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Energy balance

Andreas V Copan, Alexander Yu Sokolov
We present a linear-response formulation of density cumulant theory (DCT) that provides a balanced and accurate description of many electronic states simultaneously. In the original DCT formulation, only information about a single electronic state (usually, the ground state) is obtained. We discuss the derivation of linear-response DCT, present its implementation for the ODC-12 method (LR-ODC-12), and benchmark its performance for excitation energies in small molecules (N2 , CO, HCN, HNC, C2 H2 , and H2 CO), as well as challenging excited states in ethylene, butadiene, and hexatriene...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez
Exacerbation of COPD is associated with a worsening of lung function and symptoms, and a serious loss in functional status and health related quality of life. It also represents the major cause for emergency hospitalization in COPD patients which places the patient at risk for developing further muscle weakness. Actually, loss of muscle function developed fast and continued to decrease over time during hospitalization and may be further compromised when disease deterioration would require the use of ventilator support...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Joaquim Gea, Antoni Sancho-Muñoz, Roberto Chalela
Nutritional abnormalities are frequent in different chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis (CF), interstitial fibrosis and lung cancer, having important clinical consequences. However, nutritional abnormalities often remained underdiagnosed due to the relative lack of awareness of health professionals. Therefore, systematic anthropometry or even better, assessment of body composition, should be performed in all patients with chronic respiratory conditions, especially following exacerbation periods when malnutrition becomes more accentuated...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Susan M Tyree, Jeremy C Borniger, Luis de Lecea
The lateral hypothalamus is comprised of a heterogeneous mix of neurons that serve to integrate and regulate sleep, feeding, stress, energy balance, reward, and motivated behavior. Within these populations, the hypocretin/orexin neurons are among the most well studied. Here, we provide an overview on how these neurons act as a central hub integrating sensory and physiological information to tune arousal and motivated behavior accordingly. We give special attention to their role in sleep-wake states and conditions of hyper-arousal, as is the case with stress-induced anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lucilene Rezende Anastácio, Samanta Catherine Ferreira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nutritional status of patients after liver transplantation is affected by dietary intake and this, in turn, is affected by eating behavior. The present review will highlight recent studies on these topics after liver transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Malnutrition drops significantly after liver transplantation. Recovery of weight lost during liver disease occurs within 1 year. Liver transplantation recipients gain weight up to the second or third year, often becoming overweight and obese...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Guangfeng Kan, Xiaofei Wang, Jie Jiang, Chengsheng Zhang, Minglei Chi, Yun Ju, Cuijuan Shi
Heavy metal pollution in Antarctic is serious by anthropogenic emissions and atmospheric transport. To dissect the heavy metal adaptation mechanisms of sea-ice organisms, a basidiomycetous yeast strain AN5 was isolated and its cellular changes were analyzed. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization indicated that this yeast strain belonged to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa AN5. Heavy metal resistance pattern of Cd > Pb = Mn > Cu > Cr > Hg was observed. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results exhibited altered cell surface morphology under the influence of copper metal compared to that with control...
June 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
G Montalbano, M Mania, F Abbate, M Navarra, M C Guerrera, R Laura, J A Vega, M Levanti, A Germanà
PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and premature death in modern society. Recently, numerous natural and synthetic compounds have been tested in diet-induced obese animal models, to counteract obesity. Melatonin is a circadian hormone, produced by pineal gland and extra-pineal sources, involved in processes which have in common a rhythmic expression. In teleost, it can control energy balance by activating or inhibiting appetite-related peptides...
