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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452452/-effectivity-and-safety-of-a-modified-tip-design-in-torsional-phacoemulsification
#1
Sabine Schmidt, Sophie Hubich, Jan Markus Vetter, Christopher Wirbelauer
BACKGROUND: Torsional mode phacoemulsification results in more effective fragmentation of the nucleus due to a different movement of the phacotip. In this clinical study, we investigated the influence of a modified tip design and active fluidics on the efficacy of phacoemulsification and safety for the corneal endothelium. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized 2 : 1 study in which 40 patients were operated on with the mini-flared Kelman Tip using the Infiniti ® System (group 1), and 20 patients were operated on with the Intrepid ® Balanced Tip and the Centurion ® System...
February 16, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450484/neurological-manifestations-among-us-government-personnel-reporting-directional-audible-and-sensory-phenomena-in-havana-cuba
#2
Randel L Swanson, Stephen Hampton, Judith Green-McKenzie, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, M Sean Grady, Ragini Verma, Rosette Biester, Diana Duda, Ronald L Wolf, Douglas H Smith
Importance: From late 2016 through August 2017, US government personnel serving on diplomatic assignment in Havana, Cuba, reported neurological symptoms associated with exposure to auditory and sensory phenomena. Objective: To describe the neurological manifestations that followed exposure to an unknown energy source associated with auditory and sensory phenomena. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary results from a retrospective case series of US government personnel in Havana, Cuba...
February 15, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449715/leptin-and-brain-adipose-crosstalks
#3
REVIEW
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion. In particular, we emphasize the role of leptin-sensitive neurons and the sympathetic nervous system in modulating the activity of brown, white and beige adipose tissues...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448499/sol-gel-derived-antibacterial-ag-containing-zno-films-on-biomedical-titanium
#4
T Fu, F Zhang, Z Alajmi, S Y Yang, F Wu, S L Han
ZnO and Ag-containing ZnO (ZnO/Ag) films with the Ag/Zn molar ratio of 3.3 and 9.1%, respectively were sol-gel coated on biomedical titanium for antibacterial and bioactive surface modification. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that ZnO peaks increase with the calcination temperature of the samples. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive of X-ray analyses reveal Ag-rich white particles (300~750 nm) on ZnO/Ag samples that were calcined at 400 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ZnO/Ag samples shows that Zn and O exist as ZnO and Ag presents in metallic state...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448406/hypostatic-jammed-packings-of-frictionless-nonspherical-particles
#5
Kyle VanderWerf, Weiwei Jin, Mark D Shattuck, Corey S O'Hern
We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, dumbbells, and others to determine which shapes form packings with fewer contacts than degrees of freedom (hypostatic packings) and which have equal numbers of contacts and degrees of freedom (isostatic packings), and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from naive constraint counting...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447929/a-complex-systems-approach-to-cancer-prevention
#6
P W Jupp
Cancer incidence continues to be a major health problem possibly because cancer is a complex system comprising many agents that interact in a non-linear manner resulting in many possible outcomes. The degree of complexity of a cancer system could be vast involving multiple endogenous and exogenous agents interacting with the over 10 trillion cells comprising the body. It is hypothesized that the practical management of this complexity may be a key to cancer prevention and possibly treatment. But the management and resolution of such an immensely complex system is difficult and may require a multidisciplinary approach including physics, biology, biochemistry and medical science...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447445/electronic-exchange-and-correlation-in-van-der-waals-systems-balancing-semilocal-and-nonlocal-energy-contributions
#7
Jan Hermann, Alexandre Tkatchenko
Short-range correlations in motion of electrons in matter are captured well by semilocal exchange-correlation (XC) functionals in density functional theory (DFT), but long-range correlations are neglected in such models and must be treated by van der Waals (vdW) dispersion methods.Whereas the effective range of distances at which fluctuations are correlated is usually explicit in the vdW models, the complementary range of semilocal functionals can be observed only implicitly, requiring an introduction of empirical damping functions to couple the semilocal and nonlocal contributions to the XC energy...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445037/on-the-diverse-roles-of-fluid-dynamic-drag-in-animal-swimming-and-flying
#8
REVIEW
R Godoy-Diana, B Thiria
Questions of energy dissipation or friction appear immediately when addressing the problem of a body moving in a fluid. For the most simple problems, involving a constant steady propulsive force on the body, a straightforward relation can be established balancing this driving force with a skin friction or form drag, depending on the Reynolds number and body geometry. This elementary relation closes the full dynamical problem and sets, for instance, average cruising velocity or energy cost. In the case of finite-sized and time-deformable bodies though, such as flapping flyers or undulatory swimmers, the comprehension of driving/dissipation interactions is not straightforward...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444163/the-effect-of-nutramiltm-complex-food-for-special-medical-purpose-on-breast-and-prostate-carcinoma-cells
