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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139110/unconditional-cash-transfers-for-reducing-poverty-and-vulnerabilities-effect-on-use-of-health-services-and-health-outcomes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
REVIEW
Frank Pega, Sze Yan Liu, Stefan Walter, Roman Pabayo, Ruhi Saith, Stefan K Lhachimi
BACKGROUND: Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs; provided without obligation) for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities (e.g. orphanhood, old age or HIV infection) are a type of social protection intervention that addresses a key social determinant of health (income) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The relative effectiveness of UCTs compared with conditional cash transfers (CCTs; provided so long as the recipient engages in prescribed behaviours such as using a health service or attending school) is unknown...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138362/infant-neuromotor-development-and-childhood-problem-behavior
#2
Fadila Serdarevic, Akhgar Ghassabian, Tamara van Batenburg-Eddes, Emin Tahirovic, Tonya White, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Research of adults and school-aged children suggest a neurodevelopmental basis for psychiatric disorders. We examined whether infant neuromotor development predicted internalizing and externalizing problems in young children. METHODS: In Generation R, a population-based cohort in the Netherlands (2002-2006), trained research assistants evaluated the neuromotor development of 4006 infants aged 2 to 5 months by using an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination (tone, responses, and senses and other observations)...
November 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132329/determinants-of-patterns-of-maternal-and-child-health-service-utilization-in-a-rural-community-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#3
C C Agunwa, I E Obi, A C Ndu, I B Omotowo, C A Idoko, A K Umeobieri, E C Aniwada
BACKGROUND: Women and children constitute a large proportion of any population. They are the most vulnerable to morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. In many situations the problem of poor maternal and child health stems from the poor use of available services even when they are not of optimum quality. This study seeks to describe the patterns of utilization of Maternal and Child health (MCH) services in a rural area of Enugu State, and identify factors that are associated with and responsible for determining them...
November 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132286/the-gendered-experiences-of-children-in-child-headed-households-in-swaziland
#4
Nozipho Mkhatshwa
This study investigated the gender dynamics of living in child-headed households (CHHs) in a rural area in Swaziland that experiences high levels of drought, poverty and HIV and AIDS. Using a qualitative research methodology, the study examined ways in which children in CHHs meet their daily family needs and address their vulnerabilities according to their gender, focusing on the experiences of the children. The study sample consisted of 10 households, with 5 boy and 5 girl-headed households from the chiefdoms within the area...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132285/empowering-caregivers-of-orphans-and-vulnerable-children-in-swaziland
#5
Syloid Choice Makufa, Daisy Kisyombe, Nicole Miller, Nanette Barkey
This paper reports on the health and psychosocial impacts of a programme designed to economically empower female caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC). The results presented are from a cohort of 492 female caregivers who participated in savings groups and were responsible for 887 OVC. The data showed that the caregivers had increased earnings, borrowed more, repaid their loans, and expanded their businesses. Important health impacts were found for both the caregivers and the OVC. Access to health care increased and the proportion of OVC and caregivers who reported being too ill to take part in daily activities decreased...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129429/serum-concentrations-of-organochlorine-compounds-and-predictors-of%C3%A2-exposure-in-children-living-in-agricultural-communities-from-south-eastern-spain
#6
B González-Alzaga, M Lacasaña, A F Hernández, J P Arrebola, I López-Flores, F Artacho-Cordón, J P Bonde, N Olea, C Aguilar-Garduño
BACKGROUND: Information on exposure levels to organochlorine compounds (OCs) in child population is limited, despite their greater vulnerability to the adverse health effects of these chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To determine serum concentrations of 10 OCs (including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls -PCBs-) in children living in agricultural communities from Almería (South-Eastern Spain), and to identify the main predictors of exposure related to socio-economic characteristics, diet and lifestyle...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127717/salivary-uric-acid-and-c-reactive-protein-associations-with-hypertensionin-midwestern-latino-preadolescents-and-their-parents
#7
Blake L Jones, Salma Elwazeer, Zoe E Taylor
Latino families face increased risk for hypertension. Serum-based uric acid and C-reactive protein have been linked to hypertension. However, a paucity of salivary biomarker data exists in this area for Latino families. Using salivary biomarkers enables less invasive options for biomedical and biosocial research, which is especially important among vulnerable populations facing increased health disparities. This study examined the associations between salivary uric (sUA) acid, salivary C-reactive protein (sCRP), and hypertension among 151 participants (57 children, 57 mothers, 37 fathers) from 57 Midwestern Latino families...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125326/young-schema-questionnaire%C3%A2-%C3%A2-short-form-version-3-ysq-s3-preliminary-validation-in-older-adults
#8
Katelyn Phillips, Robert Brockman, Phoebe E Bailey, Ian I Kneebone
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to establish the reliability and validity of one of the most used schema questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form Version 3 (YSQ-S3) in older adults. METHOD: 104 participants aged 60-84 years were recruited. They were administered a battery of questionnaires, including the YSQ-S3, Young-Atkinson Mode Inventory (YAMI), Germans (Personality) Screener, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and the Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS)...