June 20, 2018: Endocrine
Ming-Yue Liu, Ming-Jia Zhang, Ming-Jie Xie
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, is known as the "cellular energy regulator" and a key molecule to maintain the energy balance of cells and organism. Recent studies have shown that AMPK exerts anti-inflammatory effects mainly through activating SIRT1, PGC-1α, p53, FoxO3a and p300, and down-regulating the activity of various inflammatory related proteins such as NF-κB and AP-1. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms of the anti- inflammatory effects of AMPK, and provides some clues for the development of AMPK-targeted therapeutics to treat inflammation and related diseases...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Bhakti Prinsi, Alfredo Simone Negri, Osvaldo Failla, Attilio Scienza, Luca Espen
BACKGROUND: Roots play a central role in plant response to water stress (WS). They are involved in its perception and signalling to the leaf as well as in allowing the plant to adapt to maintaining an adequate water balance. Only a few studies have investigated the molecular/biochemical responses to WS in roots of perennial plants, such as grapevine. This study compares two grapevine rootstock genotypes (i.e. 101.14 and M4) with different tolerance to WS, evaluating the responses at proteomic and metabolite levels...
June 20, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Tetsuya Hattori, Toru Itagaki, Hirotaka Uji, Shunsaku Kimura
Two kinds of amphiphilic polypeptides having different types of hydrophilic polypeptoids, poly(sarcosine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (ML12) and poly(N-ethyl glycine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (EL12), were self-assembled via two paths to phase-separated nanotubes. One path was via sticking ML12 nanotubes with EL12 nanotubes, and the other was a preparation from a mixture of ML12 and EL12 in solution. In either case, nanotubes showed temperature-induced phase separation along the long axis, which was observed by two methods of labeling one phase with gold nanoparticles and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the components...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Christopher R Neal, Kenton Arkill, James Stephen Bell, Kai B Betteridge, David O Bates, C Peter Winlove, Andrew Hj Salmon, Steven J Harper
To investigate human glomerular structure under conditions of physiological perfusion we have analysed fresh and perfusion fixed normal human glomeruli at physiological hydrostatic and oncotic pressures using serial resin section reconstruction, confocal, multiphoton and electron microscope imaging. Afferent and efferent arterioles (21.5{plus minus}1.2µm and 15.9{plus minus}1.2µm diameter), recognised from vascular origins, lead into previously undescribed wider regions (43.2{plus minus}2.8 µm and 38.4{plus minus}4...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Carolina Cogo, Julieta Pérez-Giménez, Chandrasekar B Rajeswari, María F Luna, Aníbal R Lodeiro
Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens , a soybean N2 -fixing symbiont, constitutes the basic input in one of the most prominent inoculant industries worldwide. This bacterium may be cultured with D-mannitol or L-arabinose as carbon-plus-energy source (C-source) with similar specific growth rates, but with higher biomass production with D-mannitol. To better understand the bacterium's carbon metabolism, we analyzed, by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS), the whole set of proteins obtained from cells grown on each C-source...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carolyn N Valdez, Murielle F Delley, James M Mayer
The effects of a variety of monoatomic cations (H+ , Li+ , Na+ , K+ , Mg2+ , Ca2+ ) and larger cations (decamethylcobaltocenium and tetrabutylammonium) on the reduction of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) are described. Suspensions of 'TOPO'-capped ZnO NCs in toluene/THF were treated with controlled amounts of one-electron reductants (CoCp*2 or sodium benzophenone anion radical) and cations. Equilibria were quickly established and the extent of NC reduction was quantified via observation of the characteristic near-IR absorbance of conduction band electrons...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Angelo Tremblay
The prevalence of overweight has substantially increased over the last decades despite the intent of health professionals and the general population to prevent this trend. Traditionally, this phenomenon has been attributed to unhealthy dietary macronutrient composition and/or to the decrease in physical activity participation. Beyond the influence of these factors, it is more than likely that other factors have influenced energy balance in a context of modernity. These include inadequate sleep, demanding cognitive effort, chemical pollution, and probably others which also have the potential to promote a positive energy balance but which are also part of the reality of success and productivity in a globalized world...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ismael González-García, Pablo Blanco, Ánxela Estévez-Salguero, Cristina Contreras, Amparo Romero-Picó, Johan Fernø, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Sulay Tovar, Miguel López
