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Energy balance

Sanghun Choi, Jiwoong Choi, Ching-Long Lin
The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify contributions of kinetic energy and viscous dissipation to airway resistance during inspiration and expiration at various flow-rates in airway models of different bifurcation angles. We employed symmetric airway models up to the 20th generation with the following five different bifurcation angles at a tracheal flow-rate of 20 L/min: 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 degrees. Thus, a total of 10 CFD simulations for both inspiration and expiration were conducted. Furthermore, we performed an additional four simulations with tracheal flow-rate values of 10 and 40 L/min for a bifurcation angle of 35 degree to study the effect of flow-rate on inspiration and expiration...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
R Zemet, Y Shulman, R Hemi, B Brandt, E Sivan, H Kanety, S Mazaki-Tovi
OBJECTIVE: Twin pregnancies are characterized by unique pattern of attenuated fetal weight gain during late gestation compared with singleton gestation. The mechanism(s) responsible for regulating twin growth has not yet elucidated. Leptin and adiponectin are two adipocytokines implicated in metabolism and energy balance of fetuses, newborns and adults. Moreover, these hormones have been suggested to play a role in fetal growth. The objective of the study was to determine cord blood adiponectin and leptin in twins and singletons, with and without growth impairment...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Zhaofei Wang, Jiandong Mao, Juan Li, Hu Zhao, Chunyan Zhou, Hongjiang Sheng
Aerosols and water vapor are important atmospheric components, and have significant effects on both atmospheric energy conversion and climate formation. They play the important roles in balancing the radiation budget between the atmosphere and Earth, while water vapor also directly affects rainfall and other weather processes. To further research atmospheric aerosol optical properties and water vapor content, an all-time six-channel multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar has been developed at Beifang University of Nationalities...
July 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Qiujun Yu, Stephen Y Chan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a deadly and increasingly prevalent vascular disease characterized by excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular dysfunction which leads to right heart failure, multiorgan dysfunction, and premature death. The cause of the vascular remodeling in PH remains elusive, and thus current treatments are marginally effective and prognosis of PH remains poor. Increasing evidence indicates the pathogenic importance of endothelial dysfunction in PH. However, the underlying mechanisms of such dysfunction are not well described...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Alfredo Calvimontes
This work presents a technique for the study and measurement of the interfacial energies of solid-liquid-gas systems. The instrument and the evaluation method for the measurements obtained by it, allow the analysis of the energy changes of sessile drops submitted to microgravity. A mathematical model based on the thermodynamic of wetting is applied to evaluate the interfacial energies as a function of the drop shape changes due to the effect of the release of gravitation during the experiment. The presented model bases on the thermodynamic equilibrium of the interfaces and not on the balance of bi-dimensional tensors on the contour line...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
Naum Naveh, Olga Shepelev, Samuel Kenig
Impregnation of expandable graphite (EG) after thermal treatment with an epoxy resin containing surface-active agents (SAAs) enhanced the intercalation of epoxy monomer between EG layers and led to further exfoliation of the graphite, resulting in stacks of few graphene layers, so-called "stacked" graphene (SG). This process enabled electrical conductivity of cured epoxy/SG composites at lower percolation thresholds, and improved thermo-mechanical properties were measured with either Kevlar, carbon or glass-fiber-reinforced composites...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Henry D Adams, Melanie J B Zeppel, William R L Anderegg, Henrik Hartmann, Simon M Landhäusser, David T Tissue, Travis E Huxman, Patrick J Hudson, Trenton E Franz, Craig D Allen, Leander D L Anderegg, Greg A Barron-Gafford, David J Beerling, David D Breshears, Timothy J Brodribb, Harald Bugmann, Richard C Cobb, Adam D Collins, L Turin Dickman, Honglang Duan, Brent E Ewers, Lucía Galiano, David A Galvez, Núria Garcia-Forner, Monica L Gaylord, Matthew J Germino, Arthur Gessler, Uwe G Hacke, Rodrigo Hakamada, Andy Hector, Michael W Jenkins, Jeffrey M Kane, Thomas E Kolb, Darin J Law, James D Lewis, Jean-Marc Limousin, David M Love, Alison K Macalady, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Maurizio Mencuccini, Patrick J Mitchell, Jordan D Muss, Michael J O'Brien, Anthony P O'Grady, Robert E Pangle, Elizabeth A Pinkard, Frida I Piper, Jennifer A Plaut, William T Pockman, Joe Quirk, Keith Reinhardt, Francesco Ripullone, Michael G Ryan, Anna Sala, Sanna Sevanto, John S Sperry, Rodrigo Vargas, Michel Vennetier, Danielle A Way, Chonggang Xu, Enrico A Yepez, Nate G McDowell
