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Energy balance

Sakine Çetin, Eyüp Selim Köksal
In hydrology, evapotranspiration (ET) is defined as phase conversion and rise of water in soils, plants, rivers, lakes, and seas under the atmospheric conditions. Investigation of water displacement through either ET or precipitations, runoffs and infiltrations may provide significant contributions for water resources management practices. In this study, daily, monthly, and seasonal ET maps were generated for Minöz Stream Watershed of Kavak town of Samsun province with the aid of energy balance-based METRIC model for the water-year of 2007...
September 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Beth H Rice Bradley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is estimated that over 400 million people worldwide are living with diabetes. Excess adiposity is the strongest risk factor for non-insulin-dependent diabetes, type 2. Lifestyle interventions have demonstrated that diet plays a critical role in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat is not only a source of energy and nutrients, but also bioactive fatty acids. The purpose of this review was to examine data from recent prospective cohort studies and dietary interventions to determine if there are benefits to fat consumption on diabetes risk...
September 21, 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Michelle A Morris, Emma Wilkins, Kate A Timmins, Maria Bryant, Mark Birkin, Claire Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Obesity research at a population level is multifaceted and complex. This has been characterised in the UK by the Foresight obesity systems map, identifying over 100 variables, across seven domain areas which are thought to influence energy balance, and subsequent obesity. Availability of data to consider the whole obesity system is traditionally lacking. However, in an era of big data, new possibilities are emerging. Understanding what data are available can be the first challenge, followed by an inconsistency in data reporting to enable adequate use in the obesity context...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Michelle Takemoto, Todd M Manini, Dori E Rosenberg, Amanda Lazar, Zvinka Z Zlatar, Sai Krupa Das, Jacqueline Kerr
This paper reports on the findings and recommendations specific to older adults from the "Tech Summit: Innovative Tools for Assessing Diet and Physical Activity for Health Promotion" forum organized by the North American branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. The summit aimed to investigate current and emerging challenges related to improving energy balance behavior assessment and intervention via technology. The current manuscript focuses on how novel technologies are applied in older adult populations and enumerated the barriers and facilitators to using technology within this population...
October 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Andreas Kremling, Johannes Geiselmann, Delphine Ropers, Hidde de Jong
BACKGROUND: Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) controls the order in which different carbon sources are metabolised. Although this system is one of the paradigms of regulation in bacteria, the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. CCR involves the coordination of different subsystems of the cell - responsible for the uptake of carbon sources, their breakdown for the production of energy and precursors, and the conversion of the latter to biomass. The complexity of this integrated system, with regulatory mechanisms cutting across metabolism, gene expression, and signalling, has motivated important modelling efforts over the past four decades, especially in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli...
September 21, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Jewon Jung, Dong-In Kim, Gi-Youn Han, Hyung Wook Kwon
High-fat diet (HFD) often causes obesity and it has detrimental effects on the sensory system. In particular, sensory-mediated responses are crucial for maintaining energy balance, as they are involved in a metabolic regulation; however, there is still no clear explanation about the relationship between HFD-induced stress and sensory system. To gain insight on how HFD-induced stress affects olfactory sensitivity and behavioral responses, we have used a Drosophila melanogaster model for olfactory and nutrient-related signaling and accessed physiological, behavioral, and transcriptional changes...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Prasanth Valayamkunnath, Venkataramana Sridhar, Wenguang Zhao, Richard G Allen
Accurate estimation of ecosystem-scale land surface energy and water balance has great importance in weather and climate studies. This paper summarizes seasonal and interannual fluctuations of energy and water balance components in two distinctive semiarid ecosystems, sagebrush (SB) and lodgepole pine (LP) in the Snake River basin of Idaho. This study includes 6 years (2011-2016) of eddy covariance (EC) along with modeled estimates. An analysis of the energy balance indicated a higher energy balance ratio (0...
