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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174784/colonization-with-multiresistant-bacteria-impact-on-ventricular-assist-device-patients
#1
Maria Papathanasiou, Julia Pohl, Alexander Rolf Jánosi, Nikolaus Pizanis, Markus Kamler, Tienush Rassaf, Peter Luedike
BACKGROUND: Although the effect of infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients is well characterized, the influence of perioperative colonization on the development of infections in this patient cohort remains unknown. The study evaluated the effect of MDRB colonization on patient outcomes after LVAD implantation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the microbiological screening studies of nasal, throat, wound, and rectal swabs in 82 consecutive patients who received an LVAD at our center between 2010 and 2015...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168673/the-role-of-dalbavancin-in-the-multi-disciplinary-management-of-wound-infections-in-orthopaedic-surgery
#2
Fabio Arena, Emilio Romanini, Elia Rosi, Carlo Salomone, Gabriele Tucci, Ciro Pempinello, Massimo Fantoni
Antimicrobial resistance is continuously increasing among bacterial clinical isolates (especially methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA), negatively impacting on outcomes of patients with Surgical Site Infections (SSIs). A multi-disciplinary team work is essential for SSIs prevention and for the choice of antibiotic therapy of orthopaedic SSIs. In particular, an Antibiotic Stewardship (AS) approach is recommended for preserving the activity of old and new antimicrobials. Dalbavancin is a novel antimicrobial agent, belonging to the lipoglycopeptides family, recently approved by FDA for the treatment of ABSSSIs (Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections) and can be considered as a candidate for the treatment of orthopaedic superficial SSIs...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121361/valved-25-gauge-cannula-for-vitreous-tap-and-injection
#3
Theodore Leng, Darius M Moshfeghi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To describe a technique that reduces patient discomfort by using a valved 25-gauge trocar for vitreous tap and intravitreal injection of medications in previously vitrectomized eyes with suspected infectious endophthalmitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A commercially available 25-gauge valved entry system is used to enter the vitreous cavity. A 25-gauge needle attached to a syringe is used to obtain a vitreous specimen for microbiological access and administer intravitreal injections of antibiotics and steroids...
November 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668355/cell-biology-of-microbes-and-pharmacology-of-antimicrobial-drugs-explored-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#4
REVIEW
Cécile Formosa-Dague, Raphaël Emmanuel Duval, Etienne Dague
Antimicrobial molecules have been used for more than 50 years now and are the basis of modern medicine. No surgery can nowdays be imagined to be performed without antibiotics; dreadful diseases like tuberculosis, leprosis, siphilys, and more broadly all microbial induced diseases, can be cured only through the use of antimicrobial treatments. However, the situation is becoming more and more complex because of the ability of microbes to adapt, develop, acquire, and share mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial agents...
June 28, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534544/-factors-predicting-failure-in-empirical-antibiotic-treatment
#5
REVIEW
E J García-Lamberechts, J González-Del Castillo, A I Hormigo Sánchez, M J Núñez-Orantos, F J Candel, F J Martín-Sánchez
Infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. The choice of empirical treatment is one of the most common decisions facing the physician. This first decision has consequences in the prognosis of the patient and the costs associated with the process. This review attempts to summarize the aspects that can lead to failure of antibiotic treatment by considering microbiological and pharmacological aspects, patient profile and infectious focus control. In addition, a series of recommendations are established to minimize this risk, from the point of view of diagnostic accuracy, adequate severity stratification of the patient, knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of antibiotics and control of the infectious focus...
April 30, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435379/shifts-of-subgingival-bacterial-population-after-nonsurgical-and-pharmacological-therapy-of-localized-aggressive-periodontitis-followed-for-1-year-by-ion-torrent-pgm-platform
#6
Giuseppina Campisciano, Annamaria Toschetti, Manola Comar, Rosanna Di Taranto, Federico Berton, Claudio Stacchi
The possibility of targeting the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) could provide a complete analysis of subgingival plaque samples, potentially able to identify microbiological species missed by culture-based methods. A 16-year-old female smoker patient, affected by localized aggressive periodontitis, underwent a full-mouth disinfection protocol and was inserted in a 3-month recall program. Microbiological samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 100, 365 days follow-up and analyzed by Ion Torrent PGM...
