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Global TB

Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez, Cristian Alfredo Segura-Cerda, Jorge Gaona-Bernal
Effective prevention of tuberculosis (Tb) would undoubtedly be of paramount relevance in the control of its global burden, which resulted in more than 6 million new cases in 2016. Research aimed to improve the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG), or directed to develop new candidates, has taken into account the interaction between the host and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Recently, autophagy, an intracellular process of the host, has been shown to act as a mechanism that contributes to bacilli clearance in vitro and in vivo...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Immunology
G H Renier Botha, Grant Theron, Rob Warren, Marisa Klopper, Kheertan Dheda, Paul van Helden, Thomas R Niesler
Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly diseases. Although several effective diagnosis methods exist, in lower income countries clinics may not be in a position to afford expensive equipment and employ the trained experts needed to interpret results. In these situations, symptoms including cough are commonly used to identify patients for testing. However, self-reported cough has suboptimal sensitivity and specificity, which may be improved by digital detection. This study investigates a simple and easily applied method for TB screening based on the automatic analysis of coughing sounds...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Mariateresa Coppola, Susan J F van den Eeden, Naoko Robbins, Louis Wilson, Kees L M C Franken, Linda B Adams, Tom P Gillis, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Annemieke Geluk
Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy still represent significant public health challenges, especially in low- and lower middle-income countries. Both poverty-related mycobacterial diseases require better tools to improve disease control. For leprosy, there has been an increased emphasis on developing tools for improved detection of infection and early diagnosis of disease. For TB, there has been a similar emphasis on such diagnostic tests, while increased research efforts have also focused on the development of new vaccines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sanata Bamba, Adama Zida, Ibrahim Sangaré, Mamoudou Cissé, David W Denning, Christophe Hennequin
Because of the limited access to more powerful diagnostic tools, there is a paucity of data regarding the burden of fungal infections in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in this sub-Saharan country. We primarily used the national demographic data and performed a PubMed search to retrieve all published papers on fungal infections from Burkina Faso and its surrounding West African countries. Considering the prevalence of HIV infection (0...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Francles Blanco-Guillot, M Lucía Castañeda-Cediel, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Rosa Areli Martínez-Gamboa, Pedro Torres-González, Norma Téllez-Vazquez, Sergio Canizales-Quintero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes García-García
BACKGROUND: Genotyping and georeferencing in tuberculosis (TB) have been used to characterize the distribution of the disease and occurrence of transmission within specific groups and communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus (DM) and pulmonary TB may occur in spatial and molecular aggregations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary TB. The study area included 12 municipalities in the Sanitary Jurisdiction of Orizaba, Veracruz, México...
2018: PloS One
Ray Y Chen, Laura E Via, Lori E Dodd, Gerhard Walzl, Stephanus T Malherbe, André G Loxton, Rodney Dawson, Robert J Wilkinson, Friedrich Thienemann, Michele Tameris, Mark Hatherill, Andreas H Diacon, Xin Liu, Jin Xing, Xiaowei Jin, Zhenya Ma, Shouguo Pan, Guolong Zhang, Qian Gao, Qi Jiang, Hong Zhu, Lili Liang, Hongfei Duan, Taeksun Song, David Alland, Michael Tartakovsky, Alex Rosenthal, Christopher Whalen, Michael Duvenhage, Ying Cai, Lisa C Goldfeder, Kriti Arora, Bronwyn Smith, Jill Winter, Clifton E Barry Iii
Background : By the early 1980s, tuberculosis treatment was shortened from 24 to 6 months, maintaining relapse rates of 1-2%. Subsequent trials attempting shorter durations have failed, with 4-month arms consistently having relapse rates of 15-20%. One trial shortened treatment only among those without baseline cavity on chest x-ray and whose month 2 sputum culture converted to negative. The 4-month arm relapse rate decreased to 7% but was still significantly worse than the 6-month arm (1.6%, P<0.01).  We hypothesize that PET/CT characteristics at baseline, PET/CT changes at one month, and markers of residual bacterial load will identify patients with tuberculosis who can be cured with 4 months (16 weeks) of standard treatment...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
Ankur Gupta-Wright, Gillian S Tomlinson, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Helen A Fletcher
On 24th March, the world commemorates the day in 1882 when Dr Robert Koch announced his discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Over 130 years later, tuberculosis (TB) continues to affect individuals, communities, and entire health systems and economies. Koch unsuccessfully tried to 'cure' TB, and despite major advances in other areas of medicine, control of TB remains elusive- in 2016 TB was the leading infectious cause of death. The STOP TB partnership and World Health Organization (WHO) have announced their theme for World TB Day 2018 "Wanted: Leaders for a TB-Free World...