September 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Aliza B Rubenstein, Kristin Blacklock, Hai Nguyen, David A Case, Sagar D Khare
An accurate energy function is an essential component of biomolecular structural modeling and design. The comparison of differently derived energy functions enables analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of each energy function, and provides independent benchmarks for evaluating improvements within a given energy function. We compared the molecular mechanics Amber empirical energy function to two versions of the Rosetta energy function (talaris2014 and REF2015) in decoy discrimination and loop modeling tests...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Lars Christensen, Henrik M Roager, Arne Astrup, Mads F Hjorth
Human gut microbiota has been suggested to play an important role in nutrition and obesity. However, formulating meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advice based on knowledge about gut microbiota remains a key challenge. A number of recent studies have found evidence that stratification of individuals according to 2 microbial enterotypes (dominance of either Prevotella or Bacteroides) may be useful in predicting responses to diets and drugs. Here, we review enterotypes in a nutritional context and discuss how enterotype stratification may be used in personalized nutrition in obesity management...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Samer W El-Kadi, Claire Boutry, Agus Suryawan, Maria C Gazzaneo, Renán A Orellana, Neeraj Srivastava, Hanh V Nguyen, Scot R Kimball, Marta L Fiorotto, Teresa A Davis
Background: Orogastric tube feeding is indicated in neonates with an impaired ability to ingest food normally and can be administered with an intermittent bolus or continuous feeding schedule. Objectives: The objectives were to 1) compare the long-term effect of continuous with intermittent feeding on growth using the newborn pig as a model, 2) determine whether feeding frequency alters lean tissue and fat mass gain, and 3) identify the signaling mechanisms by which protein deposition is controlled in skeletal muscle in response to feeding frequency...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hao Chen, Zhaoyu Xie, Timothy Atherton, Patrick T Spicer
The stable configurations formed by two poroelastic, ellipsoid-shaped droplets during their arrested coalescence has been investigated using micromanipulation experiments. Ellipsoidal droplets are produced by millifluidic emulsification of petrolatum into a yield stress fluid that preserves their elongated shape. The liquid meniscus between droplets can transmit stress and instigate movement of the droplets, from their initial relative position, in order to minimize doublet surface energy. The action of the liquid meniscus causes the ellipsoidal droplets to undergo rolling and reorientation events because of their unique ellipsoid shape and associated variation in surface curvature...
September 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Adi Ratriyanto, Rainer Mosenthin
This review focuses on the osmoregulatory function of betaine and its effect in terms of alleviating heat stress in poultry. Poultry appear to be particularly sensitive to temperature-associated environmental challenges, especially heat stress. High ambient temperatures are deleterious to productive performance in poultry, including broilers, laying hens, quails and turkeys, resulting in considerable economic losses. Heat stress impairs overall poultry production by decreasing feed intake and negatively affecting intestinal development, leading to reduced nutrient digestibility...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
W T Crow, F Chen, R H Reichle, Y Xia, Q Liu
Accurate partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff is a fundamental objective of land surface models tasked with characterizing the surface water and energy balance. Temporal variability in this partitioning is due, in part, to changes in pre-storm soil moisture, which determine soil infiltration capacity and unsaturated storage. Utilizing the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Level-4 soil moisture product in combination with streamflow and precipitation observations, we demonstrate that land surface models (LSMs) generally underestimate the strength of the positive rank correlation between pre-storm soil moisture and event runoff coefficients (i...
May 28, 2018: Geophysical Research Letters
Joanna Gajewska, Magdalena Chełchowska, Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Agnieszka Riahi, Halina Weker, Katarzyna Szamotulska
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and impaired production of adipokines in childhood obesity contribute to the development of obesity-related disorders. We assessed whether weight loss after lifestyle intervention alters biomarkers of oxidant/antioxidant status, and whether these alterations are associated with changes in anthropometric parameters and adipokines in obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), anti ox-LDL, paraoxonase1 (PON1), leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), total adiponectin, high molecular weight adiponectin concentrations and body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in 60 prepubertal obese children (Body Mass Index, BMI Z-score>2) before and after a 3-month intervention...
