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Energy balance

Alexandre Fisette, Stephanie Tobin, Léa Décarie-Spain, Khalil Bouyakdan, Marie-Line Peyot, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki, Stephanie Fulton, Thierry Alquier
α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a monoacylglycerol hydrolase that degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although complete or peripheral ABHD6 loss of function is protective against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, the role of ABHD6 in the central control of energy balance is unknown. Using a viral-mediated knockout approach, targeted endocannabinoid measures, and pharmacology, we discovered that mice lacking ABHD6 from neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH(KO)) have higher VMH 2-AG levels in conditions of endocannabinoid recruitment and fail to physiologically adapt to key metabolic challenges...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Yuwen Wang, Chao Xu, Kang Li, Xiaojie Cai, Min Wu, Guoxiang Chen
Iron deficiency is an important abiotic stress that limits productivity of crops all over the world. We selected a hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), LYPJ, which is super high-yield and widely cultured in China, to investigate changes in the components and structure of thylakoid membranes and photosynthetic performance in response to iron deficiency. Our results demonstrated that photosystem I (PSI) is the primary target for iron deficiency, while the changes in photosystem II (PSII) are important for rebuilding a balance in disrupted energy utilization and dissipation caused by differential degradation of photosynthetic components...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mark Wijzenbroek, Darcey Helstone, Jörg Meyer, Geert-Jan Kroes
We have performed calculations on the dissociative chemisorption of H2 on un-reconstructed and reconstructed Au(111) with density functional theory, and dynamics calculations on this process on un-reconstructed Au(111). Due to a very late barrier for dissociation, H2 + Au(111) is a candidate H2-metal system for which the dissociative chemisorption could be considerably affected by the energy transfer to electron-hole pairs. Minimum barrier geometries and potential energy surfaces were computed for six density functionals...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Saman Alavi, Ryo Ohmura
When compressed with water or ice under high pressure and low temperature conditions, some gases form solid gas hydrate inclusion compounds which have higher melting points than ice under those pressures. In this work, we study the balance of the guest-water and water-water interaction energies that lead to the formation of the clathrate hydrate phases. In particular, molecular dynamics simulations with accurate water potentials are used to study the energetics of the formation of structure I (sI) and II (sII) clathrate hydrates of methane, ethane, and propane...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nikita Tretyakov, Periklis Papadopoulos, Doris Vollmer, Hans-Jürgen Butt, Burkhard Dünweg, Kostas Ch Daoulas
Classical density functional theory is applied to investigate the validity of a phenomenological force-balance description of the stability of the Cassie state of liquids on substrates with nanoscale corrugation. A bulk free-energy functional of third order in local density is combined with a square-gradient term, describing the liquid-vapor interface. The bulk free energy is parameterized to reproduce the liquid density and the compressibility of water. The square-gradient term is adjusted to model the width of the water-vapor interface...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
David Cappelletti, Stefano Falcinelli, Fernando Pirani
Gas phase collisions of a D2 projectile by CF4 and by CCl4 targets have been investigated with the molecular beam technique. The integral cross section, Q, has been measured for both collisional systems in the thermal energy range and oscillations due to the quantum "glory" interference have been resolved in the velocity dependence of Q. The analysis of the measured Q(v) data provided novel information on the anisotropic potential energy surfaces of the studied systems at intermediate and large separation distances...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Roberto Serpe, Laura Demurtas, Marco Puzzoni, Clelia Madeddu, Mario Scartozzi
The cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is considered a multifactorial syndrome that leads a general decline of the cancer patient conditions, prognosis and survival, and characterized by progressive loss of body mass and functional impairment, due to marked energy metabolism imbalance and immunological disorders. It is the cause of death in almost one out of five advanced cancer patients. CACS is also accompanied with loss of quality of life, reduced response and tolerance to anticancer therapies and affected outcome...
October 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Amber L Alhadeff, Blake D Mergler, Derek J Zimmer, Christopher A Turner, David J Reiner, Heath D Schmidt, Harvey J Grill, Matthew R Hayes
Though the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) system is critical to energy balance control and is a target for obesity pharmacotherapies, the receptor populations mediating effects of endogenous GLP-1 signaling are not fully understood. To address this, we developed a novel adeno-associated virus (AAV-GLP-1R) that utilizes short hairpin RNA to chronically knock down GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in rats. Since pharmacological studies highlight the hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) as a brain region important for GLP-1R-mediated effects on energy balance, AAV-GLP-1R was injected into the NTS to examine the role of endogenous NTS GLP-1R signaling in energy balance control...
October 26, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
K Koehler, M J De Souza, N I Williams
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Normal-weight women frequently restrict their caloric intake and exercise, but little is known about the effects on body weight, body composition and metabolic adaptations in this population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in sedentary normal-weight women. Women were assigned to a severe energy deficit (SEV: -1062±80 kcal per day; n=9), a moderate energy deficit (MOD: -633±71 kcal per day; n=7) or energy balance (BAL; n=9) while exercising five times per week for 3 months...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A J Page, S J Kentish
The vagal link between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system (CNS) has numerous vital functions for maintaining homeostasis. The regulation of energy balance is one which is attracting more and more attention due to the potential for exploiting peripheral hormonal targets as treatments for conditions such as obesity. While physiologically, this system is well tuned and demonstrated to be effective in the regulation of both local function and promoting/terminating food intake the neural connection represents a susceptible pathway for disruption in various disease states...
