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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332551/how-narratives-of-fear-shape-girls-participation-in-community-life-in-two-conflict-affected-populations
#1
Marni Sommer, Miguel Munoz-Laboy, Emily Wilkinson Salamea, Johanna Arp, Kathryn L Falb, Nadine Rudahindwa, Lindsay Stark
Numerous social factors shape girls' lives in conflict-affected settings, affecting their vulnerability to gender-based violence (GBV). Qualitative research methods were used to examine spaces of perceived safety and risk for girls living in two conflict-affected populations: camps in Ethiopia hosting primarily South Sudanese and Sudanese refugees and communities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Three major themes emerged: (a) challenges around caregiver-child communication regarding development, sex, and sexual violence; (b) a typology of safe/risky spaces; and (c) the influence of male-dominated spaces on experiences and fear of GBV...
June 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331151/the-impact-of-parental-mental-illness-across-the-full-diagnostic-spectrum-on-externalising-and-internalising-vulnerabilities-in-young-offspring
#2
Kimberlie Dean, Melissa J Green, Kristin R Laurens, Maina Kariuki, Stacy Tzoumakis, Titia Sprague, Rhoshel Lenroot, Vaughan J Carr
BACKGROUND: The intergenerational risk for mental illness is well established within diagnostic categories, but the risk is unlikely to respect diagnostic boundaries and may be reflected more broadly in early life vulnerabilities. We aimed to establish patterns of association between externalising and internalising vulnerabilities in early childhood and parental mental disorder across the full spectrum of diagnoses. METHODS: A cohort of Australian children (n = 69 116) entering the first year of school in 2009 were assessed using the Australian Early Development Census, providing measures of externalising and internalising vulnerability...
January 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330714/evidence-based-recommendations-to-improve-the-safe-use-of-drugs-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#3
Rianne A Weersink, Margriet Bouma, David M Burger, Joost P H Drenth, S Froukje Harkes-Idzinga, Nicole G M Hunfeld, Herold J Metselaar, Margje H Monster-Simons, Katja Taxis, Sander D Borgsteede
INTRODUCTION: The presence of liver cirrhosis can have a major impact on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, but guidance for prescribing is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to provide an overview of evidence-based recommendations developed for the safe use of drugs in liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Recommendations were based on a systematic literature search combined with expert opinion from a panel of 10 experts. The safety of each drug was classified as safe, no additional risks known, additional risks known, unsafe, unknown or the safety class was dependent on the severity of liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh classification)...
January 12, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323864/status-report-foodreach-toronto-lowering-food-costs-for-social-agencies-and-community-groups
#4
Paul Coleman, John Gultig, Barbara Emanuel, Marianne Gee, Heather Orpana
Toronto has the largest absolute number of food insecure households for any metropolitan census area in Canada: of its 2.1 million households, roughly 252 000 households (or 12%) experience some level of food insecurity. Community organizations (including social agencies, school programs, and child care centres) serve millions of meals per year to the city's most vulnerable citizens, but often face challenges accessing fresh produce at affordable prices. Therefore in 2015, Toronto Public Health, in collaboration with public- and private-sector partners, launched the FoodReach program to improve the efficiency of food procurement among community organizations by consolidating their purchasing power...
January 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316709/screaming-body-and-silent-healthcare-providers-a-case-study-with-a-childhood-sexual-abuse-survivor
#5
REVIEW
Sigrun Sigurdardottir, Sigridur Halldorsdottir
Stressful early life experiences cause immune dysregulation across the lifespan. Despite the fact that studies have identified childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors as a particularly vulnerable group, only a few attempts have been made to study their lived-experience of the physical health consequences of CSA. The aim of this study was to explore a female CSA survivor's lived-experience of the physical health consequences of CSA and how she experienced the reactions of healthcare providers. Seven interviews were conducted with this 40-year-old woman, Anne, using a phenomenological research approach...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311178/using-state-administrative-data-to-identify-social-complexity-risk-factors-for-children
#6
Kimberly C Arthur, Barbara A Lucenko, Irina V Sharkova, Jingping Xing, Rita Mangione-Smith
PURPOSE: Screening for social determinants of health is challenging but critically important for optimizing child health outcomes. We aimed to test the feasibility of using an integrated state agency administrative database to identify social complexity risk factors and examined their relationship to emergency department (ED) use. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among children younger than 18 years with Washington State Medicaid insurance coverage (N = 505,367)...
January 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310901/why-do-we-not-want-to-recommend-influenza-vaccination-to-young-children-a-qualitative-study-of-australian-parents-and-primary-care-providers
#7
Ruby Biezen, Danilla Grando, Danielle Mazza, Bianca Brijnath
INTRODUCTION: Influenza vaccination has been shown to be safe and effective against influenza and in the prevention of complicating secondary respiratory illnesses. However, its uptake in young children remains low. This study explored the views, attitudes and practices of parents and primary care providers (PCPs) on their knowledge and acceptance of influenza vaccination in children under 5. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional qualitative research design, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews with PCPs (i...
