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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924154/early-diagnosis-of-brain-metastases-using-a-biofluids-metabolomics-approach-in-mice
#1
James R Larkin, Alex M Dickens, Timothy D W Claridge, Claire Bristow, Kleopatra Andreou, Daniel C Anthony, Nicola R Sibson
Over 20% of cancer patients will develop brain metastases. Prognosis is currently extremely poor, largely owing to late-stage diagnosis. We hypothesized that biofluid metabolomics could detect tumours at the micrometastatic stage, prior to the current clinical gold-standard of blood-brain barrier breakdown. Metastatic mammary carcinoma cells (4T1-GFP) were injected into BALB/c mice via intracerebral, intracardiac or intravenous routes to induce differing cerebral and systemic tumour burdens. B16F10 melanoma and MDA231BR-GFP human breast carcinoma cells were used for additional modelling...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904443/prognosis-estimation-under-the-light-of-metabolic-tumor-parameters-on-initial-fdg-pet-ct-in-patients-with-primary-extranodal-lymphoma
#2
Kursat Okuyucu, Sukru Ozaydın, Engin Alagoz, Gokhan Ozgur, Semra Ince, Fahrettin Guven Oysul, Ozlem Ozmen, Murat Tuncel, Mustafa Ozturk, Nuri Arslan
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas arising from the tissues other than primary lymphatic organs are named primary extranodal lymphoma. Most of the studies evaluated metabolic tumor parameters in different organs and histopathologic variants of this disease generally for treatment response. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic tumor parameters derived from initial FDG-PET/CT in patients with a medley of primary extranodal lymphoma in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: There were 67 patients with primary extranodal lymphoma for whom FDG-PET/CT was requested for primary staging...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899382/a-metastatic-mouse-model-identifies-genes-that-regulate-neuroblastoma-metastasis
#3
Bo Kyung Alex Seong, Kelly E Fathers, Robin M Hallett, Christina K Yung, Lincoln D Stein, Samar Mouaaz, Lynn Kee, Cynthia Hawkins, Meredith S Irwin, David R Kaplan
Metastatic relapse is the major cause of death in pediatric neuroblastoma (NB), where there remains a lack of therapies to target this stage of disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms mediating NB metastasis, we developed a mouse model using intracardiac injection and in vivo selection to isolate malignant cell subpopulations with a higher propensity for metastasis to bone and the central nervous system. Gene expression profiling revealed primary and metastatic cells as two distinct cell populations defined by differential expression 412 genes and multiple pathways, including CADM1, SPHK1 and YAP/TAZ whose expression independently predicted survival...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896893/an-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-like-illness-in-the-elderly-neuroimaging-and-neuropathology-findings
#4
Ulrike W Kaunzner, Elliott Salamon, Elena Pentsova, Marc Rosenblum, Sasan Karimi, Nancy Nealon, Ehud Lavi, Dara G Jamieson
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that classically occurs in children and adolescents. It characteristically presents with acute inflammation, resulting in demyelination, often following an infectious disease. ADEM has been described in adult patients, but the incidence in the adult and especially elderly population is low. CASES: We describe five older adults (age 57 to 85) who presented with acute neurological symptoms...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894403/conditioned-medium-from-neural-stem-cells-inhibits-glioma-cell-growth
#5
Z Li, Q Zhong, H Liu, P Liu, J Wu, D Ma, X Chen, X Yang
Malignant glioma is one of the most common brain tumors in the central nervous system. Although the significant progress has been made in recent years, the mortality is still high and 5-year survival rate is still very low. One of the leading causes to the high mortality for glioma patients is metastasis and invasion. An efficient method to control the tumor metastasis is a promising way to treat the glioma. Previous reports indicated that neural stem cells (NSCs) were served as a delivery vector to the anti-glioma therapy...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867931/seeding-of-meningeal-sarcoma-along-a-surgical-trajectory-on-the-scalp
#6
Lho Hyoung Woo, Yoon Wan Soo, Chung Dong Sup
Primary sarcomas of the central nervous system are rare. These tumors is rapid growth often produces mass effect on the brain. Diagnosis is rendered pathologically after resection. Surgical resection is the mainstay treatment and need the adjuvant therapy. We report a 44-year-old female with a meningeal sarcoma of frontal meninges. She complained headache for 2 months and palpable forehead mass for 3 weeks. Brain MRI demonstrated a soft tissue mass sized as 5.3×3.7×3.1 cm with well-defined osteolysis on the midline of the frontal bone...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857930/neural-axis-metastasis-from-metachronous-pulmonary-basaloid-carcinoma-developed-after-chemotherapy-radiation-therapy-of-uterine-cervical-carcinoma
#7
Myeong Jin Oh, Je Hoon Jeong, Soo Bin Im, Jeong Ja Kwak, Kye-Hyun Nam
Multiple primary or secondary malignancies after anticancer therapy were recently reported to be increasing in frequency. The authors describe a case of metachronous metastatic pulmonary basaloid carcinoma to the central nervous system that was discovered after chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cervical uterine carcinoma. Two different types of cancer developed within some interval. There's the possibility that a secondary pulmonary neoplasm developed after the chemotherapy and radiotherapy conducted as cervical cancer treatment...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837318/astrocytes-in-migration
#8
Jiang Shan Zhan, Kai Gao, Rui Chao Chai, Xi Hua Jia, Dao Peng Luo, Guo Ge, Yu Wu Jiang, Yin-Wan Wendy Fung, Lina Li, Albert Cheung Hoi Yu
Cell migration is a fundamental phenomenon that underlies tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, immune response, and cancer metastasis. Great progresses have been made in research methodologies, with cell migration identified as a highly orchestrated process. Brain is considered the most complex organ in the human body, containing many types of neural cells with astrocytes playing crucial roles in monitoring normal functions of the central nervous system. Astrocytes are mostly quiescent under normal physiological conditions in the adult brain but become migratory after injury...
