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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107501/childhood-vaccine-acceptance-and-refusal-among-warao-amerindian-caregivers-in-venezuela-a-qualitative-approach
#1
Jochem Burghouts, Berenice Del Nogal, Angimar Uriepero, Peter W M Hermans, Jacobus H de Waard, Lilly M Verhagen
OBJECTIVES: Acceptance of childhood vaccination varies between societies, affecting worldwide vaccination coverage. Low coverage rates are common in indigenous populations where parents often choose not to vaccinate their children. We aimed to gain insight into reasons for vaccine acceptance or rejection among Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. METHODS: Based on records of vaccine acceptance or refusal, in-depth interviews with 20 vaccine-accepting and 11 vaccine-declining caregivers were performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#2
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
January 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073947/redefining-the-child-pedestrian-safety-paradigm-identifying-high-fatality-concentrations-in-urban-areas
#3
Nicholas N Ferenchak, Wesley E Marshall
OBJECTIVES: Child pedestrians are some of the most vulnerable users of our transportation systems, and they deserve particular attention when we consider traffic safety. The objective of this work is to identify urban locations in which child pedestrians are at particular risk for fatal collisions with vehicles. METHODS: This paper examines 30 years of crash data for six American cities to locate areas with high child pedestrian fatality concentrations. Phase I of the study, which examines Denver, Colorado, USA, reveals higher concentrations of child pedestrian fatalities around parks as compared with other areas that children have been shown to frequent...
January 10, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073295/the-frequency-and-predictors-of-poly-victimisation-of-south-african-children-and-the-role-of-schools-in-its-prevention
#4
Lezanne Leoschut, Zuhayr Kafaar
Violence has become a characteristic feature of South African society, with women and children often bearing the brunt of this. Contemporary research suggests that the key to stemming the tide of child victimisation is understanding the complete inventory of victimisations that may co-occur during childhood. There is growing recognition that children in South Africa typically experience abuse in the context of other forms of maltreatment and victimisation. This article draws on the empirical data collected for a national prevalence and incidence study on child sexual abuse and maltreatment in South Africa and draws attention to the frequency of poly-victimisation amongst South African children and highlights why some children experience multiple co-occurring forms of victimisations while others do not...
January 10, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070319/development-of-a-nutrient-dense-complementary-food-using-amaranth-sorghum-grains
#5
Judith Kanensi Okoth, Sophie Atieno Ochola, Nicholas K Gikonyo, Anselimo Makokha
Thin porridge from cereals and starchy tubers is a common complementary food in Sub Saharan Africa. It may be high in antinutrients, low in energy, and nutrient density hence inadequate in providing infants' high energy and nutrients requirements per unit body weight. Consequently, undernourishment levels among children under 5 years are high. Therefore, there is need to avail nutrient-dense complementary foods especially for children in low-resource settings. The study was aimed at developing a nutrient-dense complementary food from amaranth and sorghum grains...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069359/monitoring-equity-in-vaccination-coverage-a-systematic-analysis-of-demographic-and-health-surveys-from-45-gavi-supported-countries
#6
Catherine Arsenault, Sam Harper, Arijit Nandi, José M Mendoza Rodríguez, Peter M Hansen, Mira Johri
OBJECTIVES: (1) To conduct a systematic analysis of inequalities in childhood vaccination coverage in Gavi-supported countries; (2) to comparatively assess alternative measurement approaches and how they may affect cross-country comparisons of the level of inequalities. METHODS: Using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2014) in 45 Gavi-supported countries, we measured inequalities in vaccination coverage across seven dimensions of social stratification and of vulnerability to poor health outcomes...
January 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066857/attentional-bias-in-children-with-asthma-with-and-without-anxiety-disorders
#7
Joanne Dudeney, Louise Sharpe, Gemma Sicouri, Sarah Lorimer, Blake F Dear, Adam Jaffe, Hiran Selvadurai, Caroline Hunt
Children with asthma have a high prevalence of anxiety disorders, however, very little is known about the mechanisms that confer vulnerability for anxiety in this population. This study investigated whether children with asthma and anxiety disorders display attentional biases towards threatening stimuli, similar to what has been seen in children with anxiety disorders more generally. We also examined the relationships between attentional biases and anxiety symptomatology and asthma control for children with asthma...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064281/childhood-abuse-history-in-depression-predicts-better-response-to-antidepressants-with-higher-serotonin-transporter-affinity-a-pilot-investigation
#8
Lena C Quilty, Victoria Marshe, Daniela S S Lobo, Kate L Harkness, Daniel J Müller, R Michael Bagby
OBJECTIVES: Childhood abuse is a powerful prognostic indicator in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and is associated with numerous biological risk factors for depression. The purpose of this investigation was to explore if antidepressant medication affinity for the serotonin transporter moderates the association between childhood abuse and treatment response. METHODS: Our sample included 52 outpatients with MDD who had received up to 26 weeks of pharmacotherapy, stratifying antidepressant medications with a high versus a low affinity for the serotonin transporter...