2018: F1000Research
Jovana M Pavlović, Aleksandar D Pavlovic, Milica V Bulajić, Dragica P Pešut
A previously known association of tuberculosis (TB), now a global emergency, with diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease of increasing prevalence worldwide, has resurfaced. DM is a recognised TB risk factor and M. tuberculosis infection usually disturbs glycoregulation. We aimed to estimate DM prevalence among TB patients and to analyse clinical and radiologic manifestations of TB in this group. The cross-sectional study included 1017 patients discharged with a TB diagnosis from a tertiary level facility in a five-year period...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Matthew W Marney, Robert P Metzger, David Hecht, Faramarz Valafar
WHO reported 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.8 million deaths in 2015, making M. tuberculosis the most successful human pathogen with highest mortality among infectious diseases [1,2]. Drug-resistant TB is a major threat to global TB control [2,3]. Recently Torres et al. [4] identified 14 novel substitutions in M. tuberculosis-KatG (the enzyme associated with resistance to isoniazid-an important first-line anti-TB drug) and demonstrated that 12 of the 14 can cause INH-resistance in M. smegmatis...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Vaithilingam V Banurekha, Dina Nair, Chandrakumar Dolla, Paul Kumaran, Subash Babu
Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) remain vital disease burdens in developing countries and the dual burden of DM and TB clearly signifies a growing global public health concern. While modulation of iron status biomarkers in TB is well described, very little is known about the association of these markers with TB-DM. To examine the association of circulating iron status biomarkers in TB disease, we examined the systemic levels of ferritin, hepcidin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), transferrin, apotransferrin and hemopexin in pulmonary TB (PTB) individuals with DM (PTB-DM), without DM (PTB) and those with diabetes only (DM)...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Payal Dande, Purva Samant
Tuberculosis [TB] has afflicted numerous nations in the world. As per a report by the World Health Organization [WHO], an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015 and an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB disease among people living with HIV, were observed. Most of the TB deaths can be prevented if it is detected at an early stage. The existing processes of diagnosis like blood tests or sputum tests are not only tedious but also take a long time for analysis and cannot differentiate between different drug resistant stages of TB...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Mathieu Garand, Martin Goodier, Olumuyiwa Owolabi, Simon Donkor, Beate Kampmann, Jayne S Sutherland
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a global health concern, especially in resource-poor countries such as The Gambia. Defining protective immunity to TB is challenging: its pathogenesis is complex and involves several cellular components of the immune system. Recent works in vaccine development suggest important roles of the innate immunity in natural protection to TB, including natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells mediate cellular cytotoxicity and cytokine signaling in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). NK cells can display specific memory-type markers to previous antigen exposure; thus, bridging innate and adaptive immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mathieu Bastard, Elisabeth Sanchez-Padilla, Philipp du Cros, Atadjan Karimovich Khamraev, Nargiza Parpieva, Mirzagaleg Tillyashaykov, Armen Hayrapetyan, Kamene Kimenye, Shazina Khurkhumal, Themba Dlamini, Santiago Fadul Perez, Alex Telnov, Cathy Hewison, Francis Varaine, Maryline Bonnet
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis (DR-TB) drugs and the HIV epidemic represent a serious threat for reducing the global burden of TB. Although data on HIV-negative DR-TB treatment outcomes are well published, few data on DR-TB outcomes among HIV co-infected people is available despite the great public health importance. METHODS: We retrospectively reported and compared the DR-TB treatment outcomes of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients treated with an individualized regimen based on WHO guidelines in seven countries: Abkhazia, Armenia, Colombia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Swaziland and Uzbekistan...