January 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310476/development-of-a-case-formulation-model-for-individuals-who-have-viewed-distributed-and-or-shared-child-sexual-exploitation-material
#8
Hannah L Merdian, Derek E Perkins, Elspeth Dustagheer, Emily Glorney
Increases in the number of arrests of individuals who download or distribute Child Sexual Exploitation Material (CSEM) have highlighted a need to further understand the offending pathways of this offender group. This article describes the development of an aetiological model specific to CSEM offending. Individuals who had viewed, distributed, and/or shared CSEM ( n = 20) were interviewed regarding their life and sexual history, relationships, substance use, offending details, and circumstances leading to their CSEM offending, resulting in seven superordinate themes: Developmental Context, Individual Propensities (risk-related and risk-protective) and Psychological Vulnerabilities, Personal Circumstances, Permission-Giving Thoughts, Internet Environment and Behaviour, Evaluation of Consequences for the Individual, and Desistance...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304779/list-modelling-with-monitoring-data-to-estimate-impact-on-child-mortality-of-an-ors-and-zinc-programme-with-public-sector-providers-in-bihar-india
#9
Jayachandran A Ayyanat, Catherine Harbour, Sanjeev Kumar, Manjula Singh
BACKGROUND: Many interventions have attempted to increase vulnerable and remote populations' access to ORS and zinc to reduce child mortality from diarrhoea. However, the impact of these interventions is difficult to measure. From 2010 to 15, Micronutrient Initiative (MI), worked with the public sector in Bihar, India to enable community health workers to treat and report uncomplicated child diarrhoea with ORS and zinc. We describe how we estimated programme's impact on child mortality with Lives Saved Tool (LiST) modelling and data from MI's management information system (MIS)...
January 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301911/neonatal-morbidity-at-term-early-child-development-and-school-performance-a-population-study
#10
Jason P Bentley, Francisco J Schneuer, Samantha J Lain, Andrew J Martin, Adrienne Gordon, Natasha Nassar
OBJECTIVES: Investigate the association between severe neonatal morbidity (SNM) and child development and school performance among term infants. METHODS: The study population included term infants without major congenital conditions born between 2000 and 2007 in New South Wales, Australia, with a linked record of developmental assessment at ages 4 to 6 years in 2009 or 2012 (n = 144 535) or school performance at ages 7 to 9 years from 2009 to 2014 (n = 253 447)...
January 4, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297424/household-context-and-psychosocial-impact-of-childhood-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#11
M Loveday, B Sunkari, I Master, A Daftary, V Mehlomakulu, S Hlangu, B J Marais
SETTING: Referral hospital for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: We conducted interviews with primary care givers of children admitted with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) during a 3-month period in 2015 to identify broader household challenges. RESULTS: We interviewed 26 care givers, most of whom were women (85%). Most households had been decimated by TB/MDR-TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and were dependent upon government grants...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294792/clinician-response-to-child-abuse-presentations-in-the-vietnamese-hospital-emergency-setting
#12
Tara Flemington, Cathrine Fowler, Quang Nhat Tran, Jennifer Fraser
Ongoing fiscal stability has enabled the National Assembly in Vietnam to turn its attention to improving the health and well-being of women and children. Training pediatric health care professionals in the recognition and response to child abuse presentations in the emergency setting has the potential to improve outcomes for the disproportionate number of vulnerable children presenting to the emergency setting with nonaccidental injuries. This study explored the training needs and expectations of the staff preparing to undertake such a clinical training program...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294704/holding-the-child-and-practitioner-in-mind-youth-justice-practitioners-experiences-supervising-young-people-displaying-sexually-harmful-behavior
#13
Andrew Myles-Wright, Claire Nee
This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of youth justice practitioners supervising young people (below 18 years old) displaying sexually harmful behavior within the Youth Justice System (YJS) in the United Kingdom, as little is currently known about the challenges faced when working with this vulnerable group. Five practitioners from two Youth Offending Services (YOS) participated in individual semistructured interviews, which were subjected to thematic analysis while also analyzing the performative function of language used...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294659/breaking-the-intergenerational-cycle-partner-violence-child-parent-attachment-and-children-s-aggressive-behaviors
#14
Shao-Chiu Juan, Heather M Washington, Megan C Kurlychek
The link between exposure to violence in the home and children's later exhibition of violent behaviors is well documented in the criminological literature. To date, most research on partner violence (PV) and children's welfare has focused on adolescent outcomes. As such, we know little about how PV affects the behavior of the youngest, and perhaps most vulnerable population of children who have been exposed to PV. Our understanding of the PV-child behavior association is also limited because extant research has focused less attention on identifying risk factors that explain and modify the link between exposure to PV and children's behavior...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289984/prevalence-of-mental-disorders-among-children-and-adolescents-of-parents-with-self-reported-mental-health-problems
#15
Sarah E Johnson, David Lawrence, Francisco Perales, Janeen Baxter, Stephen R Zubrick
This paper provides Australian population-level estimates of the prevalence of parental self-reported lifetime mental disorders and past 12 month mental disorders in their children. It leverages unique data from the 2013-2014 Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (Young Minds Matter) (n = 6310). Mental disorders were assessed in 4-17 year-olds using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV. Primary carer (PC) and secondary carer mental health was based on PC-reported lifetime diagnoses...
