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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431176/effect-of-melatonin-on-renewal-of-chicken-small-intestinal-mucosa
#1
J Li, R X Li, G Liu, C F Lv, Y L Mi, C Q Zhang
A higher concentration of melatonin (MEL) in the intestine - even more than that in the plasma and pineal gland - implies its putative important role in the gastrointestinal structural or functional regulation. However, little evidence has shown that MEL can regulate the physiological functions of the intestinal mucosa. In this study, fertilized chicken eggs were treated with MEL (0.1 to 10 μg/d) from embryonic d 12 (E12) to post-hatching d 6 (D6), and the small intestine samples were collected at D6 to determine the changes in mucosal construction and function...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427185/transcriptional-landscape-of-human-cancers
#2
Mengyuan Li, Qingrong Sun, Xiaosheng Wang
The homogeneity and heterogeneity in somatic mutations, copy number alterations and methylation across different cancer types have been extensively explored. However, the related exploration based on transcriptome data is lacking. In this study we explored gene expression profiles across 33 human cancer types using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. We identified consistently upregulated genes (such as E2F1, EZH2, FOXM1, MYBL2, PLK1, TTK, AURKA/B and BUB1) and consistently downregulated genes (such as SCARA5, MYOM1, NKAPL, PEG3, USP2, SLC5A7 and HMGCLL1) across various cancers...
March 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423575/activated-notch-signaling-augments-cell-growth-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-up-regulating-the-nuclear-receptor-nr4a2
#3
Bo Zhu, Lichun Sun, Wei Luo, Min Li, David H Coy, Long Yu, Wenbo Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant cancers. Conventional therapies are limited due to the human liver being such a unique organ and easily showing side-effects. The unclear molecular mechanisms are tough challenges for scientists searching for new and effective anti-HCC targeting drugs. We identified that the nuclear receptor NR4A2 is a novel oncogene in HCC progression. In this study, we show that NR4A2 and the notch recceptor Notch1 were expressed highly in primary HCC tissues and immortal HCC cells by using qPCR, western blot and immuno-histochemistry assays...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423318/oligodendrocyte-nf1-controls-aberrant-notch-activation-and-regulates-myelin-structure-and-behavior
#4
Alejandro López-Juárez, Haley E Titus, Sadiq H Silbak, Joshua W Pressler, Tilat A Rizvi, Madeleine Bogard, Michael R Bennett, Georgianne Ciraolo, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees, Nancy Ratner
The RASopathy neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common autosomal dominant genetic disorders. In NF1 patients, neurological issues may result from damaged myelin, and mice with a neurofibromin gene (Nf1) mutation show white matter (WM) defects including myelin decompaction. Using mouse genetics, we find that altered Nf1 gene-dose in mature oligodendrocytes results in progressive myelin defects and behavioral abnormalities mediated by aberrant Notch activation. Blocking Notch, upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or nitric oxide signaling rescues myelin defects in hemizygous Nf1 mutants, and pharmacological gamma secretase inhibition rescues aberrant behavior with no effects in wild-type (WT) mice...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415816/targeting-the-pim-protein-kinases-for-the-treatment-of-a-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-subset
#5
Sathish K R Padi, Libia A Luevano, Ningfei An, Ritu Pandey, Neha Singh, Jin H Song, Jon C Aster, Xue-Zhong Yu, Shikhar Mehrotra, Andrew S Kraft
New approaches are needed for the treatment of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) who fail to achieve remission with chemotherapy. Analysis of the effects of pan-PIM protein kinase inhibitors on human T-ALL cell lines demonstrated that the sensitive cell lines expressed higher PIM1 protein kinase levels, whereas T-ALL cell lines with NOTCH mutations tended to have lower levels of PIM1 kinase and were insensitive to these inhibitors. NOTCH-mutant cells selected for resistance to gamma secretase inhibitors developed elevated PIM1 kinase levels and increased sensitivity to PIM inhibitors...