2018: PloS One
Ketema Tafess, Teresa Kisi Beyen, Adugna Abera, Geremew Tasew, Shimelis Mekit, Solomon Sisay, Legesse Tadesse, Gilman K H Siu
Background: Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) has been one of the major strategies to combat the epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) globally. This study aimed to evaluate TB treatment outcomes between September 2004 and July 2014 under the DOTS program at one of the largest public hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective data of TB patients registered at Asella Teaching Hospital between September 2004 and July 2014 were obtained from hospital registry...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Elizabeth A Ashley, Judith Recht, Arlene Chua, David Dance, Mehul Dhorda, Nigel V Thomas, Nisha Ranganathan, Paul Turner, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P Day
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) shoulder the bulk of the global burden of infectious diseases and drug resistance. We searched for supranational networks performing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance in LMICs and assessed their organization, methodology, impacts and challenges. Since 2000, 72 supranational networks for AMR surveillance in bacteria, fungi, HIV, TB and malaria have been created that have involved LMICs, of which 34 are ongoing. The median (range) duration of the networks was 6 years (1-70) and the number of LMICs included was 8 (1-67)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Yetunde A Kuyinu, Babatunde A Odugbemi, Shukrat O Salisu-Olatunji, Funmilade O Adepoju, Olumuyiwa O Odusanya
BACKGROUND: Nigeria is one of the ten countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden globally and is experiencing an increasing incidence of drug resistance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance (DR-TB) among patients screened at the TB clinic of a tertiary institution in Lagos, South-West, Nigeria. METHODS: A review of records of 840 patients with suspected drug-resistant TB was carried out from Gene Xpert test clinic register at a tertiary health facility from November 2013 to April 2015...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Soumya Swaminathan, Sanjay Sarin, Virender Singh Salhotra, Aakshi Kalra, Ashwani Khanna, K K Chopra, M Hanif, K R Umadevi, Syed Hissar, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, C H Surya Prakash, B K Saha, Raghuram Rao, Claudia Denkinger, Catharina Boehme
BACKGROUND: Unlike in adults, diagnosis of TB can be challenging in children, as signs and symptoms of paediatric TB can be very non-specific and similar to other common childhood chest infections, which may lead to under or delayed diagnosis of TB disease. In spite of the increasing availability of rapid high-sensitivity diagnostics in public and private sectors, majority of paediatric TB cases are empirically diagnosed, without laboratory confirmation. To address these diagnostic challenges, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended upfront Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing for the diagnosis of TB in paediatric presumptive pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases...
2018: PloS One
Sadia Naz, Umar Farooq, Sajid Ali, Rizwana Sarwar, Sara Khan, Ruben Abagyan
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as global health threat, causing millions of deaths worldwide. Identification of new drug candidates for tuberculosis (TB) by targeting novel and less explored protein targets will be invaluable for antituberculosis drug discovery. We performed structure based virtual screening of eMolecules database against a homology model of relatively unexplored protein target: the α-subunit of Tryptophan synthase (α-TRPS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis essential for bacterial survival...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Chaofei Cheng, Bei Wang, Lei Gao, Jianmin Liu, Xinchun Chen, He Huang, Zhendong Zhao
Tuberculosis (TB) is a severe global threat to human health. The immune protection initiated by γδ T cells play an important role in mycobacterial infection. Vaccines for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) based on γδ T cells provide a novel approach for TB control. In our previous studies, we found a preponderant complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequence of the γδ T cell receptor (TCR) in TB patients, and successfully identified a tuberculosis antigen that can effectively activate γδ T cells with a reverse genetic strategy...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shouliang Qi, Baihua Zhang, Yong Yue, Jing Shen, Yueyang Teng, Wei Qian, Jianlin Wu
Tracheal Bronchus (TB) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of an abnormal bronchus originating from the trachea or main bronchi and directed toward the upper lobe. The airflow pattern in tracheobronchial trees of TB subjects is critical, but has not been systemically studied. This study proposes to simulate the airflow using CT image based models and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Six TB subjects and three health controls (HC) are included. After the geometric model of tracheobronchial tree is extracted from CT images, the spatial distribution of velocity, wall pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) is obtained through CFD simulation, and the lobar distribution of air, flow pattern and global pressure drop are investigated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
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