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disorders of sexual differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325146/hypersexuality-as-a-neuropsychiatric-disorder-the-neurobiology-and-treatment-options
#1
Hatta Sidi, Muna Asiff, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Cesar Alfonso
Hypersexuality refers to abnormally increased or extreme involvement in any sexual activity. It is clinically challenging, presents trans-diagnostically and there is extensive medical literature addressing nosology, pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric aspects. Classification includes deviant behaviours, diagnosable entities related to impulsivity, and obsessional phenomena. Some clinicians view an increase in sexual desire as 'normal' while psychodynamic theorists consider it ego-defensive at times alleviating unconscious anxiety rooted in intrapsychic conflicts...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319024/the-prostatic-utricle-an-under-recognized-condition-resulting-in-significant-morbidity-in-boys-with-both-hypospadias-and-normal-external-genitalia
#2
Austin G Hester, Stanley J Kogan
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric presentations of a prostatic utricle have received only scant attention. Though recognized with increased frequency in boys with hypospadias, little is described about their incidence and potential for morbidity in boys with normal external genitalia. METHODS: We initially reviewed a cohort of 64 patients with hypospadias seen over a 3-year period to determine the frequency of investigative lower urinary tract studies and utricle identification...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301762/sex-differences-in-binge-eating-gonadal-hormone-effects-across-development
#3
Kelly L Klump, Kristen M Culbert, Cheryl L Sisk
Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating...
March 16, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299405/validation-of-the-international-consultation-on-incontinence-questionnaire-vaginal-symptoms-iciq-vs-in-two-south-asian-languages
#4
Chanil D Ekanayake, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, Rasika P Herath, H Suharshi S Perera, Malitha Patabendige, Prasantha S Wijesinghe
INTRODUCTION: The multifaceted nature of pelvic floor disorders means that a systematic evaluation is required for optimal treatment outcome. It is also generally acknowledged that a valid tool is necessary to objectively assess symptoms reported by affected women. METHODS: The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Vaginal Symptoms (ICIQ-VS) questionnaire was translated to Sinhala and Tamil and a validation study carried out among women attending gynecology clinics at North Colombo Teaching Hospital, Ragama, and the district general hospitals Mannar and Vavuniya...
March 16, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291299/-neurosyphilis-in-psychiatric-settings-three-case-reports
#5
Erhan Akıncı, Fatih Öncü, Barış Topçular
Syphilis is a generally sexually transmitted and multisystem disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. All of the organs of the body may be involved during the course of the disease. Neurosyphilis is a clinical form of syphilis with the central nervous system (CNS) involvement. While primarily meningeal and vascular structures are involved in early neurosyphilis, a parenchymal affection of the brain and spinal cord emerges at later stages of neurosyphilis. It presents with symptoms of meningitis, meningovasculitis and parenchymal neurosyphilis (presenting as tabes dorsalis and general paresis)...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273860/microglial-function-across-the-spectrum-of-age-and-gender
#6
REVIEW
Jillian C Nissen
Microglia constitute the resident immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system. Although much work has focused on their ability to mount an inflammatory response in reaction to pathology, recent studies have delved into their role in maintaining homeostasis in the healthy brain. It is important to note that the function of these cells is more complex than originally conceived, as there is increasing evidence that microglial responses can vary greatly among individuals. Here, this review will describe the changing behavior of microglia from development and birth through to the aged brain...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207417/adrenarche-unmasks-compound-heterozygous-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-deficiency-c-244g-a-p-ala82thr-and-the-novel-931c-t-p-gln311-variant-in-a-non-salt-wasting-severely-undervirilised-46xy
#7
Stephanie Louise Teasdale, Adam Morton
