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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207982/understanding-ethical-issues-of-research-participation-from-the-perspective-of-participating-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#1
Stacey Crane, Marion E Broome
BACKGROUND: The past 20 years have seen distinct shifts in the way the participation of children and adolescents in research is viewed. This has been emphasized by the growing pediatric research enterprise. Additional information on children's and adolescents' experiences during research participation is needed to better inform researchers on the ethical conduct of research with this vulnerable population. AIMS: The objective of this analysis was to examine ethical issues in research with children and adolescents from their perspective as participants, including: assent, parental consent, risk perception, impact of research participation, and incentives...
February 16, 2017: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207425/evidence-based-interventions-for-improvement-of-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-low-income-settings-what-s-new
#2
Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Jai K Das, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal and child malnutrition continues to disproportionately affect low and middle-income countries, contributing to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and suboptimal development. This article reviews evidence from recent systematic reviews and studies on the effectiveness of interventions to improve nutritional status in these especially vulnerable populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Macronutrients provided to expectant mothers in the form of balanced protein energy supplements can improve fetal growth and birth outcomes, and new research suggests that lipid nutrient supplements can reduce both stunting and wasting in newborns...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202365/optimising-the-use-of-medicines-to-reduce-acute-kidney-injury-in-children-and-babies
#3
REVIEW
L Oni, D B Hawcutt, M A Turner, M W Beresford, S McWilliam, C Barton, B K Park, P Murray, B Wilm, I Copple, R Floyd, M Peak, A Sharma, D J Antoine
The majority of medications in children are administered in an unlicensed or off-label manner. Paediatricians are obliged to prescribe using the limited evidence available. The 2007 EU regulation on the use of paediatric drugs means pharmaceutical companies are now obliged to (and receive incentives for) contributing to paediatric drug data and carrying out paediatric clinical trials. This is important, as the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of medicines vary across childhood. Additionally, there are significant age-related changes in the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic activity of many drugs...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199415/temperament-in-infancy-and-behavioral-and-emotional-problems-at-age-5-5-the-eden-mother-child-cohort
#4
Xian Abulizi, Laura Pryor, Grégory Michel, Maria Melchior, Judith van der Waerden
OBJECTIVE: Early temperamental characteristics may influence children's developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child's sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188241/examination-of-the-influence-of-social-capital-on-depression-in-fragile-families
#5
Neil A Wilmot, Kim Nichols Dauner
BACKGROUND: While it appears that social capital has a positive effect on mental health, most studies have been cross-sectional in nature and/or employ weak measures of social capital or mental health. Even less attention has been paid to vulnerable populations, such as low-income women with children. Thus, our objective was to explore how different dimensions of social capital impact depression in this population. METHODS: We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, which has followed a cohort of children born in large US cities to mostly minority, unmarried parents for over 9 years...
March 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185586/expressing-collective-voices-on-children-s-health-photovoice-exploration-with-mothers-of-young-children-from-the-indian-sundarbans
#6
Upasona Ghosh, Shibaji Bose, Rittika Bramhachari, Sabyasachi Mandal
BACKGROUND: The Indian Sundarbans is marked by inhospitable terrain and frequent climatic shocks which jointly hinder access to health care. Community members, and women in particular, have few means to communicate their concerns to local decision makers. Photovoice is one way in which communities can raise their local health challenges with decision makers. This study unlocks mothers' voices on the determinants of their children's health to inform local level decision-making on child health issues in the Indian Sundarbans...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176020/family-economic-security-policies-and-child-and-family-health
#7
REVIEW
Rachael A Spencer, Kelli A Komro
In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174150/involving-children-with-cancer-in-health-promotive-research-a-case-study-describing-why-what-and-how
#8
Jens M Nygren, Susanne Lindberg, Pontus Wärnestål, Petra Svedberg
BACKGROUND: Participatory research approaches have been introduced to meet end-users' needs in the development of health promotion interventions among children. However, whereas children are increasingly involved as passive informants in particular parts of research, they are rarely involved as partners, equal to adult researchers, throughout the research process. This is especially prominent in the context of child health where the child is commonly considered to be vulnerable or when the research concerns sensitive situations...
February 7, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162141/child-maternal-and-household-level-correlates-of-nutritional-status-a-cross-sectional-study-among-young-samoan-children
#9
Courtney C Choy, Mayur M Desai, Jennifer J Park, Elizabeth A Frame, Avery A Thompson, Take Naseri, Muagututia S Reupena, Rachel L Duckham, Nicole C Deziel, Nicola L Hawley
OBJECTIVE: Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24-59 months. DESIGN: A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score +2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l)...
February 6, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162042/the-syrian-public-health-and-humanitarian-crisis-a-displacement-in-global-governance
#10
Sumaira Akbarzada, Tim K Mackey
Ongoing failure by the international community to resolve the Syrian conflict has led to destruction of critical infrastructure. This includes the collapse of the Syrian health system, leaving millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in urgent need of healthcare services. As the conflict intensifies, IDP populations are suffering from infectious and non-communicable disease risks, poor maternal and child health outcomes, trauma, and mental health issues, while healthcare workers continually exit the country...
February 4, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160274/new-directions-in-developmentally-informed-intervention-research-for-vulnerable-populations
#11
Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Mackenzie D M Whipps, Natalia M Rojas
This special section of Child Development brings together experts in developmental science and intervention research to incorporate current evidence on resilience for vulnerable populations and give concrete suggestions for action and research. This commentary synthesizes the contributions of the articles, noting themes such as simultaneous attention to multiple risk, protective, and promotive processes; integrating new principles from clinical and therapeutic interventions; and adapting intervention approaches for new populations...
