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Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci
OBJECTIVE: Most of the astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) develop visual impairment and ocular structural changes that are not fully reversible upon return to earth. Current understanding assumes that the so-called visual impairments/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is caused by cephalad vascular fluid shift. This study assesses the roles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and intracranial pressure (ICP) in VIIP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen astronauts, 9 who flew a short-duration mission on the space shuttle (14...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Susana B Zanello, Vasisht Tadigotla, James Hurley, Johan Skog, Brian Stevens, Eusebia Calvillo, Eric Bershad
The visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a neuro-ophthalmologic condition described in astronauts returning from long duration space missions. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), also known as pseudotumor cerebri, is characterized by a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of an intracranial mass lesion. Because VIIP and IIH share some neurologic and ophthalmologic manifestations, the latter might be used as a model to study some of the processes underlying VIIP...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
Li-Fan Zhang, Alan R Hargens
Visual impairment intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is considered an unexplained major risk for future long-duration spaceflight. NASA recently redefined this syndrome as Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome (SANS). Evidence thus reviewed supports that chronic, mildly elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in space (as opposed to more variable ICP with posture and activity on Earth) is largely accounted for by loss of hydrostatic pressures and altered hemodynamics in the intracranial circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Peter Wostyn, Peter Paul De Deyn
A significant proportion of the astronauts who spend extended periods in microgravity develop ophthalmic abnormalities. Understanding this syndrome, called visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP), has become a high priority for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, especially in view of future long-duration missions (e.g., Mars missions). Moreover, to ensure selection of astronaut candidates who will be able to complete long-duration missions with low risk of the VIIP syndrome, it is imperative to identify biomarkers for VIIP risk prediction...
November 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci, Carlos J Oliu, Sang H Lee, Byron L Lam
Notice of retraction: the article "Role of Cerebral Spinal Fluid in Space Flight Induced Ocular Changes and Visual Impairment in Astronauts" by Alperin et al This article has been retracted due to security concerns raised by NASA, the sponsoring agency. (©) RSNA, 2017.
October 16, 2017: Radiology
Richard L Hughson, Nicholas J Yee, Danielle K Greaves
BACKGROUND: Elevated ambient Pco2 in the International Space Station (ISS) has been cited as a potential contributor to the vision impairment intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP), a significant health risk for astronauts during long-duration space missions. The elevation in ambient Pco2 is rather modest and normal respiratory compensation could minimize the impact on arterial Pco2. METHODS: In nine male astronauts, breaths measured prior to a rebreathing maneuver were examined to assess inspired and end-tidal Pco2 during upright seated preflight and in-flight conditions...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
David J Lerner, Allen J Parmet, Steven Don, Joshua S Shimony, Manu S Goyal
INTRODUCTION: Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure Syndrome (VIIP) has caused symptomatology during and after long duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Only indirect measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP), such as ultrasound, have been performed on ISS. Discussion and interest has happened at NASA about performing lumbar puncture (LP) in microgravity. Only the "blind" palpation approach and the ultrasound-assisted approach have been discussed. This article, as proof of concept, discusses the possibility of portable radiography to assist lumbar punctures in microgravity...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
A Anguera, J M Barreiro, J A Lara, D Lizcano
One of the major challenges in the medical domain today is how to exploit the huge amount of data that this field generates. To do this, approaches are required that are capable of discovering knowledge that is useful for decision making in the medical field. Time series are data types that are common in the medical domain and require specialized analysis techniques and tools, especially if the information of interest to specialists is concentrated within particular time series regions, known as events. This research followed the steps specified by the so-called knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) process to discover knowledge from medical time series derived from stabilometric (396 series) and electroencephalographic (200) patient electronic health records (EHR)...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Julia Raykin, Taylor E Forte, Roy Wang, Andrew Feola, Brian C Samuels, Jerry G Myers, Lealem Mulugeta, Emily S Nelson, Rudy L Gleason, C Ross Ethier
Visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is characterized by a number of permanent ophthalmic changes, including loss of visual function. It occurs in some astronauts during long-duration spaceflight missions. Thus, understanding the pathophysiology of VIIP is currently a major priority in space medicine research. It is hypothesized that maladaptive remodeling of the optic nerve sheath (ONS), in response to microgravity-induced elevations in intracranial pressure (ICP), contributes to VIIP...
February 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Andrew J Feola, Jerry G Myers, Julia Raykin, Lealem Mulugeta, Emily S Nelson, Brian C Samuels, C Ross Ethier
PURPOSE: Visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a health concern for long-duration spaceflight, and a proposed risk factor is elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). Our goal was to use finite element modeling to simulate how elevated ICP and interindividual differences affect tissue deformation within the optic nerve head (ONH). METHODS: We considered three ICP conditions: the upright and supine position on earth and an elevated ICP assumed to occur in chronic microgravity...
April 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Li-Fan Zhang, Alan R Hargens
Visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is considered a major risk for future human spaceflight. Loss of hydrostatic pressure gradients in vascular and cerebrospinal fluid systems due to the removal of gravity associated with subsequent intracranial and intraocular fluid shifts and the resulting intraocular/intracranial pressure mismatch might be important etiology factors causingVIIP syndrome. Acclimation changes in the ocular and cerebral circulation and the two fluid systems during chronic microgravity exposure and their underlying mechanisms need further elucidation...
January 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
William C Rose
A mathematical model of whole body and cerebral hemodynamics is a useful tool for investigating visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP), a recently described condition associated with space flight. VIIP involves loss of visual acuity, anatomical changes to the eye, and, usually, elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Loss of visual acuity is a significant threat to astronaut health and performance. It is therefore important to understand the pathogenesis of VIIP. Some of the experimental measurements that could lead to better understanding of the pathophysiology are impossible or infeasible on orbit...
2013: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
J Horikawa, N Suga
In the vermis (VIp, VIIa, VIIp, and VIII), crus, and paraflocculus of unanesthetized mustached bats Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, responses of single neurons to acoustic stimuli were studied. The stimuli delivered were constant-frequency (CF) tones, frequency-modulated (FM) sounds, noise bursts (NBs), and sounds similar to the orientation sounds (pulses) of the species and echoes. The effect of ablation of the cerebellar cortex on vocalization was also investigated to explore whether the cerebellum was involved in sound emission...
June 1986: Journal of Neurophysiology
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