#9
Aneta A Koronowicz, Mariola Drozdowska, Barbara Wielgos, Ewelina Piasna-Słupecka, Dominik Domagała, Joanna Dulińska-Litewka, Teresa Leszczyńska
NutramilTM Complex is a multicomponent food product that meets the requirements of a food for special medical purpose. As a complete, high-energy diet it consists of properly balanced nutrients, vitamins and minerals. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of NutramilTM Complex on breast and prostate carcinoma cells. Our results showed that NutramilTM Complex reduced the viability and proliferation of breast and prostate cancer cells and that this process was associated with the induction of apoptosis via activation of caspase signalling...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444133/a-long-term-mechanistic-computational-model-of-physiological-factors-driving-the-onset-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-individual
#10
Joydeep Sarkar, Gaurav Dwivedi, Qian Chen, Iris E Sheu, Mark Paich, Colleen M Chelini, Paul M D'Alessandro, Samuel P Burns
A computational model of the physiological mechanisms driving an individual's health towards onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is described, calibrated and validated using data from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). The objective of this model is to quantify the factors that can be used for prevention of T2D. The model is energy and mass balanced and continuously simulates trajectories of variables including body weight components, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among others on the time-scale of years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444098/integrating-nutrient-bioavailability-and-co-production-links-when-identifying-sustainable-diets-how-low-should-we-reduce-meat-consumption
#11
Tangui Barré, Marlène Perignon, Rozenn Gazan, Florent Vieux, Valérie Micard, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Nicole Darmon
BACKGROUND: Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443403/proceedings-of-the-2017-aspen-research-workshop-gastric-bypass-role-of-the-gut
#12
REVIEW
Ajay Kumar Jain, Carel W le Roux, Puneet Puri, Ali Tavakkoli, Nana Gletsu-Miller, Blandine Laferrère, Richard Kellermayer, John K DiBaise, Robert G Martindale, Bruce M Wolfe
The goal of the National Institutes of Health-funded American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2017 research workshop (RW) "Gastric Bypass: Role of the Gut" was to focus on the exciting research evaluating gut-derived signals in modulating outcomes after bariatric surgery. Although gastric bypass surgery has undoubted positive effects, the mechanistic basis of improved outcomes cannot be solely explained by caloric restriction. Emerging data suggest that bile acid metabolic pathways, luminal contents, energy balance, gut mucosal integrity, as well as the gut microbiota are significantly modulated after bariatric surgery and may be responsible for the variable outcomes, each of which was rigorously evaluated...
February 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441670/energy-drives-the-dynamic-localization-of-cyanobacterial-nitrogen-regulators-during-diurnal-cycles
#13
Javier Espinosa, José I Labella, Raquel Cantos, Asunción Contreras
Cyanobacteria, phototrophic organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis, must adapt their metabolic processes to the challenges imposed by the succession of days and nights. Two conserved cyanobacterial proteins, PII and PipX, function as hubs of the nitrogen interaction network, forming complexes with a variety of diverse targets. While PII proteins are found in all three domains of life as integrators of signals of the nitrogen and carbon balance, PipX proteins are unique to cyanobacteria, where they provide a mechanistic link between PII signalling and the control of gene expression by the global nitrogen regulator NtcA...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441408/macronutrient-composition-and-food-groups-associated-with-gestational-weight-gain-the-gusto-study
#14
Jun S Lai, Shu E Soh, See Ling Loy, Marjorelee Colega, Michael S Kramer, Jerry K Y Chan, Thiam Chye Tan, Lynnette P C Shek, Fabian K P Yap, Kok Hian Tan, Keith M Godfrey, Yap Seng Chong, Mary F F Chong
PURPOSE: To examine the associations of energy, macronutrient and food intakes with GWG on 960 pregnant women from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort. METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed at 26-28 weeks' gestation with a 24-hour recall and 3-day food diary. GWG z-scores were calculated from first (4-13 weeks' gestation) and last (30-40 weeks gestation) measured weights; inadequate and excessive GWG were defined using the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on weights between 15 and 35 weeks' gestation...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440149/cancer-cachexia-rationale-for-the-menac-multimodal-exercise-nutrition-and-anti-inflammatory-medication-for-cachexia-trial
#15
REVIEW
Tora S Solheim, Barry J A Laird, Trude R Balstad, Asta Bye, Guro Stene, Vickie Baracos, Florian Strasser, Gareth Griffiths, Matthew Maddocks, Marie Fallon, Stein Kaasa, Kenneth Fearon
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support alone. Cachexia has a high prevalence in cancer and a major impact on patient physical function, morbidity and mortality. Despite the consequences of cachexia, there is no licensed treatment for cachexia and no accepted standard of care. It has been argued that the multifactorial genesis of cachexia lends itself to therapeutic targeting through a multimodal treatment...