January 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409203/the-role-of-infection-models-and-pk-pd-modelling-for-optimising-care-of-critically-ill-patients-with-severe-infections
#7
REVIEW
T Tängdén, V Ramos Martín, T W Felton, E I Nielsen, S Marchand, R J Brüggemann, J B Bulitta, M Bassetti, U Theuretzbacher, B T Tsuji, D W Wareham, L E Friberg, J J De Waele, V H Tam, Jason A Roberts
Critically ill patients with severe infections are at high risk of suboptimal antimicrobial dosing. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antimicrobials in these patients differ significantly from the patient groups from whose data the conventional dosing regimens were developed. Use of such regimens often results in inadequate antimicrobial concentrations at the site of infection and is associated with poor patient outcomes. In this article, we describe the potential of in vitro and in vivo infection models, clinical pharmacokinetic data and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models to guide the design of more effective antimicrobial dosing regimens...
July 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907971/-interpretation-of-bacterial-susceptibility-resistance-to-antibiotics
#8
Milan Kolář
Bacterial resistance may be defined from a microbiological, clinical and pharmacological perspective. Microbiological resistance refers to the presence of genetic information coding for the relevant mechanism of resistance of a bacterium to a particular antibiotic. In case of clinical interpretation, breakpoints are of key importance as their role is to distinguish bacterial pathogens in which successful therapy is highly probable from isolates with a high likelihood of failure. However, it is questionable whether this approach is suitable for all patients, particularly those receiving intensive care for life-threatening infections...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847963/-challenge-of-neuroborreliosis
#9
REVIEW
A Spreer, S Rauer, H Wilking, V Fingerle
Lyme borreliosis is the most frequent tick-borne infection in Europe. It is a multisystemic disease affecting the skin, joints, heart, in rare cases the eyes and regularly the nervous system. Taking current clinical and microbiological guidelines into account, neuroborreliosis can in general be diagnosed and treated successfully. An appropriate guideline-conform antibiotic treatment is effective and in most cases recovery from acute neuroborreliosis is complete. Nevertheless, the evidence base regarding pharmacological treatment needs reform and improvement...
December 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811348/septic-shock-in-the-course-of-liver-absces-rescued-with-percutaneous-drainage-a-literature-review-and-case-report
#10
REVIEW
Jadwiga Snarska, Maciej Michalak, Piotr Masiulaniec, Krzysztof Jacyna, Artur Zalewski
This study presented a septic shock occurring with striking speed during the percutaneous drainage of a large abscess of the liver in an 18-year-old female patient after an appendectomy performed 3 months earlier using the laparoscopic method because of its phlegmonous and gangraenosus inflammation. The post-operative course was complicated by increased suppuration in places after removal of the trocars. After including the intravenous antibiotic therapy and under the USG control, the percutaneous drainage of the abscess was performed...
October 1, 2016: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612894/in-vitro-determination-of-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-aqueous-garlic-extract-and-imipenem-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-escherichia-coli
#11
S K Saha, S Saha, S M Akhter, S Khatun, M M Islam, P Roy
An interventional study was performed to determine and compare the MICs of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and Imipenem against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 & Eschericha coli ATCC 25922. The study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2014 to January 2015. The MIC of AGE and antibiotic Imipenem were determined with the help of broth dilution method. The MIC of AGE was determined as 400μg/ml and 700μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli respectively and the MIC of Imipenem was 1μg/ml against Staphylococus aureus and 1...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539442/omadacycline-development-of-a-novel-aminomethylcycline-antibiotic-for-treating-drug-resistant-bacterial-infections
#12
REVIEW
Stephen Villano, Judith Steenbergen, Evan Loh
Omadacycline is a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic that circumvents common tetracycline resistance mechanisms. In vitro omadacycline has potent activity against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. It is also active against common Gram-negative aerobes, some anaerobes and atypical bacteria including Legionella spp. and Chlamydia spp. Ongoing Phase III clinical trials with omadacycline are investigating once daily doses of 100 mg intravenously followed by once-daily doses of 300 mg orally for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia...
October 2016: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469981/discovery-pharmacology-and-clinical-profile-of-omadacycline-a-novel-aminomethylcycline-antibiotic
#13
REVIEW
S Ken Tanaka, Judith Steenbergen, Stephen Villano
Omadacycline is novel, aminomethyl tetracycline antibiotic being developed for oral and intravenous (IV) administration for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial infections. Omadacycline is characterized by an aminomethyl substituent at the C9 position of the core 6-member ring. Modifications at this position result in an improved spectrum of antimicrobial activity by overcoming resistance known to affect older generation tetracyclines via ribosomal protection proteins and efflux pump mechanisms. In vitro, omadacycline has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes, anaerobes, and atypical pathogens including Legionella and Chlamydia spp...
