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pharmacology Microbiology antibiotic

Milan Kolář
Bacterial resistance may be defined from a microbiological, clinical and pharmacological perspective. Microbiological resistance refers to the presence of genetic information coding for the relevant mechanism of resistance of a bacterium to a particular antibiotic. In case of clinical interpretation, breakpoints are of key importance as their role is to distinguish bacterial pathogens in which successful therapy is highly probable from isolates with a high likelihood of failure. However, it is questionable whether this approach is suitable for all patients, particularly those receiving intensive care for life-threatening infections...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
A Spreer, S Rauer, H Wilking, V Fingerle
Lyme borreliosis is the most frequent tick-borne infection in Europe. It is a multisystemic disease affecting the skin, joints, heart, in rare cases the eyes and regularly the nervous system. Taking current clinical and microbiological guidelines into account, neuroborreliosis can in general be diagnosed and treated successfully. An appropriate guideline-conform antibiotic treatment is effective and in most cases recovery from acute neuroborreliosis is complete. Nevertheless, the evidence base regarding pharmacological treatment needs reform and improvement...
December 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Jadwiga Snarska, Maciej Michalak, Piotr Masiulaniec, Krzysztof Jacyna, Artur Zalewski
This study presented a septic shock occurring with striking speed during the percutaneous drainage of a large abscess of the liver in an 18-year-old female patient after an appendectomy performed 3 months earlier using the laparoscopic method because of its phlegmonous and gangraenosus inflammation. The post-operative course was complicated by increased suppuration in places after removal of the trocars. After including the intravenous antibiotic therapy and under the USG control, the percutaneous drainage of the abscess was performed...
October 1, 2016: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
S K Saha, S Saha, S M Akhter, S Khatun, M M Islam, P Roy
An interventional study was performed to determine and compare the MICs of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and Imipenem against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 & Eschericha coli ATCC 25922. The study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2014 to January 2015. The MIC of AGE and antibiotic Imipenem were determined with the help of broth dilution method. The MIC of AGE was determined as 400μg/ml and 700μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli respectively and the MIC of Imipenem was 1μg/ml against Staphylococus aureus and 1...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Stephen Villano, Judith Steenbergen, Evan Loh
Omadacycline is a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic that circumvents common tetracycline resistance mechanisms. In vitro omadacycline has potent activity against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. It is also active against common Gram-negative aerobes, some anaerobes and atypical bacteria including Legionella spp. and Chlamydia spp. Ongoing Phase III clinical trials with omadacycline are investigating once daily doses of 100 mg intravenously followed by once daily doses of 300 mg orally for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia...
August 19, 2016: Future Microbiology
S Ken Tanaka, Judith Steenbergen, Stephen Villano
Omadacycline is novel, aminomethyl tetracycline antibiotic being developed for oral and intravenous (IV) administration for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial infections. Omadacycline is characterized by an aminomethyl substituent at the C9 position of the core 6-member ring. Modifications at this position result in an improved spectrum of antimicrobial activity by overcoming resistance known to affect older generation tetracyclines via ribosomal protection proteins and efflux pump mechanisms. In vitro, omadacycline has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes, anaerobes, and atypical pathogens including Legionella and Chlamydia spp...
December 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Hiroyuki Osada
The research on antibiotics requires the integration of broad areas, such as microbiology, organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology. It is similar to the field of chemical biology that is recently popular as an approach for drug discovery. When we isolate a new compound from a microorganism, we can pursue the interesting research on chemistry and biology. In this review, I would like to introduce our achievements in relation to reveromycin A.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 8 June 2016; doi:10...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Jacob Mattox, Paul Belliveau, Cheryl Durand
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, microbiologic profile, dosage and administration, safety, clinical efficacy, and potential place in therapy for the new lipoglycopetide, oritavancin. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and PubMed searches of available literature in English were conducted for oritavancin. Principal supplementary sources include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) package insert, and FDA/European Medicines Agency guidances on acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI)...
February 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Pedro Hinarejos, Pau Guirro, Lluis Puig-Verdie, Raul Torres-Claramunt, Joan Leal-Blanquet, Juan Sanchez-Soler, Joan Carles Monllau
Bone cement has the capacity to release antibiotic molecules if any antibiotic is included in it, and these elution properties are improved as cement porosity is increased. In vitro studies have shown high local antibiotic concentration for many hours or few days after its use. Antibiotic loaded bone cement (ALBC) is helpful when treating an infection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision surgery. The purpose of this paper was to review the evidence for the routine use of ALBC in TKA in the literature, its pros and cons...
December 18, 2015: World Journal of Orthopedics
Elias B Chahine, Mariette Sourial, Raquel Ortiz
OBJECTIVE: To review the chemistry, pharmacology, microbiology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, safety, dosing, and administration of ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ/AVI). DATA SOURCES: A search of PubMed using the terms "ceftazidime," "avibactam," "NXL104," and "AVE1330A" was performed. The manufacturer's website was also reviewed to further identify relevant information. STUDY SELECTION: All English-language articles from 2004 to May 2015 appearing in these searches were reviewed for relevance to this paper...
December 2015: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
V A Baturin, E V Shchetinin, F T Malykhin
BACKGROUND: The last years have witnessed progressive growth of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) both in hospital-acquired and community-acquired respiratory infections. Regional guidelines (2006) presented standard approaches to pharmacotherapy and provided an important contribution to improvement of antimicrobial therapy at healthcare facilities of both the City of Stavropol and the Stavropol Region. At the same time, recent years have witnessed substantial changes in sensitivity to antimicrobials; besides, newer antibiotics have become available now...