November 10, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122228/-depressive-symptoms-and-psychosocial-risk-factors-in-high-complexity-obstetric-patients-admitted-to-a-critical-care-obstetric-unit-in-cali-colombia
#9
Ana María Guerra, Diana María Dávalos Pérez, Alejandro Castillo Martínez
Depression is the main cause of years lossed due to disability in the world, and it affects 50% more women 50% than men. Perinatal depression has been linked with more anxiety, a chronic course, and disability than depression in other life stages. In spite of its high prevalence and serious health effects on both mother and foetus, it is frequently under-diagnosed. This study was performed on all high risk obstetric patients admitted to a critical care obstetric unit in Cali, Colombia, from January to June, 2014...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121445/viraemia-before-during-and-after-pregnancy-in-hiv-infected-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-2010-2015
#10
Terusha Chetty, Marie-Louise Newell, Claire Thorne, Anna Coutsoudis
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy and postpartum viral load suppression is critical to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and ensure maternal health. We measured viraemia risk before, during and after pregnancy in HIV-infected women. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, 1425 HIV-infected pregnant women on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least six months pre-pregnancy were enrolled in a cohort study in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Odds ratios were estimated in multilevel logistic regression, with pregnancy period time varying...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120479/father-child-play-during-the-preschool-years-and-child-internalizing-behaviors-between-robustness-and-vulnerability
#11
Lieselotte Ahnert, Lukas Teufl, Nina Ruiz, Bernhard Piskernik, Barbara Supper, Silke Remiorz, Alexander Gesing, Katja Nowacki
Play observations with a total of 400 toddlers and preschoolers were videotaped and rated for Intensity and Quality of play with their parents. Parents were asked about perceived stress and personality characteristics (Big 5). Child's motor, cognitive skills, temperament, and internalizing behaviors were assessed. Study 1 investigated the robustness of play across child age and gender, and examined differences between fathers and mothers. Study 2 explored the vulnerability of play with fathers of children born preterm (PT-fathers) and fathers who had experienced adverse childhoods (AC-fathers)...
November 9, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117871/language-difficulties-and-internalizing-problems-bidirectional-associations-from-18-months-to-8-years-among-boys-and-girls
#12
Siri Saugestad Helland, Espen Røysamb, Mari Vaage Wang, Kristin Gustavson
Studies have shown that early language difficulties are associated with later internalizing problems. Less is known about the nature of the association: the bidirectional relationship over time, the role of different types of language difficulties, and gender differences. The present study examined bidirectional longitudinal associations between parent-rated language difficulties and internalizing problems in a four-wave cross-lagged model from 18 months to 8 years. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were used (N = 114,000)...
November 9, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117759/sustaining-engagement-in-longitudinal-research-with-vulnerable-families-a-mixed-methods-study-of-attrition
#13
Carla S Ginn, Muhammad Kashif Mughal, Hafsa Syed, Amanda Rae Storteboom, Karen M Benzies
The aim of this mixed-methods study was to investigate attrition at the age 10-year follow-up in a study of vulnerable children and their families living with low income following a two-generation preschool program in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Quantitative factors associated with attrition included: (a) food bank use; (b) unstable housing; (c) child welfare involvement; (d) unpartnered status; and (e) caregiver noncompletion of high school. Qualitative themes related to attrition included: (a) income and employment; (b) health; (c) unstable housing; (d) change of guardianship; (e) domestic violence; (f) work and time management challenges; and (g) negative caregiver-child relationships...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Family Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112905/determinants-of-hair-cortisol-concentration-in-children-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
N A Gray, A Dhana, L Van Der Vyver, J Van Wyk, N P Khumalo, D J Stein
BACKGROUND: Several factors are known contribute to hair cortisol concentration (HCC) in adults. However, there is less research on determinants of HCC in children and adolescents. HCC is a valuable tool for medical research pertaining to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This review aims to assess the extent to which established determinants of HCC in adults have been consistently reported in children (birth - 18 years) and to identify determinants of HCC specific to this age group...