Widespread tree mortality associated with drought has been observed on all forested continents and global change is expected to exacerbate vegetation vulnerability. Forest mortality has implications for future biosphere-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water and energy balance, and is poorly represented in dynamic vegetation models. Reducing uncertainty requires improved mortality projections founded on robust physiological processes. However, the proposed mechanisms of drought-induced mortality, including hydraulic failure and carbon starvation, are unresolved...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Kirill A Minin, Artem Zhmurov, Kenneth A Marx, Prashant K Purohit, Valeri Barsegov
We carried out dynamic force manipulations in silico on a variety of coiled-coil protein fragments from myosin, chemotaxis receptor, vimentin, fibrin, and phenylalanine zippers that vary in size and topology of their α-helical packing. When stretched along the superhelical axis, all superhelices show elastic, plastic, and inelastic elongation regimes, and undergo a dynamic transition from the α-helices to the β-sheets, which marks the onset of plastic deformation. Using Abeyaratne-Knowles formulation of phase transitions, we developed a new theoretical methodology to model mechanical and kinetic properties of protein coiled-coils under mechanical non-equilibrium conditions and to map out their energy landscapes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Daniel S Lark, David H Wasserman
Obesity and insulin resistance often emerge from positive energy balance and generally are linked to low-grade inflammation. This low-grade inflammation has been called "meta-inflammation" because it is a consequence of the metabolic dysregulation that can accompany overnutrition. One means by which meta-inflammation is linked to insulin resistance is extracellular matrix expansion secondary to meta-inflammation, which we define here as "meta-fibrosis". The significance of meta-fibrosis is that it reflects a situation in which the extracellular matrix functions as a multi-level integrator of local (for example, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production) and systemic (for example, inflammation) inputs that couple to cellular processes creating insulin resistance...
2017: F1000Research
Francesco Bifari, Chiara Ruocco, Ilaria Decimo, Guido Fumagalli, Alessandra Valerio, Enzo Nisoli
Dietary supplementation of essential amino acids (EAAs) has been shown to promote healthspan. EAAs regulate, in fact, glucose and lipid metabolism and energy balance, increase mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintain immune homeostasis. Basic science and epidemiological results indicate that dietary macronutrient composition affects healthspan through multiple and integrated mechanisms, and their effects are closely related to the metabolic status to which they act. In particular, EAA supplementation can trigger different and even opposite effects depending on the catabolic and anabolic states of the organisms...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
Catherine B Carbone, Nadja Kern, Ricardo A Fernandes, Enfu Hui, Xiaolei Su, K Christopher Garcia, Ronald D Vale
T cell signaling initiates upon the binding of peptide-loaded MHC (pMHC) on an antigen-presenting cell to the T cell receptor (TCR) on a T cell. TCR phosphorylation in response to pMHC binding is accompanied by segregation of the transmembrane phosphatase CD45 away from TCR-pMHC complexes. The kinetic segregation hypothesis proposes that CD45 exclusion shifts the local kinase-phosphatase balance to favor TCR phosphorylation. Spatial partitioning may arise from the size difference between the large CD45 extracellular domain and the smaller TCR-pMHC complex, although parsing potential contributions of extracellular protein size, actin activity, and lipid domains is difficult in living cells...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christopher P Long, Jacqueline E Gonzalez, Robert M Cipolla, Maciek R Antoniewicz
Vibrio natriegens is a fast-growing, non-pathogenic bacterium that is being considered as the next-generation workhorse for the biotechnology industry. However, little is known about the metabolism of this organism which is limiting our ability to apply rational metabolic engineering strategies. To address this critical gap in current knowledge, here we have performed a comprehensive analysis of V. natriegens metabolism. We constructed a detailed model of V. natriegens core metabolism, measured the biomass composition, and performed high-resolution (13)C metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) to estimate intracellular fluxes using parallel labeling experiments with the optimal tracers [1,2-(13)C]glucose and [1,6-(13)C]glucose...