September 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Bo Ma, Jincheng Chen, Yongying Mu, Bingjie Xue, Aimei Zhao, Daoping Wang, Dennis Chang, Yinghong Pan, Jianxun Liu
Sleep is an essential and fundamental physiological process that plays crucial roles in the balance of psychological and physical health. Sleep disorder may lead to adverse health outcomes. The effects of sleep deprivation were extensively studied, but its mechanism is still not fully understood. The present study aimed to identify the alterations of serum proteins associated with chronic sleep deprivation, and to seek for potential biomarkers of sleep disorder mediated diseases. A label-free quantitative proteomics technology was used to survey the global changes of serum proteins between normal rats and chronic sleep deprivation rats...
2018: PloS One
Nabiul Islam, Sudip Misra, Md Sadik Hussain
Architecting nanonetwork-based Coronary Heart- Disease (CHD) monitoring requires a set of nanodevice-embedded drug eluting stents (nanoDESs) inserted inside the affected sites of coronary arteries of the heart to cooperatively collect medical information therein, and transmit the information via the nanomacro interface (NM), which is inserted into the intercostal space of the rib cage. These nanonetworks, which operate in the terahertz band (0.1 - 10 Thz), face increased complexity in delivering data of underlying nanonetworks to the NM, due to the limited energy content of nanoDESs...
September 17, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Emilie Gadéa, Emilie Thivat, Pascale Dubray-Longeras, Marie Arbre, Isabelle Van-Praagh, Marie-Ange Mouret-Reynier, Pauline Herviou, Joyce Dohou, Angeline Ginzac, Martine Duclos, Béatrice Morio, Xavier Durando
In breast cancer patients, weight and fat mass changes observed after chemotherapy have been related to poor prognosis but some recent works using modern chemotherapy failed to find this correlation with weight gain. In this study, the extent of changes in weight and body composition (DEXA, impedance) was characterized until six months after current chemotherapy, in 50 post-menopausal women with breast cancer. The evolution of factors contributing to the energy balance and some biological factors were also described...
September 20, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Breyannah R Zanders, Brad S Currier, Patrick S Harty, Hannah A Zabriskie, Charles R Smith, Richard A Stecker, Scott R Richmond, Andrew R Jagim, Chad M Kerksick
Zanders, BR, Currier, BS, Harty, PS, Zabriskie, HA, Smith, CR, Stecker, RA, Richmond, SR, Jagim, AR, and Kerksick, CM. Changes in energy expenditure, dietary intake, and energy availability across an entire collegiate women's basketball season. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to identify changes in energy expenditure and dietary intake across an entire women's basketball season. On 5 different occasions across the competitive season, female collegiate basketball players (19...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ted M Hsu, James E McCutcheon, Mitchell F Roitman
Motivated behaviors are often initiated in response to perturbations of homeostasis. Indeed, animals and humans have fundamental drives to procure (appetitive behaviors) and eventually ingest (consummatory behaviors) substances based on deficits in body fluid (e.g., thirst) and energy balance (e.g., hunger). Consumption, in turn, reinforces motivated behavior and is therefore considered rewarding. Over the years, the constructs of homeostatic (within the purview of the hypothalamus) and reward (within the purview of mesolimbic circuitry) have been used to describe need-based vs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Brenton T Laing, Peixin Li, Cameron A Schmidt, Wyatt Bunner, Yuan Yuan, Taylor Landry, Amber Prete, Joseph M McClung, Hu Huang
The potential to control feeding behavior via hypothalamic AgRP/NPY neurons has led to many approaches to modulate their excitability-particularly by glutamatergic input. In the present study using NPY-hrGFP reporter mice, we visualize AgRP/NPY neuronal metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) expression and test the effect of fasting on mGluR1 function. Using the pharmacological agonist dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), we demonstrate the enhanced capacity of mGluR1 to drive firing of AgRP/NPY neurons after overnight fasting, while antagonist 3-MATIDA reduces firing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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