February 9, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440124/sorcs1-and-sorcs3-control-energy-balance-and-orexigenic-peptide-production
#16
Aygul Subkhangulova, Anna R Malik, Guido Hermey, Oliver Popp, Gunnar Dittmar, Thomas Rathjen, Matthew N Poy, Alexander Stumpf, Prateep Sanker Beed, Dietmar Schmitz, Tilman Breiderhoff, Thomas E Willnow
SORCS1 and SORCS3 are two related sorting receptors expressed in neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Using mouse models with individual or dual receptor deficiencies, we document a previously unknown function of these receptors in central control of metabolism. Specifically, SORCS1 and SORCS3 act as intracellular trafficking receptors for tropomyosin-related kinase B to attenuate signaling by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a potent regulator of energy homeostasis. Loss of the joint action of SORCS1 and SORCS3 in mutant mice results in excessive production of the orexigenic neuropeptide agouti-related peptide and in a state of chronic energy excess characterized by enhanced food intake, decreased locomotor activity, diminished usage of lipids as metabolic fuel, and increased adiposity, albeit at overall reduced body weight...
February 12, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439442/a-survey-on-data-storage-and-information-discovery-in-the-wsans-based-edge-computing-systems
#17
Xingpo Ma, Junbin Liang, Renping Liu, Wei Ni, Yin Li, Ran Li, Wenpeng Ma, Chuanda Qi
In the post-Cloud era, the proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) has pushed the horizon of Edge computing, which is a new computing paradigm with data are processed at the edge of the network. As the important systems of Edge computing, wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) play an important role in collecting and processing the sensing data from the surrounding environment as well as taking actions on the events happening in the environment. In WSANs, in-network data storage and information discovery schemes with high energy efficiency, high load balance and low latency are needed because of the limited resources of the sensor nodes and the real-time requirement of some specific applications, such as putting out a big fire in a forest...
February 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439247/mutual-relationship-between-tau-and-central-insulin-signalling-consequences-for-ad-and-tauopathies
#18
Maud Gratuze, Aurélie Joly-Amado, Didier Vieau, Luc Buée, David Blum
<br>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes such as Tau lesions and amyloid plaques, but also associated with non-cognitive symptomatology. Metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as alterations in body weight, brain insulin impairments and lower brain glucose metabolism, that often precede clinical diagnosis, have been extensively reported in AD patients. However, the origin of these symptoms and their relation to pathology and cognitive impairments remain misunderstood...
February 13, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438935/functional-graphene-oxide-membrane-preparation-for-organics-inorganic-salts-mixture-separation-aiming-at-advanced-treatment-of-refractory-wastewater
#19
Jing-Long Han, Xue Xia, Muhammad Rizwan Haider, Wen-Li Jiang, Yu Tao, Mei-Jun Liu, Hong-Cheng Wang, Yang-Cheng Ding, Ya-Nan Hou, Hao-Yi Cheng, Ai-Jie Wang
Some refractory organic matters or soluble microbial products remained in the effluents of refractory organic wastewater after biological secondary treatment and need an advanced treatment before final disposal. Graphene oxide (GO) was known to have potential to be the next generation membrane material. The functional organics/inorganic salts separation GO membrane preparation and application in wastewater advanced treatment could reduce energy or chemicals consumption and avoid organics/inorganic salts mixed concentrate waste problems after nanofiltration or reverse osmosis...
February 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437376/-brick-and-mortar-nanostructured-interphase-for-glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer-composites
#20
Francois De Luca, Giorgio Sernicola, Milo S P Shaffer, Alexander Bismarck
The fiber-matrix interface plays a critical role in determining composite mechanical properties. While a strong interface tends to provide high strength, a weak interface enables extensive debonding, leading to a high degree of energy absorption. Balancing these conflicting requirements by engineering composite interfaces to improve strength and toughness simultaneously still remains a great challenge. Here, a nanostructured fiber coating was realized to manifest the critical characteristics of natural nacre, at a reduced length scale, consistent with the surface curvature of fibers...
February 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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