December 30, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278269/childhood-developmental-vulnerabilities-associated-with-early-life-exposure-to-infectious-and-noninfectious-diseases-and-maternal-mental-illness
#16
Melissa J Green, Maina Kariuki, Kimberlie Dean, Kristin R Laurens, Stacy Tzoumakis, Felicity Harris, Vaughan J Carr
BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to infectious and noninfectious diseases may influence early childhood developmental functioning, on the path to later mental illness. Here, we investigated the effects of in utero exposure to maternal infection and noninfectious diseases during pregnancy on offspring developmental vulnerabilities at age 5 years, in the context of estimated effects for early childhood exposures to infectious and noninfectious diseases and maternal mental illness. METHODS: We used population data for 66,045 children from an intergenerational record linkage study (the New South Wales Child Development Study), for whom a cross-sectional assessment of five developmental competencies (physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and communication) was obtained at school entry, using the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC)...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274605/alexithymia-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-child-sexual-abuse-and-psychological-distress-in-adolescence-a-short-term-longitudinal-study
#17
Martine Hébert, Cyndi Boisjoli, Martin Blais, Essaïd Oussaïd
BACKGROUND: Understanding factors influencing mental health of sexually abused teenagers is essential to orient treatment with this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to explore alexithymia as a mediator of the relationship between child sexual abuse and psychological distress using a representative sample of teenagers, while considering gender as a potential moderator. METHODS: Teenagers participating in the Quebec Youths' Romantic Relationships Survey completed measures evaluating a history of child sexual abuse and alexithymia at baseline while psychological distress was evaluated 6 months later...
December 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259078/astrovirus-infection-and-diarrhea-in-8-countries
#18
Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Saba Rouhani, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Mery Siguas Salas, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Dinesh Mondal, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, James Platts-Mills, Amidou Samie, Furqan Kabir, Aldo Lima, Sudhir Babji, Sanjaya Kumar Shrestha, Carl J Mason, Adil Kalam, Pascal Bessong, Tahmeed Ahmed, Estomih Mduma, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Ila Lima, Rakhi Ramdass, Lawrence H Moulton, Dennis Lang, Ajila George, Anita K M Zaidi, Gagandeep Kang, Eric R Houpt, Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Astroviruses are important drivers of viral gastroenteritis but remain understudied in community settings and low- and middle-income countries. We present data from 8 countries with high prevalence of diarrhea and undernutrition to describe astrovirus epidemiology and assess evidence for protective immunity among children 0 to 2 years of age. METHODS: We used 25 898 surveillance stools and 7077 diarrheal stools contributed by 2082 children for enteropathogen testing, and longitudinal statistical analysis to describe incidence, risk factors, and protective immunity...
December 19, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258221/maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-child-behavior-among-mexican-women-and-their-children
#19
Emily P Flynn, Esther O Chung, Emily J Ozer, Lia C H Fernald
Over 50% of mothers in rural Mexico have high depressive symptoms, and their children's health and development are likely to be negatively affected. A critical question is whether children vary in their vulnerability to the effects of high maternal depressive symptoms according to their indigenous ethnicity, maternal education, or household wealth. Our sample included 4442 mothers and 5503 children from an evaluation of Mexico's social welfare program. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and child behavior was measured using an adapted version of the Behavior Problems Index (BPI)...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249281/psychosocial-resilience-and-vulnerability-in-western-australian-aboriginal-youth
#20
Katrina D Hopkins, Catherine L Taylor, Stephen R Zubrick
Resilience is defined as a dynamic and contextually embedded process of positive development despite exposure to significant adversity. The Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population experience significant disadvantage and adversity relative to the non-Aboriginal population, with disproportionate and increasing rates of Aboriginal children in out-of-home care and substantiated child maltreatment seven times the rates for non-Aboriginal children. Despite decades of resilience research there remains a gap in our understanding of the extent to which specific mechanisms and processes support resilient outcomes...
December 14, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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