November 11, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832352/pattern-of-metastatic-spread-and-subcategories-of-breast-cancer
#9
Catharina Bartmann, Manfred Wischnewsky, Tanja Stüber, Roland Stein, Mathias Krockenberger, Sebastian Häusler, Wolfgang Janni, Rolf Kreienberg, Maria Blettner, Lukas Schwentner, Achim Wöckel, Joachim Diessner
PURPOSE: The development of metastases is the most aggressive attribute of breast cancer. In this retrospective multicenter study, we evaluated if and how the different pathological breast cancer subtypes influence the spreading of tumor cells, the development of metastasis and the survival of breast cancer patients. METHODS: This retrospective German multicenter study is based on the BRENDA collective including 9625 breast cancer patients treated in the adjuvant setting...
November 10, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825128/activation-of-the-basal-cell-carcinoma-pathway-in-a-patient-with-cns-hgnet-bcor-diagnosis-consequences-for-personalized-targeted-therapy
#10
Claudia Paret, Johanna Theruvath, Alexandra Russo, Bettina Kron, Khalifa El Malki, Nadine Lehmann, Arthur Wingerter, Marie A Neu, Aslihan Gerhold-Ay, Wolfgang Wagner, Clemens Sommer, Torsten Pietsch, Larissa Seidmann, Jörg Faber
High grade neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system with BCOR alteration (CNS HGNET-BCOR) is a recently described new tumor entity with a dismal prognosis. The objective of this study was to identify and validate pathways deregulated in CNS HGNET-BCOR as basis for targeted therapy approaches.We characterized the BCOR alteration in a pediatric patient with CNS HGNET-BCOR diagnosis by Sanger sequencing and demonstrated an elevated BCOR expression by qRT-PCR and western blot. By whole transcriptome sequencing and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we identified the activation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and of the WNT signaling pathway in two different regions of the primary tumor and of one inoculation metastasis compared to normal brain...
November 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822695/the-treatment-of-melanoma-brain-metastases
#11
REVIEW
Nour Kibbi, Harriet Kluger
Melanoma is the malignancy with the highest rate of dissemination to the central nervous system once it metastasizes. Until recently, the prognosis of patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBM) was poor. In recent years, however, the prognosis has improved due to high-resolution imaging that facilitates early detection of small asymptomatic brain metastases and early intervention with local modalities such as stereotactic radiosurgery. More recently, a number of systemic therapies have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for metastatic melanoma, resulting in improved survival for many MBM patients...
December 2016: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822415/downregulation-of-semaphorin-3f-is-associated-with-poor-prognostic-significance-in-osteosarcoma-patients
#12
Ming-Han Liu, Wen-Juan Fu, You-Hong Cui, Qiao-Nan Guo, Yue Zhou
The secreted axonal guidance molecular, Semaphorin-3F (SEMA3F), is widely expressed outside the central nervous system and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. However, the role of SEMA3F expression in the osteosarcoma prognosis has not been elaborated. This study aimed to evaluate SEMA3F expression level in osteosarcoma and assess its prognostic value for patients. SEMA3F protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 112 cases of osteosarcoma. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of SEMA3F...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815391/quantitative-fluorescent-microscopy-to-measure-vascular-pore-sizes-in-primary-and-metastatic-brain-tumors
#13
Rajendar K Mittapalli, Chris E Adkins, Kaci A Bohn, Afroz S Mohammad, Julie A Lockman, Paul R Lockman
Tumors residing in the central nervous system (CNS) compromise the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via increased vascular permeability, with the magnitude of changes dependent on tumor type and location. Current studies determine penetrability of a cancer therapeutic by administering progressively larger molecules until cutoff is observed where little to no tumor accumulation occurs. However, decades-old experimental work and mathematical modeling document methods to calculate both the size of the vascular opening (pore) with solute permeability values...