November 2, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108437/latent-profiles-of-early-developmental-vulnerabilities-in-a-new-south-wales-child-population-at-age-5%C3%A2-years
#15
Melissa J Green, Stacy Tzoumakis, Kristin R Laurens, Kimberlie Dean, Maina Kariuki, Felicity Harris, Nicole O'Reilly, Marilyn Chilvers, Sally A Brinkman, Vaughan J Carr
OBJECTIVE: Detecting the early emergence of childhood risk for adult mental disorders may lead to interventions for reducing subsequent burden of these disorders. We set out to determine classes of children who may be at risk for later mental disorder on the basis of early patterns of development in a population cohort, and associated exposures gleaned from linked administrative records obtained within the New South Wales Child Development Study. METHODS: Intergenerational records from government departments of health, education, justice and child protection were linked with the Australian Early Development Census for a state population cohort of 67,353 children approximately 5 years of age...
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107975/trajectories-of-maternal-ante-and-postpartum-depressive-symptoms-and-their-association-with-child-and-mother-related-characteristics-in-a-west-african-birth-cohort-study
#16
Dana Barthel, Levente Kriston, Daniel Fordjour, Yasmin Mohammed, Esther Doris Kra-Yao, Carine Esther Bony Kotchi, Ekissi Jean Koffi Armel, Kirsten Alexandra Eberhardt, Torsten Feldt, Rebecca Hinz, Koffi Mathurin, Stefanie Schoppen, Carola Bindt, Stephan Ehrhardt
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of research on mental health has been undertaken in high income countries. This study aimed at investigating the long-term course of maternal depressive symptoms and its association with various mother- and child-related characteristics in two West African lower middle income countries with focus on the relationship with long-term anxiety symptoms. METHODS: In the Child Development Study, a prospective birth cohort study in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was answered by N = 776 women 3 months antepartum, and 3, 12, and 24 months postpartum between April 2010 and March 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107798/parent-emotion-socialization-and-pre-adolescent-s-social-and-emotional-adjustment-moderating-effects-of-autonomic-nervous-system-reactivity
#17
Julia D McQuade, Rosanna P Breaux
This study examined whether measures of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to social stress moderated the effect of parent emotion socialization on children's social and emotional adjustment. Sixty-one children (9 to 13 years) completed a peer rejection task while their respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) and skin conductance level reactivity (SCL-R) were assessed. Parents' report of supportive and non-supportive reactions to their child's negative emotions served as measures of emotion socialization...
October 28, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107398/the-stress-reward-mentalizing-model-of-depression-an-integrative-developmental-cascade-approach-to-child-and-adolescent-depressive-disorder-based-on-the-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-approach
#18
REVIEW
Patrick Luyten, Peter Fonagy
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) propose a much-needed change in approach to the study of vulnerability factors implicated in mental disorders, shifting away from a categorical, disease-oriented model to a dimensional approach that focuses on underlying systems implicated in psychopathology. In this paper we illustrate this approach with a focus on the emergence of depression in childhood and adolescence. Based on evolutionary biological and developmental psychopathology considerations, we present an integrative developmental cascade model of depression that essentially suggests that depression emerges out of a three-pronged series of interacting impairments in the domains of stress regulation, reward, and mentalizing...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104315/child-care-instability-and-behavior-problems-does-parenting-stress-mediate-the-relationship
#19
Alejandra Ros Pilarz, Heather D Hill
Child care instability is associated with more behavior problems in young children, but the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Theoretically, this relationship is likely to emerge, at least in part, because care instability leads to increased parenting stress. Moreover, low socioeconomic status and single-mother families may be more vulnerable to the effects of instability. This study tested these hypotheses using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (n=1,675) and structural equation modeling...
October 2017: Journal of Marriage and the Family
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103308/severity-of-illness-and-adaptive-functioning-predict-quality-of-care-of-children-among-parents-with-psychosis-a-confirmatory-factor-analysis
#20
Linda E Campbell, Mary-Claire Hanlon, Cherrie A Galletly, Carol Harvey, Helen Stain, Martin Cohen, Don van Ravenzwaaij, Scott Brown
OBJECTIVE: Parenthood is central to the personal and social identity of many people. For individuals with psychotic disorders, parenthood is often associated with formidable challenges. We aimed to identify predictors of adequate parenting among parents with psychotic disorders. METHODS: Data pertaining to 234 parents with psychotic disorders living with dependent children were extracted from a population-based prevalence study, the 2010 second Australian national survey of psychosis, and analysed using confirmatory factor analysis...
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
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