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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433750/nanoemulsion-based-electrolyte-triggered-in-situ-gel-for-ocular-delivery-of-acetazolamide
#1
Nadia Morsi, Magdy Ibrahim, Hanan Refai, Heba El Sorogy
In the present work the antiglaucoma drug, acetazolamide, was formulated as an ion induced nanoemulsion-based in situ gel for ocular delivery aiming a sustained drug release and an improved therapeutic efficacy. Different acetazolamide loaded nanoemulsion formulations were prepared using peanut oil, tween 80 and/or cremophor EL as surfactant in addition to transcutol P or propylene glycol as cosurfactant. Based on physicochemical characterization, the nanoemulsion formulation containing mixed surfactants and transcutol P was selected to be incorporated into ion induced in situ gelling systems composed of gellan gum alone and in combination with xanthan gum, HPMC or carbopol...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431457/precision-medicine-and-pharmacogenetics-what-does-oncology-have-that-addiction-medicine-does-not
#2
Henry R Kranzler, Rachel V Smith, Robert Schnoll, Afaf Moustafa, Emma Greenstreet-Akman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Precision, personalized or stratified medicine, which promises to deliver the right treatment to the right patient, is a topic of international interest in both the lay press and the scientific literature. A key aspect of precision medicine is the identification of biomarkers that predict the response to medications (i.e. pharmacogenetics). We examined why, despite the great strides that have been made in biomarker identification in many areas of medicine, only in oncology has there been substantial progress in their clinical implementation...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431209/drug-delivery-systems-based-on-hydroxyethyl-starch
#3
Constantinos M Paleos, Zili Sideratou, Dimitris Tsiourvas
Τhe advantageous biological properties of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) triggered research interest towards design and synthesis of Drug Delivery Systems (DDSs) based on this polysaccharide. Convenient reaction schemes, including one-step reactions, led to the synthesis of HES conjugates with selected anticancer molecules or therapeutic proteins. Nanocapsules and hydrogels based on HES were also prepared and studied as prospective drug delivery systems. Formulations originating from these drug conjugates and also from nanocapsules and hydrogels loaded with drugs were characterized, highlighting on the extension of their half-life in plasma which is a critical property as far as their efficacy is concerned...
April 21, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430938/characterization-of-yjjj-toxin-of-escherichia-coli
#4
Yuki Maeda, Chun-Yi Lin, Yojiro Ishida, Masayori Inouye, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Sangita Phadtare
Reminiscent of eukaryotic apoptotic programmed cell death, bacteria also contain a large number of suicide genes, which are in general co-expressed with their cognate antitoxic genes. These systems called the toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are associated with cellular dormancy, and play major roles in biofilm formation and persistent multi-drug resistance of many human pathogens. In recent years, the study on TA system toxins has become a hot topic due to the health implications of these toxins by virtue of their role in bacterial pathogenicity...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430733/the-effect-of-tranilast-8-liposomal-gel-versus-placebo-on-postcesarean-surgical-scars-a-prospective-double-blind-split-scar-study
#5
Libi Kohavi, Eli Sprecher, Eyal Zur, Ofir Artzi
BACKGROUND: Tranilast (N-[3, 4-dimethoxycinnamoyl] anthranilic acid), an antiallergic drug, has been shown to attenuate scar formation possibly through inhibition of transforming growth factor beta 1 activity and consequent suppression of collagen synthesis in fibroblasts. OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of tranilast 8% gel in improving the appearance and symptoms of new postcesarean section surgical wounds. METHODS: In this prospective double-blind split-scar study, the authors treated each half scar of 26 women with either tranilast 8% liposomal gel or tranilast-free liposomal gel (placebo)...
April 19, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429903/causes-of-interruptions-in-postoperative-enteral-nutrition-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#6
Jirong Qi, Zhuo Li, Yueshuang Cun, Xiaonan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perioperative nutritional support has become a hot topic in the clinical management of congenital heart disease (CHD). Postoperative enteral nutrition (EN) offers many benefits, such as protection of the intestinal mucosa, reduced risk of infection, and low clinical costs. Interruptions in EN frequently influence nutritional support and clinical outcomes. We, therefore, aimed to determine the causes of interruptions in postoperative EN in CHD patients and discuss clinical counter measures...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429885/intravenous-self-administration-of-benzydamine-a-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-with-a-central-cannabinoidergic-mechanism-of-action
#7
Riccardo Avvisati, Maria Meringolo, Emiliana Stendardo, Elisa Malavasi, Silvia Marinelli, Aldo Badiani
Benzydamine (BZY) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the topical treatment of inflammations of the oral and vaginal mucosae. Virtually nothing is known about the central pharmacological actions of BZY. Yet there are reports of voluntary systemic overdosage of BZY in drug addicts, resulting in a euphoric, hallucinatory state. In the present study, we investigated the reinforcing properties of BZY in a rat self-administration paradigm. We found that BZY has a powerful reinforcing effect and that this effect is greatly facilitated in animals that already had substance experience, having previously self-administered heroin and cocaine, indicating cross sensitization between BZY and other common drugs of abuse...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429293/topical-delivery-of-fenoprofen-calcium-via-elastic-nano-vesicular-spanlastics-optimization-using-experimental-design-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#8
Dalia Ali Farghaly, Ahmed A Aboelwafa, Manal Y Hamza, Magdy I Mohamed
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of surfactant-based nanovesicular system (spanlastics) for topical delivery of fenoprofen calcium (FPCa) to eliminate its oral gastrointestinal adverse effects. FPCa-loaded spanlastics were prepared by thin film hydration (TFH) technique according to a full factorial design to investigate the influence of formulation variables on the drug entrapment efficiency (%EE), particle size (PS), deformability index (DI), and the % drug released after 24 h through the cellulose membrane (Q24h) using Design-Expert® software...