March 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413462/identification-of-mirna-biomarkers-of-pneumonia-using-rna-sequencing-and-bioinformatics-analysis
#6
Sai Huang, Cong Feng, Yong-Zhi Zhai, Xuan Zhou, Bei Li, Li-Li Wang, Wei Chen, Fa-Qin Lv, Tan-Shi Li
Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection that causes dramatic mortality worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of pneumonia and identify microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers as candidates for targeted therapy. RNA from the peripheral blood plasma of participants with pneumonia (severe, n=9; non-severe, n=9) and controls (n=9) was isolated and paired-end sequencing was performed on an Illumina HiSeq4000 system. Following the processing of raw reads, the sequences were aligned against the Genome Reference Consortium human genome assembly 38 reference genome using Bowtie2 software...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408934/sdf-1-cxcr4-signaling-maintains-stemness-signature-in-mouse-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#7
Shih-Yin Ho, Thai-Yen Ling, Hsing-Yu Lin, Jeffrey Tsai-Jui Liou, Fei-Chih Liu, I-Chun Chen, Sue-Wei Lee, Yu Hsu, Dar-Ming Lai, Horng-Huei Liou
SDF-1 and its primary receptor, CXCR4, are highly expressed in the embryonic central nervous system (CNS) and play a crucial role in brain architecture. Loss of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling causes abnormal development of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) in the cerebellum, hippocampus, and cortex. However, the mechanism of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in NSCs/NPCs regulation remains unknown. In this study, we found that elimination of SDF-1/CXCR4 transduction caused NSCs/NPCs to lose their stemness characteristics and to encounter neurogenic differentiation...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406397/evolutionary-changes-in-transcription-factor-coding-sequence-quantitatively-alter-sensory-organ-development-and-function
#8
Simon Weinberger, Matthew P Topping, Jiekun Yan, Annelies Claeys, Natalie De Geest, Duru Ozbay, Talah Hassan, Xiaoli He, Joerg T Albert, Bassem A Hassan, Ariane Ramaekers
'Toolkit' genes are highly conserved developmental regulators. While changes in their regulatory elements contribute to morphological evolution, the role of coding sequence (CDS) evolution remains unresolved. We used CDS-specific knock-ins of the proneural transcription factor Atonal homologs (ATHs) to address this question. Drosophila Atonal CDS was endogenously replaced with that of distant ATHs at key phylogenetic positions, non-ATH proneural genes, and the closest CDS to ancestral proneural genes. ATHs and the ancestral-like gene rescued sensory organ fate in atonal mutants, in contrast to non-ATHs...
April 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406147/transcriptome-analyses-of-differential-gene-expression-in-the-bursa-of-fabricius-between-silky-fowl-and-white-leghorn
#9
Deping Han, Yuanyuan Zhang, Jianfei Chen, Guoying Hua, Junying Li, Xuegong Deng, Xuemei Deng
Hyperpigmentation in Silky Fowl (SF) results in aberrant immune cell development. However, how melanocytes regulate B-cell proliferation in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) is unclear. To resolve this conundrum, we collected BFs from three-week-old SF and White Leghorn (WL) female chickens for RNA sequencing. The BF development was relatively weaker in SF than in WL. The transcriptome analyses identified 4848 differentially expressed genes, 326 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and 67 microRNAs in the BF of SF. The genes associated with melanogenesis was significantly higher, but that of the genes associated with the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and JAK-STAT signalling pathway was significantly lower in SF than in WL...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402919/inhibition-of-mir-363-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-hypoxia-induced-apoptosis-through-regulation-of-notch-signaling
#10
Xiaoxue Meng, Yuqiang Ji, Zhaofei Wan, Bo Zhao, Chuanjie Feng, Jiang Zhao, Hua Li, Yanbin Song
Cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes to the pathological process of ischemic heart diseases, such as myocardial infarction. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the pathological process of myocardial infarction by regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Previous studies have reported that miR-363 is an apoptosis-related miRNA. However, whether miR-363 is involved in regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of miR-363 in the regulation of hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
April 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402575/impaired-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-the-conducting-airway-epithelium-associated-with-bronchiolitis-obliterans-after-sulfur-mustard-inhalation-injury-in-rats
#11
Matthew D McGraw, Jaqueline S Rioux, Rhonda B Garlick, Raymond C Rancourt, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
RationaleSulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that causes chronic airway remodeling. The current study's objective was to assess for changes to the bronchiolar epithelium after SM exposure to explain its contribution to chronic airway remodeling.Materials and MethodsAdult male rats were exposed to a sub-lethal dose of SM inhalation (1.0 - 1.2 mg/kg) for 50 minutes. Histological sections of the bronchiolar epithelium were analyzed for changes using H&E, trichrome, and immunofluorescent staining for acetylated tubulin (AT) and club cell secretory protein (CCSP)...