October 25, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Bright U Emenike, Sara N Bey, Ronald A Spinelle, Jacob T Jones, Barney Yoo, Matthias Zeller
The energy (ΔG) of a cationic CHπ interaction was measured experimentally through the conformational studies of new molecular torsion balances using proton NMR spectroscopy. Each of the molecular balance adopted folded and unfolded conformations for which the ratio of the conformational equilibrium (i.e., folded/unfolded ratio) provided a quantitative measure of the ΔG as a function of solvation. An excellent linear solvation energy relationship between the ΔG values and the Hunter's solvent hydrogen-bond parameters (αs and βs) revealed that electrostatic interaction is the physical origin of the observed conformational preferences in solution...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ana Babic, Ying Bao, Zhi Rong Qian, Chen Yuan, Edward L Giovannucci, Hugues Aschard, Peter Kraft, Laufey T Amundadottir, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Kimmie Ng, Meir J Stampfer, Shuji Ogino, Julie E Buring, Howard D Sesso, John Michael Gaziano, Nader Rifai, Michael N Pollak, Matthew L Anderson, Barbara B Cochrane, Juhua Luo, JoAnn E Manson, Charles S Fuchs, Brian Wolpin
Leptin is an adipokine involved in regulating energy balance which has been identified as a potential biological link in development of obesity-associated cancers such as pancreatic cancer. In this prospective, nested case-control study of 470 cases and 1094 controls from five U.S. cohorts, we used conditional logistic regression to evaluate pancreatic cancer risk by prediagnostic plasma leptin, adjusting for race/ethnicity, diabetes, body-mass index, physical activity, plasma C-peptide, adiponectin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D...
October 25, 2016: Cancer Research
I Rostás, J Tenk, A Mikó, N Füredi, S Soós, M Solymár, A Lengyel, M Székely, B Gaszner, D Feller, E Pétervári, M Balaskó
Leptin is a key catabolic regulator of food intake (FI) and energy expenditure. Both aging and obesity have been shown to induce leptin-resistance. The present study aimed to analyze age-related changes in the anorexigenic and hypermetabolic responsiveness to acute intracerebroventricular leptin administration in different age-groups of normally fed male Wistar rats (adult and old rats from 3 to 24months of age, NF3 to NF24, respectively). The expressions of the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and inhibitory SOCS3 genes were also assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
October 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Hugh Sherman, Anh V Nguyen, Warren Bruckard
Atomic force microscopy makes it possible to measure the interacting forces between individual colloidal particles and air bubbles, which can provide a measure of the particle hydrophobicity. To indicate the level of hydrophobicity of the particle the contact angle can be calculated, assuming that no interfacial deformation occurs with the bubble retaining a spherical profile. Our experimental results obtained using a modified sphere tensiometry apparatus to detach sub-millimeter spherical particles show that deformation of the bubble interface does occur during particle detachment...
October 25, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sujay Ray, Arundhati Banerjee
Thiosulphate oxidation (an essential mechanism) serves to maintain the global sulphur cycle. Earlier experimental and computational studies dealt with environmental thiosulphate oxidation but none dealt with thiosulphate oxidation from deep ocean belts. Wet-laboratory experimental research shows that epsilon-proteobacteria Sulfurimonas denitrificans possess sox (sulphur-oxidizing) operon and perform thiosulphate oxidation efficiently underneath the oceans. From this specific sox operon, SoxCD complex recycles the thiosulphate-bound SoxY from SoxYZ complex to balance the environmental sulphur cycle...
2016: Journal of Biophysics
Fei Ma, Xin Zhang, Xi Zhu, Tianpei Li, Jiao Zhan, Hui Chen, Chenliu He, Qiang Wang
Iron stress-induced protein A (IsiA) is a major chlorophyll-binding protein in the thylakoid membrane that is significantly induced under iron deficiency conditions. Using immunoblot analysis and 77k fluorescence spectroscopy combined with sucrose gradient fractionation, we monitored dynamic changes of IsiA-containing complexes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 during exposure to long-term iron deficiency. Within 3 days of exposure to iron deficiency conditions, the initially induced free IsiA proteins preferentially conjugated to PS I trimer to form IsiA18-PS I trimers, which serve as light energy collectors for efficiently transmitting energy to PS I...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Plant
Cathy Joanna Jensen, Frauke Demol, Romy Bauwens, Ron Kooijman, Ann Massie, Agnès Villers, Laurence Ris, Jacques De Keyser
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the β2-adrenergic receptor on astrocytes might contribute to this energy balance, it has not yet been shown conclusively in vivo. Inducible astrocyte specific β2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice were generated by crossing homozygous β2-adrenergic receptor floxed mice (Adrb2flox) and mice with heterozygous tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expression driven by the astrocyte specific L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter promoter (GLAST-CreERT2)...
2016: PloS One
Feng Shao, Weisi Lin, Zhutuan Li, Gangyi Jiang, Qionghai Dai
Visual comfort and depth sensation are two important incongruent counterparts in determining the overall stereoscopic 3-D experience. In this paper, we proposed a novel simultaneous visual comfort and depth sensation optimization approach for stereoscopic images. The main motivation of the proposed optimization approach is to enhance the overall stereoscopic 3-D experience. Toward this end, we propose a two-stage solution to address the optimization problem. In the first layer-independent disparity adjustment process, we iteratively adjust the disparity range of each depth layer to satisfy with visual comfort and depth sensation constraints simultaneously...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Nnamdi G Nelson, Faten A Suhaidi, Ross S DeAngelis, Nu-Chu Liang
Ethanol can be a food source but its effects on energy balance and contribution to obesity remain inconclusive. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on energy intake and body weight would depend on the administration dose, pattern and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) time-course. Experiment 1 examined changes in food intake, diet preference, and body weight after saline or ethanol (1 and 3g/Kg) injection (IP). Experiment 2 compared the effects in rats that received either 3g/Kg/day ethanol administered all at once (EtOH_S) or in 2 1...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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