April 20, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428740/protein-quality-control-by-molecular-chaperones-in-neurodegeneration
#9
REVIEW
Aaron Ciechanover, Yong Tae Kwon
Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) requires the timely degradation of misfolded proteins and their aggregates by protein quality control (PQC), of which molecular chaperones are an essential component. Compared with other cell types, PQC in neurons is particularly challenging because they have a unique cellular structure with long extensions. Making it worse, neurons are postmitotic, i.e., cannot dilute toxic substances by division, and, thus, are highly sensitive to misfolded proteins, especially as they age...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428051/cell-penetrating-peptide-cgkrk-mediates-efficient-and-widespread-targeting-of-bladder-mucosa-following-focal-injury
#10
James I Griffin, Siu Kit Kevin Cheng, Tomoko Hayashi, Dennis Carson, Manju Saraswathy, Devatha P Nair, Dmitri Simberg
The bladder presents an attractive target for topical drug delivery. The barrier function of the bladder mucosa (urothelium) presents a penetration challenge for small molecules and nanoparticles. We found that focal mechanical injury of the urothelium greatly enhances the binding and penetration of intravesically-administered cell-penetrating peptide CGKRK (Cys-Gly-Lys-Arg-Lys). Notably, the CGKRK bound to the entire urothelium, and the peptide was able to penetrate into the muscular layer. This phenomenon was not dependent on intravesical bleeding and was not caused by an inflammatory response...
April 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427321/in-silico-assessment-of-biomedical-products-the-conundrum-of-rare-but-not-so-rare-events-in-two-case-studies
#11
Marco Viceconti, Claudio Cobelli, Tarek Haddad, Adam Himes, Boris Kovatchev, Mark Palmer
In silico clinical trials, defined as "The use of individualized computer simulation in the development or regulatory evaluation of a medicinal product, medical device, or medical intervention," have been proposed as a possible strategy to reduce the regulatory costs of innovation and the time to market for biomedical products. We review some of the the literature on this topic, focusing in particular on those applications where the current practice is recognized as inadequate, as for example, the detection of unexpected severe adverse events too rare to be detected in a clinical trial, but still likely enough to be of concern...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423970/recent-advances-on-topical-antimicrobials-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-and-their-safety-concerns
#12
P L Lam, K K H Lee, R S M Wong, G Y M Cheng, Z X Bian, C H Chui, R Gambari
Antimicrobial resistance of disease-related microorganisms is considered a worldwide prevalent and serious issue which increases the failure of treatment outcomes and leads to high mortality. Considering that the increased resistance to systemic antimicrobial therapy often needs of the use of more toxic agents, topical antimicrobial therapy emerges as an attractive route for the treatment of infectious diseases. The topical antimicrobial therapy is based on the absorption of high drug doses in a readily accessible skin surface, resulting in a reduction of microbial proliferation at infected skin sites...