2015: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
Ernesto Crisafulli, Antoni Torres, Arturo Huerta, Mónica Guerrero, Albert Gabarrús, Alexandra Gimeno, Raquel Martinez, Néstor Soler, Laia Fernández, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Rosario Menéndez
Although pharmacological treatment of COPD exacerbation (COPDE) includes antibiotics and systemic steroids, a proportion of patients show worsening of symptoms during hospitalization that characterize treatment failure. The aim of our study was to determine in-hospital predictors of treatment failure (≤ 7 days). Prospective data on 110 hospitalized COPDE patients, all treated with antibiotics and systemic steroids, were collected; on the seventh day of hospitalization, patients were divided into treatment failure (n = 16) or success (n = 94)...
2016: COPD
Eric Wenzler, Vidhya Chandrasekaran, Patricia Salvador, Muhammad Anwar, Preeti Pancholi, Bradford S McGwire
Limited data exist evaluating outcomes in patients with serious Streptococcus anginosus group infections, particularly bacteraemia. A retrospective, single-centre cohort study was conducted to characterize potential risk factors along with clinical and microbiological outcomes in patients with S. anginosus group bacteraemia (SAGB). Adult inpatients with SAGB identified using the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay between March 2013 and April 2014 were included. Patients aged ≤ 18 or >89 years, those with SAGB identified at an outside facility and those who were incarcerated were excluded...
November 2015: Journal of Medical Microbiology
R Afrose, S K Saha, L A Banu, A U Ahmed, A S Shahidullah, A Gani, S Sultana, M R Kabir, M Y Ali
This observational study was conducted during the period from July 2010 to June 2011 in the Department of Pharmacology in the collaboration of Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to determine the profile of antibacterial effect of Crude Turmeric paste aqueous turmeric extract, and standard antibiotic Amikacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Three separate experiments were done e.g. (Expt- I) Inhibitory effect of Crude Turmeric paste incorporated into nutrient agar (NA) media, (Expt- II) Minimum inhibitory concentration of (a) Aqueous Turmeric extract and (b) Amikacin by broth dilution technique and (Expt-III) their subculture study in nutrient agar (NA) media for confirmation of respective results of previous experiments...
July 2015: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Elisa Balletto, Małgorzata Mikulska
Bacterial infections are major complications after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT). They consist mainly of bloodstream infections (BSI), followed by pneumonia and gastrointestinal infections, including typhlitis and Clostridium difficile infection. Microbiological data come mostly from BSI. Coagulase negative staphylococci and Enterobacteriaceae are the most frequent pathogens causing approximately 25% of BSI each, followed by enterococci, P. aeruginosa and viridans streptococci. Bacterial pneumonia is frequent after HSCT, and Gram-negatives are predominant...
2015: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Elias B Chahine, Allana J Sucher, Shannon D Knutsen
OBJECTIVE: To review the chemistry, pharmacology, microbiology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, tolerability, drug interactions, dosing, and administration of tedizolid phosphate (TDZ). DATA SOURCES: A search of PubMed using the terms "tedizolid," "torezolid," "TR-701," "TR-700," "DA-7157," and "DA-7218" was performed. The manufacturer's Web site was also reviewed to further identify relevant information. STUDY SELECTION: All English-language articles from 2006 to November 2014 appearing in these searches were reviewed for relevance to this paper...
July 2015: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Allana J Sucher, Elias B Chahine, Peter Cogan, Matthew Fete
OBJECTIVE: To review the chemistry, pharmacology, microbiology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, tolerability, dosage, and administration of ceftolozane/tazobactam, a new antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor. DATA SOURCES: A literature search through and PubMed was conducted (January 2007-May 2015) using the search terms ceftolozane, ceftolozane/tazobactam, FR264205, CXA-101/tazobactam, and CXA-201...
September 2015: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
S K Saha, S Saha, M A Hossain, S K Paul
The study was aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of crude and aqueous extract of garlic (Allium stivum) against standard strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and antibiotic Imipenem were also determined with the help of broth dilution method. Inhibitory effect of crude garlic extract (CGE) was determined by inoculation of bacteria in CGE incorporated nutrient agar (NA) media and for AGE antibacterial effect was determined by disc diffusion method...
April 2015: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Gary Greenstein, Ben Greenstein
Management of acute dental infections requires an understanding of microbiology, anatomy, pharmacology, wound healing, and oral surgery. Recognizing early signs of inflammation and differentiating them from characteristics of an infection facilitates timely intervention and avoids further complications. This article addresses various aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of acute oral infections. Suggestions are made to help differentiate between swelling associated with an infection and edema related to inflammation of nonpathogenic origin...
February 2015: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Jelena Obad, Jagoda Šušković, Blaženka Kos
Pharmaceutical industry has been encountering antimicrobial activity of non-antibiotics during suitability tests carried out prior to routine pharmacopoeial microbiological purity analysis of finished dosage forms. These properties are usually ignored or perceived as a nuisance during pharmaceutical analysis. The aim of this study was: (i) to compare the available data to our method suitability test results carried out on products containing ibuprofen, i.e. to demonstrate that method suitability can be a valuable tool in identifying new antimicrobials, (ii) to demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ibuprofen and ibuprofen lysine...
April 25, 2015: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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