April 11, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400333/umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-are-able-to-undergo-differentiation-into-functional-islet-like-cells-in-type-2-diabetic-tree-shrews
#12
Xing-Hua Pan, Xia Huang, Guang-Ping Ruan, Rong-Qing Pang, Qiang Chen, Jin-Xiang Wang, Jie He, Jing Zhao, Xue-Min Cai, Na Zhao, Yi Chen, Xiang-Qing Zhu
Islet transplantation is arguably one of the most promising strategies to treat patients suffering with diabetes mellitus. However, a combination of a lack of donors and chronic immune rejection limit clinical applications. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of cell therapy using islet-like cells differentiated from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) of tree shrews for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) labeled UC-MSCs were directly injected into type 2 diabetic tree shrews, where UC-MSC differentiated into functional islet-like cells and alleviated disease severity, as evidenced by improved biochemical features and reduced concentrations of inflammatory cytokines...
April 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400270/differential-expression-profile-of-mirnas-in-porcine-muscle-and-adipose-tissue-during-development
#13
Qi Wang, Renli Qi, Jing Wang, Wenming Huang, Yongjiang Wu, Huang Xiaofeng, Feiyun Yang, Jinxiu Huang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that play a crucial regulatory role in many biological processes. Previous studies have reported miRNAs that are associated with the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of myocytes and adipocytes in pigs. However, differences in the miRNA expression profiles between muscle and adipose tissues during porcine development are unknown. Muscle and adipose tissues are the two major organs that are crucial for dynamic energy balance in the development and metabolism...
April 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400072/notch-signaling-pathway-promotes-the-development-of-ovine-ovarian-follicular-granulosa-cells
#14
Jiongjie Jing, Xiaolong Jiang, Jianwei Chen, Xiaolei Yao, Miaomiao Zhao, Pengfei Li, Yangyang Pan, Youshe Ren, Wenzhong Liu, Lihua Lyu
The Notch signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis involved in development of the organs and tissues such as nervous system, cartilage, lungs, kidneys and prostate as well as the ovarian follicles. This study aimed to investigate the mRNA expression and localization of NOTCH2, as the key factor in Notch signaling pathway. This was determined by PCR, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, the effects of inhibiting Notch signaling pathway with different concentrations (5μM, 10μM and 20μM) of N-[N-(3, 5-Difuorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), an inhibitor of Notch signaling pathway, on ovine granulosa cells was determined in vitro by detecting estradiol production using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and expressions of the genes related to the cell cycle and apoptosis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
March 28, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395734/o-glcnac-on-notch1-egf-repeats-regulates-ligand-induced-notch-signaling-and-vascular-development-in-mammals
#15
Shogo Sawaguchi, Shweta Varshney, Mitsutaka Ogawa, Yuta Sakaidani, Hirokazu Yagi, Kyosuke Takeshita, Toyoaki Murohara, Koichi Kato, Subha Sundaram, Pamela Stanley, Tetsuya Okajima
The glycosyltransferase EOGT transfers O-GlcNAc to a consensus site in epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats of a limited number of secreted and membrane proteins, including Notch receptors. In EOGT-deficient cells, the binding of DLL1 and DLL4, but not JAG1, canonical Notch ligands was reduced, and ligand-induced Notch signaling was impaired. Mutagenesis of O-GlcNAc sites on NOTCH1 also resulted in decreased binding of DLL4. EOGT functions were investigated in retinal angiogenesis that depends on Notch signaling...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394894/tissue-specific-enhancer-repression-through-molecular-integration-of-cell-signaling-inputs
#16
Luis Humberto Mojica-Vázquez, Mikhail H Benetah, Aissette Baanannou, Sandra Bernat-Fabre, Bart Deplancke, David L Cribbs, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Muriel Boube
Drosophila leg morphogenesis occurs under the control of a relatively well-known genetic cascade, which mobilizes both cell signaling pathways and tissue-specific transcription factors. However, their cross-regulatory interactions, deployed to refine leg patterning, remain poorly characterized at the gene expression level. Within the genetically interacting landscape that governs limb development, the bric-à-brac2 (bab2) gene is required for distal leg segmentation. We have previously shown that the Distal-less (Dll) homeodomain and Rotund (Rn) zinc-finger activating transcription factors control limb-specific bab2 expression by binding directly a single critical leg/antennal enhancer (LAE) within the bric-à-brac locus...