April 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423683/the-potential-roles-of-aquaporin-4-in-malignant-gliomas
#13
REVIEW
Yu-Long Lan, Xun Wang, Jia-Cheng Lou, Xiao-Chi Ma, Bo Zhang
Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the major water channel expressed in the central nervous system and is primarily expressed in astrocytes. Recently, accumulated evidence has pointed to AQP4 as a key molecule that could play a critical role in glioma development. Discoveries of the role of AQP4 in cell migration suggest that AQP4 could be a significant factor regarding glioma malignancies. However, the AQP4 expression levels in glioma have not been fully elucidated; furthermore, the correlation of AQP4 expression with glioma malignancy remains controversial...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423239/a-novel-jak-inhibitor-jte-052-reduces-skin-inflammation-and-ameliorates-chronic-dermatitis-in-rodent-models-comparison-with-conventional-therapeutic-agents
#14
Atsuo Tanimoto, Yuichi Shinozaki, Yasuo Yamamoto, Yoshiaki Katsuda, Eriko Riya, Kaoru Toyoda, Kochi Kakimoto, Yukari Kimoto, Wataru Amano, Noriko Konishi, Mikio Hayashi
Janus kinases (JAKs) are required for several inflammatory cytokine signaling pathways and are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. JAK inhibitors are therefore promising therapeutic candidates for chronic dermatitis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the novel JAK inhibitor JTE-052 on inflammatory responses associated with chronic dermatitis, and compared its profile with those of conventional therapeutic agents in rodent models of chronic dermatitis...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422961/characterization-of-the-mechanism-of-drug-drug-interactions-from-pubmed-using-mesh-terms
#15
Yin Lu, Bryan Figler, Hong Huang, Yi-Cheng Tu, Ju Wang, Feng Cheng
Identifying drug-drug interaction (DDI) is an important topic for the development of safe pharmaceutical drugs and for the optimization of multidrug regimens for complex diseases such as cancer and HIV. There have been about 150,000 publications on DDIs in PubMed, which is a great resource for DDI studies. In this paper, we introduced an automatic computational method for the systematic analysis of the mechanism of DDIs using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms from PubMed literature. MeSH term is a controlled vocabulary thesaurus developed by the National Library of Medicine for indexing and annotating articles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422484/direct-synthesis-of-dextran-based-antibacterial-hydrogels-for-extended-release-of-biocides-and-eradication-of-topical-biofilms
#16
Jiaul Hoque, Jayanta Haldar
Cationic small molecular biocides have been developed as promising antibiofilm agents because of their tunability in chemical structures and ability to disrupt established biofilms. However, the impact of biocides in antibiofilm treatment is largely limited due to lack of an effective delivery system that can ensure sustained release of biocide at the target site. Herein we report biocide-encapsulated antibacterial and antibiofilm hydrogel that acts as efficient delivery vehicle for the biocide and eradicates matured bacterial biofilm...
April 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420878/synergistic-antimicrobial-effects-of-silver-transition-metal-combinatorial-treatments
#17
Javier A Garza-Cervantes, Arturo Chávez-Reyes, Elena C Castillo, Gerardo García-Rivas, Oscar Antonio Ortega-Rivera, Eva Salinas, Margarita Ortiz-Martínez, Sara Leticia Gómez-Flores, Jorge A Peña-Martínez, Alan Pepi-Molina, Mario T Treviño-González, Xristo Zarate, María Elena Cantú-Cárdenas, Carlos Enrique Escarcega-Gonzalez, J Rubén Morones-Ramírez
Due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, development of novel antibiotics has become a critical issue. One promising approach is the use of transition metals, since they exhibit rapid and significant toxicity, at low concentrations, in prokaryotic cells. Nevertheless, one main drawback of transition metals is their toxicity in eukaryotic cells. Here, we show that the barriers to use them as therapeutic agents could be mitigated by combining them with silver. We demonstrate that synergism of combinatorial treatments (Silver/transition metals, including Zn, Co, Cd, Ni, and Cu) increases up to 8-fold their antimicrobial effect, when compared to their individual effects, against E...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420295/optimization-of-methotrexate-loaded-niosomes-by-box-behnken-design-an-understanding-of-solvent-effect-and-formulation-variability
#18
Ahmed S Zidan, Mahmoud Mokhtar Ibrahim, Nagia A El Megrab
Dermal drug delivery system which localizes methotrexate (MTX) in the skin is advantageous in topical treatment of psoriasis. The aim of the current study was to understand dilution effects and formulation variability for the potential formation of niosomes from proniosome gels of MTX. Box-Behenken design was employed to prepare a series of MTX proniosome gels of Span 40, cholesterol (Chol-X1) and Tween 20 (T20-X2). Short chain alcohols (X3), namely ethanol (Et), propylene glycol (Pg) and glycerol (G) were evaluated for their dilution effects on proniosomes...
April 19, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420288/microemulsion-loaded-hydrogel-as-a-promising-vehicle-for-dermal-delivery-of-the-antifungal-sertaconazole-design-optimization-and-ex-vivo-evaluation
#19
Shaimaa Ali Ali Radwan, Aliaa Nabil ElMeshad, Raguia Aly Shoukri
The purpose of the present study was to develop and optimize sertaconazole microemulsion-loaded hydrogel (STZ ME G) to enhance the dermal delivery and skin retention of the drug. Following screening of various oils for maximum drug solubility, twelve pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using oils (Peceol®, Capryol(®) 90), surfactants (Tween(®) 80, Cremophor(®) EL), a cosurfactant (Transcutol(®) P) and water. A 2(1)x 3(1)x 2(1)x 3(1) full factorial design was employed to optimize a ME of desirable characteristics...
April 19, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420033/the-current-clinical-knowledge-on-the-treatment-of-gambling-disorder-a-summary
#20
REVIEW
Karel Hloch, Přemysl Mladěnka, Martin Doseděl, Walter Adriani, Francesca Zoratto
Gambling disorder (GD) is a topical problem in developed countries and may be present in 1-3% of the general population. The pathophysiology of this disorder is largely unknown but it shares similarities to other behavioral addictions. Multiple neurotransmitter systems, including dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic, and opioidergic, have been implicated in GD. Based on available articles, only the opioid antagonist naltrexone has been documented to demonstrate clinical efficacy in multiple studies including double-blind studies...
April 18, 2017: Synapse
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