January 7, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058729/role-of-the-attachment-style-in-determining-the-association-between-headache-features-and-psychological-symptoms-in-migraine-children-and-adolescents-an-analytical-observational-case-control-study
#9
Samuela Tarantino, Cristiana De Ranieri, Cecilia Dionisi, Valentina Gagliardi, Maria Francesca Paniccia, Alessandro Capuano, Roberto Frusciante, Martina Balestri, Federico Vigevano, Simonetta Gentile, Massimiliano Valeriani
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the role of attachment style on headache severity and psychological symptoms in migraineurs children/adolescents. Moreover, we investigated the association between attachment style, migraine severity, and psychological symptoms. BACKGROUND: Attachment theory suggests that early interpersonal relationships may be important determinants of psychopathology and pain management. In particular, individuals with insecure attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment style...
January 6, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049471/reported-bed-net-ownership-and-use-in-social-contacts-is-associated-with-uptake-of-bed-nets-for-malaria-prevention-in-pregnant-women-in-ghana
#10
Kacey C Ernst, Steven Erly, Charity Adusei, Melanie L Bell, David Komla Kessie, Alberta Biritwum-Nyarko, John Ehiri
BACKGROUND: Despite progress made in the last decades, malaria persists as a pressing health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to infection and serious health outcomes for themselves and their unborn child. Risk can be mitigated through appropriate use of control measures such as insecticide-treated bed nets. Although social networks can influence uptake of preventive strategies, the role of social influence on bed net ownership has not been explored...
January 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042661/associations-between-early-maternal-depressive-symptom-trajectories-and-toddlers-felt-security-at-18-months-are-boys-and-girls-at-differential-risk
#11
Marjorie Beeghly, Ty Partridge, Ed Tronick, Maria Muzik, Mahya Rahimian Mashhadi, Jordan L Boeve, Jessica L Irwin
The goal of this study was to evaluate whether there are sex differences in children's vulnerability to caregiving risk, as indexed by trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms assessed from 2 to 18 months' postpartum, and children's rated attachment security in toddlerhood, adjusting for maternal social support and demographic risk. Analyses utilized longitudinal data collected for 182 African American mother-child dyads from economically diverse backgrounds. Participants were recruited at the time of the child's birth and followed to 18 months' postpartum...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029442/intergenerational-similarity-in-callous-unemotional-traits-contributions-of-hostile-parenting-and-household-chaos-during-adolescence
#12
Rachel E Kahn, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
Extant research has examined both genetic and environmental risk involved in the transmission of callous-unemotional traits in youth populations, yet no study has examined the intergenerational similarity of these traits between parents and their offspring. The current study examined whether the association between parent callous-unemotional traits and child callous-unemotional traits was mediated by parenting behavior and whether this association was moderated by household environment. Participants included 115 dyads of adolescents (48% female; Mean age=13...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029180/long-term-childhood-outcomes-of-breech-presentation-by-intended-mode-of-delivery-a-population-record-linkage-study
#13
Yu Sun Bin, Jane B Ford, Michael C Nicholl, Christine L Roberts
INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of information on long-term outcomes by mode of delivery for term breech presentation. We aimed to compare childhood mortality, cerebral palsy, hospitalizations, developmental, and educational outcomes associated with intended vaginal breech birth (VBB) compared to planned cesarean section . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Population birth and hospital records from New South Wales, Australia, were used to identify women with non-anomalous pregnancies eligible for VBB during 2001 to 2012...