April 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394891/xylosylation-of-the-notch-receptor-preserves-the-balance-between-its-activation-by-trans-delta-and-inhibition-by-cis-ligands-in-drosophila
#17
Tom V Lee, Ashutosh Pandey, Hamed Jafar-Nejad
The Drosophila glucoside xylosyltransferase Shams xylosylates Notch and inhibits Notch signaling in specific contexts including wing vein development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying context-specificity of the shams phenotype is not known. Considering the role of Delta-Notch signaling in wing vein formation, we hypothesized that Shams might affect Delta-mediated Notch signaling in Drosophila. Using genetic interaction studies, we find that altering the gene dosage of Delta affects the wing vein and head bristle phenotypes caused by loss of Shams or by mutations in the Notch xylosylation sites...
April 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393194/metallothionein-1g-promotes-the-differentiation-of-ht-29-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#18
Juan Martín Arriaga, Alicia Inés Bravo, José Mordoh, Michele Bianchini
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins involved in zinc and redox metabolism, that are epigenetically downregulated during colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, but may be re-induced with a variety of agents. Since loss of MT expression is associated with a worse prognosis, in the present study we investigated the effects of overexpression of the most significantly downregulated isoform in CRC, namely MT1G, on the HT-29 cell line. Overexpression of MT1G resulted in xenograft tumors with an aberrant morphology, characterized by an evident increase in mucin-containing cells that were identified as goblet cells under electron microscopy...
May 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391634/chi3l1-regulation-of-inflammation-and-the-effects-on-osteogenesis-in-a-staphylococcus-aureus-induced-murine-model-of-osteomyelitis
#19
Xueqiu Chen, Jian Jiao, XiaoQing He, JianPing Zhang, Hai Wang, YongQing Xu, Tao Jin
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of the bone and bone marrow that occurs as a consequence of infections mainly attributed to Staphylococcus aureus. In a previous study, we found that expression of the chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) gene affected mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells infected with S. aureus and there was increased expression of CHI3L1 in the blood of osteomyelitis patients. In the present study, to further investigate the role of CHI3L1 in osteomyelitis, we developed an S. aureus-induced murine model of the disease...
April 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385530/identification-of-actg2-functions-as-a-promoter-gene-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-migration-and-tumor-metastasis
#20
Yu Wu, Zhao Guo Liu, Ai Hua Yang, Xing Sheng Fu, Xiao Yan Jiang, Shui Ying Yang, Shui Jie Shen, Wei Dong Li
Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a mostly incurable disease. The fact that the identity of the mechanisms that regulate metastasis in HCC is known hampers the development of anti-metastatic therapies. Currently, there is no effective treatment for HCC once it is progressed to metastatic stage. Therefore, further study to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the metastasis of HCC is urgently required for the improvement of HCC treatment. Here, we describes actin gamma smooth muscle 2 (ACTG2) over-express in HCC and demonstrates high-expression of ACTG2 as a promising therapeutic target in HCC metastasis...
April 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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