Current evidence suggests that estradiol (E2), the main ovarian steroid, modulates energy balance by regulating both feeding and energy expenditure at the central level, through the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We hypothesized that the hypothalamic mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a well-established nutrient sensor and modulator of appetite and puberty, could also mediate the anorectic effect of E2. Our data showed that, ovariectomy (OVX) elicited a marked downregulation of the mTOR signaling in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), an effect that was reversed by either E2 replacement or central estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonism...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Alan C Rupp, Margaret B Allison, Justin C Jones, Christa M Patterson, Chelsea L Faber, Nadejda Bozadjieva, Lora K Heisler, Randy J Seeley, David P Olson, Martin G Myers
OBJECTIVE: To date, early developmental ablation of leptin receptor (LepRb) expression from circumscribed populations of hypothalamic neurons (e.g., arcuate nucleus (ARC) Pomc- or Agrp-expressing cells) has only minimally affected energy balance. In contrast, removal of LepRb from at least two large populations (expressing vGat or Nos1) spanning multiple hypothalamic regions produced profound obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Thus, we tested the notion that the total number of leptin-responsive hypothalamic neurons (rather than specific subsets of cells with a particular molecular or anatomical signature) subjected to early LepRb deletion might determine energy balance...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Yufeng Si, Haishen Wen, Yun Li, Feng He, Jifang Li, Siping Li, Huiwen He
BACKGROUND: Salinity is an important abiotic stress that influences the physiological and metabolic activity, reproduction, growth and development of marine fish. It has been suggested that half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a euryhaline fish species, uses a large amount of energy to maintain osmotic pressure balance when exposed to fluctuations in salinity. To delineate the molecular response of C. semilaevis to different levels of salinity, we performed RNA-seq analysis of the liver to identify the genes and molecular and biological processes involved in responding to salinity changes...
June 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
Heng Xu, Qiyue Li, Jianping Wang, Guojun Luo, Chenghui Zhu, Wei Sun
With the long-term dependence of humans on ore-based energy, underground mines are utilized around the world, and underground mining is often dangerous. Therefore, many underground mines have established networks that manage and acquire information from sensor nodes deployed on miners and in other places. Since the power supplies of many mobile sensor nodes are batteries, green communication is an effective approach of reducing the energy consumption of a network and extending its longevity. To reduce the energy consumption of networks, all factors that negatively influence the lifetime should be considered...
June 15, 2018: Sensors
Jiagui Feng, Deepnarayan Biswas, Akhil Rajan, Matthew D Watson, Federico Mazzola, Oliver J Clark, Kaycee Underwood, Igor Marković, Martin McLaren, Andrew Hunter, David Michael Burn, Liam Duffy, Sourabh Barua, Geetha Balakrishnan, Francois Bertran, Patrick Le Fevre, Timur Kim, Gerrit van der Laan, Thorsten Hesjedal, Peter Wahl, Phil D C King
How the interacting electronic states and phases of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides evolve when thinned to the single-layer limit is a key open question in the study of two-dimensional materials. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission to investigate the electronic structure of monolayer VSe<sub>2</sub> grown on bi-layer graphene/SiC. While the global electronic structure is similar to that of bulk VSe<sub>2</sub>, we show that, for the monolayer, pronounced energy gaps develop over the entire Fermi surface with decreasing temperature below T<sub>c</sub>=140±5 K, concomitant with the emergence of charge-order superstructures evident in low-energy electron diffraction...
June 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Zhibin Wang, Tai Cheng, Fuzhi Wang, Yiming Bai, Xingming Bian, Bing Zhang, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Zhan'ao Tan
Stable and efficient red (R), green (G), and blue (B) light sources based on solution-processed quantum dots (QDs) play important roles in next-generation displays and solid-state lighting technologies. The brightness and efficiency of blue QDs-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) remain inferior to their red and green counterparts, due to the inherently unfavorable energy levels of different colors of light. To solve these problems, a device structure should be designed to balance the injection holes and electrons into the emissive QD layer...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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