November 4, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804873/recent-development-in-the-discovery-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-alk-inhibitors-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Jingru Liu, Shutao Ma
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is an especially aggressive cancer, the optimal drugs for which are still being developed. The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the insulin receptor superfamily. EML4-ALK fusion gene initially identified in patients with NSCLC in 2007 is defined as a new molecular subset, which is highly sensitive to ALK inhibition. Since the first ALK inhibitor, crizotinib, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of NSCLC patients in 2011, ALK has been identified as a promising target for NSCLC therapy...
October 29, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800245/chemotherapy-in-retinoblastoma-current-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Özge Yanık, Kaan Gündüz, Kıvılcım Yavuz, Nurdan Taçyıldız, Emel Ünal
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common childhood malignant intraocular tumor. Although enucleation and external beam radiotherapy have been historically used, today the most commonly used eye-sparing approach is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can be used in both intraocular and extraocular RB cases. Chemotherapeutic agents may be applied in different ways, including systemic, subconjunctival, intra-arterial and intravitreal routes. The main purposes of application of systemic therapy are to reduce the tumor size for local treatment (chemoreduction), or to reduce the risk of metastasis after enucleation surgery (adjuvant therapy)...
December 2015: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799979/meningeal-hemangiopericytoma-in-33-year-old-female-a-case-report
#16
Alireza Abdollahi, Reyhaneh Abdollahpouri, Seyed-Mohammad Tavangar
Intracranial hemangiopericytomas (HPC) are rare vascular tumors. They account for 0.4% of primary central nervous system tumors. HPC is more commonly located supratentorially and tends to occur in a younger age group, with average age at presentation of 38-42 years. The tumor was found throughout the entire CNS, usually superficially and closely related to the meninges. Moreover, they have a strong tendency for local recurrence and extracranial metastasis. Given the clinical, pathological and imaging similarities between Hemangiopericytoma and angioblastic/anaplastic meningioma and the necessity of differentiating these two (choosing the proper treatment and prognosis), we present a report of meningeal Hemangiopericytoma tumor in a 33-year-old female...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790297/disease-characteristics-and-survival-outcomes-of-extragonadal-primary-germ-cell-tumour-in-two-canadian-tertiary-cancer-centres
#17
Jenny J Ko, Tehmina Asif, Haocheng Li, Nimira Alimohamed, Phuong Thao Nguyen, Daniel Y C Heng
INTRODUCTION: Extragonadal germ cell tumours (EGCTs) are a heterogeneous group with distinct natural history and responses to treatment modalities. We sought to evaluate characteristics and survival outcomes in men with EGCTs. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis on a consecutive list of men diagnosed with EGCT in two Albertan cancer centres between 1990 and 2013. Demographic characteristics and outcomes, stratified by primary site, were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty-nine cases were identified...
May 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773784/treatment-of-brain-metastases-in-the-modern-genomic-era
#18
Ibiayi Dagogo-Jack, Corey M Gill, Daniel P Cahill, Sandro Santagata, Priscilla K Brastianos
Development of brain metastasis (BM) portends a dismal prognosis for patients with cancer. Melanomas and carcinomas of the lung, breast, and kidney are the most common malignancies to metastasize to the brain. Recent advances in molecular genetics have enabled the identification of actionable, clinically relevant genetic alterations within primary tumors and their corresponding metastases. Adoption of genotype-guided treatment strategies in the management of systemic malignancy has resulted in dramatic and durable responses...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757720/evaluation-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-type-iv-collagenases-in-serum-of-patients-with-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Serena Ricci, Elia Guadagno, Dario Bruzzese, Marialaura Del Basso De Caro, Carmela Peca, Francesco G Sgulò, Francesco Maiuri, Angelina Di Carlo
The basement membrane collagen IV-degrading matrix metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) are most often linked to the malignant phenotype of tumor cells by playing a critical role in invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and vasculogenesis. We verified the activity of these two MMPs in the sera of patients affected by brain tumors (20 gliomas, 28 meningiomas and 20 metastasis) by zymography. The sera of 25 healthy volunteers with no concomitant illnesses were used for controls. Zymography showed four dominant gelatinolytic bands of 240, 130, 92 (MMP-9) and 72 (MMP-2) kDa...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719746/brain-metastasis-from-gastrointestinal-clear-cell-sarcoma
#20
Sahejmeet S Guraya, Richard A Prayson
Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of the gastrointestinal tract presents a diagnostic challenge to the pathologist due to its morphological and immunohistochemical similarity to melanoma. It usually metastasizes to regional lymph nodes, liver, and lungs. Herein, we report the first known metastasis of a gastrointestinal CCS to the central nervous system. Cytogenetic testing showed the t(12,22) translocation corresponding to the presence of the EWS/ATF1 hybrid consistent with CCS. The literature that compares melanoma to CCS is reviewed in the context of this rare presentation to differentiate between the two diseases...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
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