October 14, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Annette D de Kloet, James P Herman
Glucocorticoids act via multiple mechanisms to mobilize energy for in maintenance and restoration of homeostasis. In adipose tissue, glucocorticoids can promote lipolysis and facilitate adipocyte differentiation/growth, serving both energy-mobilizing and restorative processes during negative energy balance. Recent data suggest that adipose-dependent feedback may also be involved in regulation of stress responses. Adipocyte glucocorticoid receptor (GR) deletion causes increased HPA axis stress reactivity, due to a loss of negative feedback signals into the CNS...
October 14, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Chong Wang, Haiyun Xia, Mingjia Shangguan, Yunbin Wu, Lu Wang, Lijie Zhao, Jiawei Qiu, Renjun Zhang
Atmospheric depolarization ratio and wind velocity are measured simultaneously by a single versatile coherent Doppler lidar (CDL). Backscattering components at parallel and perpendicular polarization states are obtained by using a single balanced detector, adopting time-division multiplexing technique. Thus systematic error induced by the non-uniform response of different detectors in traditional lidars is avoided. The operation mode of the instrument can be switched from polarization CDL to traditional CDL by the user depending on atmospheric conditions and desired performance...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
Enyu Zhao, Caixia Gao, Xiaoguang Jiang, Zhaoxia Liu
The land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter for energy balance, evapotranspiration and climate change. In this study, two new methods of LST retrieval from passive microwave data are developed: one is deriving LST only using single-channel dual-polarized data based on the relationship between the emissivity and microwave polarization difference index (MPDI) (denoted as Method 1); the other one is deriving LST using the traditional multi-channel method with prior knowledge of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (denoted as Method 3)...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
Chu-Gang Mei, Lin-Sheng Gui, Hong-Cheng Wang, Wan-Qiang Tian, Yao-Kun Li, Lin-Sen Zan
The beta-adrenergic receptors coded by the ADRB1, ADRB2 and ADRB3 genes play important roles in mediating metabolic effects, especially lipolysis, insulin resistance and energy balance. This study investigated the expression levels of these three genes in different tissues of Qinchuan cattle by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expressed levels of RNA from the ADRB2 gene were generally much higher than for ADRB1 and ADRB3. ADRB1 and ADRB2 expression levels were highest in subcutaneous fat and lower in muscle, whereas ADRB3 expression was higher in muscle tissue...
October 12, 2017: Meat Science
Harry A Smith, Javier T Gonzalez, Dylan Thompson, James A Betts
The role of dietary carbohydrates in the development of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction has recently been questioned. Within the last decade, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the role of dietary carbohydrates in human health. The current review aims to complement and extend this report by providing specific consideration of the effects of the component parts of energy balance, their interactions, and their culmination on energy storage and health...
October 5, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Kristy L Townsend, Christopher Madden, Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Lindsay McDougall, Domenico Tupone, Matthew D Lynes, Yuji Mishina, Paul Yu, Shaun Morrison, Yu-Hua Tseng
The regulation of energy balance involves complex processes in the brain, including coordination by hypothalamic neurons that contain pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). We previously demonstrated that central bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) reduces appetite. Now we show that a type 1 BMP receptor, BMPR1A, is co-localized with POMC neurons and POMC-BMPR1A-KO mice are hyperphagic, revealing physiological involvement of BMP signaling in anorectic POMC neurons in the regulation of appetite. Surprisingly, the hyperphagic POMC-BMPR1A-KO mice exhibit a lack of obesity, even on a 45% high-fat diet...
October 9, 2017: Endocrinology
Wenjuan Tang, Sunyinyan Tang, Hongdong Wang, Zhijuan Ge, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
An early insulin regimen ameliorates glucotoxicity but also lipotoxicity in type 2 diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondria in lipid regulation following early insulin administration in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells. Male C57BL/6 mice, fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, were treated with insulin for 3 weeks, and L6 myotubes cultured with palmitate (PA) for 24 h were incubated with insulin for another 12 h. The results showed that insulin facilitated systemic glucose disposal and attenuated muscular triglyceride accumulation in vivo...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Lauren T Cordova, Robert M Cipolla, Adti Swarup, Christopher P Long, Maciek R Antoniewicz
Thermophilic organisms are being increasingly investigated and applied in metabolic engineering and biotechnology. The distinct metabolic and physiological characteristics of thermophiles, including broad substrate range and high uptake rates, coupled with recent advances in genetic tool development, present unique opportunities for strain engineering. However, poor understanding of the cellular physiology and metabolism of thermophiles has limited the application of systems biology and metabolic engineering tools to these organisms...
October 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
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