December 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270304/chemical-and-biological-studies-of-reveromycin-a
#14
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Osada
The research on antibiotics requires the integration of broad areas, such as microbiology, organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology. It is similar to the field of chemical biology that is recently popular as an approach for drug discovery. When we isolate a new compound from a microorganism, we can pursue the interesting research on chemistry and biology. In this review, I would like to introduce our achievements in relation to reveromycin A.
October 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842686/oritavancin-a-novel-lipoglycopeptide
#15
REVIEW
Jacob Mattox, Paul Belliveau, Cheryl Durand
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, microbiologic profile, dosage and administration, safety, clinical efficacy, and potential place in therapy for the new lipoglycopetide, oritavancin. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and PubMed searches of available literature in English were conducted for oritavancin. Principal supplementary sources include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) package insert, and FDA/European Medicines Agency guidances on acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI)...
February 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26716084/use-of-antibiotic-loaded-cement-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#16
REVIEW
Pedro Hinarejos, Pau Guirro, Lluis Puig-Verdie, Raul Torres-Claramunt, Joan Leal-Blanquet, Juan Sanchez-Soler, Joan Carles Monllau
Bone cement has the capacity to release antibiotic molecules if any antibiotic is included in it, and these elution properties are improved as cement porosity is increased. In vitro studies have shown high local antibiotic concentration for many hours or few days after its use. Antibiotic loaded bone cement (ALBC) is helpful when treating an infection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision surgery. The purpose of this paper was to review the evidence for the routine use of ALBC in TKA in the literature, its pros and cons...
December 18, 2015: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26671269/ceftazidime-avibactam-a-new-antibiotic-for-gram-negative-infections
#17
REVIEW
Elias B Chahine, Mariette Sourial, Raquel Ortiz
OBJECTIVE: To review the chemistry, pharmacology, microbiology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, safety, dosing, and administration of ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ/AVI). DATA SOURCES: A search of PubMed using the terms "ceftazidime," "avibactam," "NXL104," and "AVE1330A" was performed. The manufacturer's website was also reviewed to further identify relevant information. STUDY SELECTION: All English-language articles from 2004 to May 2015 appearing in these searches were reviewed for relevance to this paper...
December 2015: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26639714/regional-specifics-of-microbial-landscape-in-outpatients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#18
V A Baturin, E V Shchetinin, F T Malykhin
BACKGROUND: The last years have witnessed progressive growth of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) both in hospital-acquired and community-acquired respiratory infections. Regional guidelines (2006) presented standard approaches to pharmacotherapy and provided an important contribution to improvement of antimicrobial therapy at healthcare facilities of both the City of Stavropol and the Stavropol Region. At the same time, recent years have witnessed substantial changes in sensitivity to antimicrobials; besides, newer antibiotics have become available now...
2015: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26451913/predicting-in-hospital-treatment-failure-%C3%A2-7-days-in-patients-with-copd-exacerbation-using-antibiotics-and-systemic-steroids
#19
Ernesto Crisafulli, Antoni Torres, Arturo Huerta, Mónica Guerrero, Albert Gabarrús, Alexandra Gimeno, Raquel Martinez, Néstor Soler, Laia Fernández, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Rosario Menéndez
Although pharmacological treatment of COPD exacerbation (COPDE) includes antibiotics and systemic steroids, a proportion of patients show worsening of symptoms during hospitalization that characterize treatment failure. The aim of our study was to determine in-hospital predictors of treatment failure (≤ 7 days). Prospective data on 110 hospitalized COPDE patients, all treated with antibiotics and systemic steroids, were collected; on the seventh day of hospitalization, patients were divided into treatment failure (n = 16) or success (n = 94)...
2016: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26408191/clinical-and-microbiological-outcomes-in-patients-with-streptococcus-anginosus-group-bacteraemia-identified-through-use-of-a-rapid-microarray-assay
#20
Eric Wenzler, Vidhya Chandrasekaran, Patricia Salvador, Muhammad Anwar, Preeti Pancholi, Bradford S McGwire
Limited data exist evaluating outcomes in patients with serious Streptococcus anginosus group infections, particularly bacteraemia. A retrospective, single-centre cohort study was conducted to characterize potential risk factors along with clinical and microbiological outcomes in patients with S. anginosus group bacteraemia (SAGB). Adult inpatients with SAGB identified using the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay between March 2013 and April 2014 were included. Patients aged ≤ 18 or >89 years, those with SAGB identified at an outside facility and those who were incarcerated were excluded...
November 2015: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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