December 28, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012513/minimally-invasive-endoscopic-treatment-for-pediatric-combined-high-grade-stenosis-as-a-laryngeal-manifestation-of-epidermolysis-bullosa
#14
Dora Palinko, Vera Matievics, Ilona Szegesdi, Balazs Sztano, Laszlo Rovo
Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited mucocutaneous diseases. Laryngotracheal lesions are momentous regarding the risk of sudden airway obstruction. The traditional treatment is tracheostomy. This case report highlights the advantages of minimally invasive interventions. A successful combined endoscopic management of a life-threatening respiratory crisis is presented in a 4-year-old child. Combined commissure stenosis with supraglottic spread was treated by CO2 laser dissection and bilateral endoscopic arytenoid abduction lateropexy, supplemented with mitomycin C application...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997227/aggressive-drive-derivatives-in-the-rorschachs-of-maltreated-children-and-adolescents-latent-structure-and-clinical-correlates
#15
David Joubert, Linda Webster
Psychological assessment can play an important role in informing the intervention process with child and adolescent victims of maltreatment. This study investigated the validity of the Rorschach in assessing aggressive drive derivatives using a profile-based approach, with a sample of 108 children and adolescents in foster care. Aggression indicators were derived from the work of Gacono and Meloy ( 1994 ). Latent class analysis yielded a 4-class model including gender and age as covariates. The first 2 classes were characterized by low prevalence rates across all indicators of aggression, and were distinguished primarily on the basis of participant's age...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996316/developmental-coordination-disorder-plus-oculomotor-and-visuospatial-impairment-as-neurodevelopmental-heralds-of-psychosis-proneness
#16
Michele Poletti, Eva Gebhardt, Andrea Raballo
Aiming at preventing transitions to more severe psychopathology and boosted by the availability of operational criteria to identify help-seeking subjects at increased risk for psychosis, research into the early prodromal phases of psychosis is attracting a growing clinical interest. Furthermore, the focus of early detection is gradually shifting from prodromal syndromes to the premorbid period. Although mainly driven by clinical-pragatic aims, such a shift is coherent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia that might offer a unifying, developmentally informed conceptual framework for early detection...
December 20, 2016: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987406/-i-didn-t-think-we-d-be-dealing-with-stuff-like-this-a-qualitative-study-of-volunteer-support-for-very-disadvantaged-pregnant-women-and-new-mothers
#17
Jenny McLeish, Maggie Redshaw
OBJECTIVE: to identify the particular issues associated with volunteer support for very disadvantaged mothers (who were young, had insecure immigration status, were recent migrants whose English was poor,misused drugs or alcohol, or were involved in crime), from the perspective of the volunteers. DESIGN: a qualitative descriptive study, informed by phenomenological social psychology. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out between July 2013 and March 2015...
December 6, 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983715/fine-particulate-matter-in-urban-environments-a-trigger-of-respiratory-symptoms-in-sensitive-children
#18
Daniel Dunea, Stefania Iordache, Alin Pohoata
The overall objective of this research was to study children's respiratory illness levels in Targoviste (Romania) in relationship to the outdoor concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 µm (PM2.5). We monitored and analysed the PM2.5 concentrations according to a complex experimental protocol. The health trial was conducted over three months (October-December 2015) and required the active cooperation of the children's parents to monitor carefully the respiratory symptoms of the child, i...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978827/assessing-the-universal-health-coverage-target-in-the-sustainable-development-goals-from-a-human-rights-perspective
#19
Audrey R Chapman
BACKGROUND: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted in September 2015, include a comprehensive health goal, "to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being at all ages." The health goal (SDG 3) has nine substantive targets and four additional targets which are identified as a means of implementation. One of these commitments, to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), has been acknowledged as central to the achievement of all of the other health targets. As defined in the SDGs, UHC includes financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services, and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all...
December 15, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974137/health-effects-associated-with-measured-levels-of-contaminants-in-the-arctic
#20
Pál Weihe, Fróði Debes, Jónrit Halling, Maria Skaalum Petersen, Gina Muckle, Jon Øyvind Odland, Alexey Dudarev, Pierre Ayotte, Éric Dewailly, Philippe Grandjean, Eva Bonefeld-Jørgensen
The Human Health Assessment Group has over the past decade recommended that effect studies be conducted in the circumpolar area. Such studies examine the association between contaminant exposure in the Arctic populations and health effects. Because foetuses and young children are the most vulnerable, effect studies are often prospective child cohort studies. The emphasis in this article is on a description of the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The main topics addressed are neurobehavioural, immunological, reproductive, cardiovascular, endocrine and carcinogenic effect...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
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