February 3, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157486/lessons-learned-from-the-crisis-in-flint-michigan-regarding-the-effects-of-contaminated-water-on-maternal-and-child-health
#12
Melva Gale Craft-Blacksheare
The Flint, Michigan water crisis raised awareness about the dangers of lead-tainted drinking water and the role of the nurse in addressing such a crisis. Although lead exposure is dangerous for all people, research indicates that pregnant and nursing women and their infants are especially vulnerable to prenatal and postnatal lead exposure. This information is of national importance because of the aging infrastructure of American cities and the likelihood of similar problems in other locations.
January 31, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152208/participation-in-pediatric-perioperative-care-what-it-means-for-parents
#13
Carina Sjöberg, Petra Svedberg, Jens M Nygren, Ing-Marie Carlsson
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To explore what it means for parents to participate in their children's pediatric perioperative care. BACKGROUND: Allowing parents to participate in pediatric perioperative care can make a major difference for children in terms of their well-being; a decreased need for painkillers, fewer sleeping disorders and a more positive experience for both parties. The nurse anaesthetist should have a holistic view and develop a shared vision for the child, the parents and for themselves in order to perform successful pediatric perioperative care...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149578/review-of-tracheobronchial-foreign-body-aspiration-in-the-south-african-paediatric-age-group
#14
REVIEW
Tamer Ali Sultan, Arjan Bastiaan van As
Children, and in particular young children under the age of three, are the most vulnerable for aspiration and ingestion of foreign bodies (FBs). The Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town is the only children's hospital in South Africa and is unique in having a dedicated trauma unit for children under the age of 13 as part of its institution. Core activities of Childsafe South Africa (CSA), located at the hospital, are data accumulation and interpretation, development of educational programmes, health inculcation and advising in legislation involving child health...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145196/recognition-and-management-of-foreign-body-ingestion-and-aspiration
#15
Oliver William McKinney, Paul Anthony Heaton, Jane Gamble, Siba Prosad Paul
Foreign body ingestion and foreign body aspiration commonly affect children. The most vulnerable age is between six months and four years, when children tend to explore new objects with their mouths. Many of these events remain asymptomatic, with the swallowed object passing through the gastrointestinal tract without causing harm. However, the frequency of serious complications as a result of the ingestion of hazardous objects has increased in recent years, in particular button batteries and magnets. To increase the likelihood of identifying foreign body ingestion and aspiration, healthcare professionals should maintain a high index of suspicion, be aware of the variation in presentations and include it as a differential diagnosis in children presenting with non-specific symptoms, such as fever, cough, drooling, dysphagia and abdominal pain...
February 1, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142012/change-in-household-income-and-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-during-childhood-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#16
Young Choi, Jaeyong Shin, Kyoung Hee Cho, Eun-Cheol Park
BACKGROUND: Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be more prevalent among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in various countries. The effect of poverty on child development appears to depend on how long poverty lasts. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for childhood outcomes. Lifetime socioeconomic status may shape current health. Thus, we investigated the effects of household income changes from birth to 4 years on the occurrence of ADHD...
February 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132093/palatable-food-consumption-in-children-interplay-between-food-reward-motivation-and-the-home-food-environment
#17
Annelies De Decker, Sandra Verbeken, Isabelle Sioen, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Caroline Braet, Gabrielle Eiben, Valeria Pala, Lucia A Reish, Stefaan De Henauw
: To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating')...
January 28, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124485/addressing-the-mental-health-needs-of-looked-after-children-in-foster-care-the-experiences-of-foster-carers
#18
W York, J Jones
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: In the UK and internationally, the number of looked after children is increasing year on year. Mental health problems among looked after children are significantly higher than in the general population, and the uptake of mental health services for these children is low. There is a poor prognosis for children with untreated mental health problems; this is further compounded if the child is within the care system. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study adds to our understanding of foster carers' experiences of the mental health needs of looked after children and demonstrates some of the challenges associated with accessing appropriate and timely mental health services...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124383/-there-s-something-in-their-eyes-child-health-services-nurses-experiences-of-identifying-signs-of-postpartum-depression-in-non-swedish-speaking-immigrant-mothers
#19
Malin Skoog, Inger Hallström, Vanja Berggren
BACKGROUND: Due to the current world situation, Sweden has one of the highest asylum applications within the European Union. Immigrant mothers, specifically those who have immigrated during the last ten years and do not speak the language of the new country, are found to be at particular risk of being effected by postpartum depression. AIM: In this study, we elucidate Swedish Child Health Services nurses' experiences of identifying signs of postpartum depression in non-Swedish-speaking immigrant mothers...
January 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124189/black-white-differences-in-child-maltreatment-reports-and-foster-care-placements-a-statistical-decomposition-using-linked-administrative-data
#20
Tim Maloney, Nan Jiang, Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Erin Dalton, Rhema Vaithianathan
Introduction Official statistics have confirmed that relative to their presence in the population and relative to white children, black children have consistently higher rates of contact with child protective services (CPS). We used linked administrative data and statistical decomposition techniques to generate new insights into black and white differences in child maltreatment reports and foster care placements. Methods Birth records for all children born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, between 2008 and 2010 were linked to administrative service records originating in multiple county data systems...
January 25, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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