuring brace wear compliance...
2017: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404233/molecular-detection-of-drug-resistance-to-ofloxacin-and-kanamycin-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-using-multiplex-allele-specific-pcr
#12
Richa Kumari, Tuhina Banerjee, Shampa Anupurba
Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is the biggest global health challenge as it hinders the tuberculosis control program and makes the disease more worsen. Molecular methods interrupt the spread of drug resistance by facilitating the appropriate anti- tuberculosis therapy at correct time through rapid diagnosis of multi drug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). In this study we standardized and evaluated the diagnostic utility of multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR) targeting gyrA D94G and rrs A1401G mutations for detection of resistance against two key drugs (ofloxacin and kanamycin) of second line anti tuberculosis treatment...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401342/tuberculosis-in-children-with-sickle-cell-anaemia-a-retrospective-study-in-french-tertiary-care-centres
#13
Nina Droz, Agathe De Lauzanne, Laurent Holvoet, Florence Missud, Malika Benkerrou, Valentine Brousse, Marie-Hélène Odièvre, Albert Faye, Berengere Koehl
Tuberculosis (TB) and sickle cell anaemia (SCA) may affect the same population of patients, particularly in Africa but also in high-TB incidence areas in developed countries. However, few data are available from children with SCA who develop TB. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features and outcome of TB diagnosed in children with SCA. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study in three referral centre of Sickle Cell Disease in Paris, France. We included 11 patients with SCA who develop TB...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399756/global-rise-of-drug-resistant-tb-may-derail-decades-of-progress
#14
(no author information available yet)
The effectiveness of new drugs to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) could be rapidly lost without accurate diagnostic tests and prescription guidelines, say researchers worldwide.
April 12, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398995/integrating-pmtct-into-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-and-related-services-experiences-from-the-global-plan-priority-countries
#15
Karusa Kiragu, Lynn Collins, Deborah Von Zinkernagel, Angela Mushavi
The urgency to scale-up sustainable programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) prompted priority countries of the Global Plan Toward the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan) to expand the delivery of PMTCT services through greater integration with sexual and reproductive health and child health services. Countries approached integration-what, where, and how services are provided-in diverse ways, with predominantly favorable results...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392732/external-quality-assessment-in-resource-limited-countries
#16
Jane Y Carter
INTRODUCTION: Health laboratory services are a critical component of national health systems but face major operational challenges in resource-limited (RL) settings. New funding for health systems strengthening in RL countries has increased the demand for diagnostics and provided opportunities to address these constraints. An approach to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in sub-Saharan African countries is the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme...
February 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388302/genome-wide-association-and-replication-study-of-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-antiretrovirals-alone-or-with-concomitant-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#17
Zelalem Petros, Ming Ta Michael Lee, Atsushi Takahashi, Yanfei Zhang, Getnet Yimer, Abiy Habtewold, Ina Schuppe-Koistinen, Taisei Mushiroda, Eyasu Makonnen, Michiaki Kubo, Eleni Aklillu
Drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) is a common adverse event that is associated with both antiretroviral (ARV) and anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATD). Moreover, the genetic variations predisposing ARV- and ARV-ATD-induced liver toxicity in African populations are not well investigated, despite the two diseases being the major global health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and replication study to identify the genetic variants linked to the risk of developing DIH due to ARV drugs alone, and ARV-ATD co-treatment in Ethiopian HIV-positive patients...
April 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387828/double-mutation-in-dna-gyrase-confers-moxifloxacin-resistance-and-decreased-fitness-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#18
Tao Luo, Jinning Yuan, Xuan Peng, Guoping Yang, Youjun Mi, Changfeng Sun, Chuhan Wang, Chunxi Zhang, Lang Bao
Objectives: Ofloxacin and moxifloxacin are the most commonly used fluoroquinolones (FQs) for the treatment of tuberculosis. As a new generation FQ, moxifloxacin has been recommended for the treatment of ofloxacin-resistant TB. However, the mechanism by which ofloxacin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis further gains resistance to moxifloxacin remains unclear. Methods: We used Mycobacterium smegmatis as a model for studying FQ resistance in M. tuberculosis . Moxifloxacin-resistant M...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377919/tb-3-cleavage-assays-reveal-specific-mg-2-binding-sites-necessary-to-pre-fold-the-btub-riboswitch-for-adocbl-binding
#19
Pallavi K Choudhary, Sofia Gallo, Roland K O Sigel
Riboswitches are RNA elements that bind specific metabolites in order to regulate the gene expression involved in controlling the cellular concentration of the respective molecule or ion. Ligand recognition is mostly facilitated by Mg(2+) mediated pre-organization of the riboswitch to an active tertiary fold. To predict these specific Mg(2+) induced tertiary interactions of the btuB riboswitch from E. coli, we here report Mg(2+) binding pockets in its aptameric part in both, the ligand-free and the ligand-bound form...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367022/concurrent-evaluation-of-microscopic-observation-of-drug-susceptibility-assay-for-pulmonary-and-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#20
Sonali Sudhir Zadbuke, Reena Set, Nishat Khan, Jayanthi Shastri
BACKGROUND: Methods for detection and drug susceptibility of tuberculosis (TB) with solid media are inexpensive but slow and laborious. Rapid methods to diagnose TB and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) are a global priority for TB control. OBJECTIVES: A study was performed to compare the sensitivity of detection of mycobacterial growth and time of culture positivity by microscopic observation of drug susceptibility (MODS) assay with that of Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture in pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB and to evaluate the concordance of the susceptibilities to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) by MODS and proportion method on LJ...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
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