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II deficiency (3βHSD2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of ambiguous genitalia, resulting in abnormal virilisation in both 46XY and 46XX. We describe a case of 46XY ambiguous genitalia that was misdiagnosed as androgen insensitivity syndrome. The correct diagnosis was made after adrenarche. Genotyping demonstrated compound heterozygosity in two alleles, the previously described c.244G>A (p.Ala82Thr), and a novel 931C>T(p.Gln311*) variant. We suggest that adrenarche unmasked the condition by driving cortisol production to rates that caused the mutant 3bHSD2 enzyme to become rate limiting for cortisol production...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202904/genome-wide-dna-de-methylation-is-associated-with-noninfectious-bud-failure-exhibition-in-almond-prunus-dulcis-mill-d-a-webb
#8
Jonathan Fresnedo-Ramírez, Helen M Chan, Dan E Parfitt, Carlos H Crisosto, Thomas M Gradziel
Noninfectious bud-failure (BF) remains a major threat to almond production in California, particularly with the recent rapid expansion of acreage and as more intensive cultural practices and modern cultivars are adopted. BF has been shown to be inherited in both vegetative and sexual progeny, with exhibition related to the age and propagation history of scion clonal sources. These characteristics suggest an epigenetic influence, such as the loss of juvenility mediated by DNA-(de)methylation. Various degrees of BF have been reported among cultivars as well as within sources of clonal propagation of the same cultivar...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194504/variation-in-post-traumatic-response-the-role-of-trauma-type-in-predicting-icd-11-ptsd-and-cptsd-symptoms
#9
Philip Hyland, Jamie Murphy, Mark Shevlin, Frédérique Vallières, Eoin McElroy, Ask Elklit, Mogens Christoffersen, Marylène Cloitre
PURPOSE: The World Health Organization's 11th revision to the International Classification of Diseases manual (ICD-11) will differentiate between two stress-related disorders: PTSD and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). ICD-11 proposals suggest that trauma exposure which is prolonged and/or repeated, or consists of multiple forms, that also occurs under circumstances where escape from the trauma is difficult or impossible (e.g., childhood abuse) will confer greater risk for CPTSD as compared to PTSD...
February 14, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184278/possible-sexually-dimorphic-role-of-mirna-and-other-sncrna-in-asd-brain
#10
Cynthia M Schumann, Frank R Sharp, Bradley P Ander, Boryana Stamova
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is sexually dimorphic in brain structure, genetics, and behaviors. In studies of brain tissue, the age of the population is clearly a factor in interpreting study outcome, yet sex is rarely considered. To begin to address this issue, we extend our previously published microarray analyses to examine expression of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), in ASD and in the control temporal cortex in males and females. Predicted miRNA targets were identified as well as the pathways they overpopulate...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179814/prenatal-stress-immune-programming-of-sex-differences-in-comorbidity-of-depression-and-obesity-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Jill M Goldstein, Laura Holsen, Grace Huang, Bradley D Hammond, Tamarra James-Todd, Sara Cherkerzian, Taben M Hale, Robert J Handa
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is comorbid with many chronic diseases, including obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS). Women have twice as much risk for MDD and comorbidity with obesity/MetS as men, although pathways for understanding this association remain unclear. On the basis of clinical and preclinical studies, we argue that prenatal maternal stress (ie, excess glucocorticoid expression and associated immune responses) that occurs during the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain has sex-dependent effects on brain development within highly sexually dimorphic regions that regulate mood, stress, metabolic function, the autonomic nervous system, and the vasculature...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179808/sex-differences-in-the-developing-brain-as-a-source-of-inherent-risk
#12
Margaret M McCarthy
Brain development diverges in males and females in response to androgen production by the fetal testis. This sexual differentiation of the brain occurs during a sensitive window and induces enduring neuroanatomical and physiological changes that profoundly impact behavior. What we know about the contribution of sex chromosomes is still emerging, highlighting the need to integrate multiple factors into understanding sex differences, including the importance of context. The cellular mechanisms are best modeled in rodents and have provided both unifying principles and surprising specifics...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152641/a-review-of-paediatric-and-adolescent-gynaecology-services-in-a-tertiary-outpatient-clinic
#13
Mugdha Kulkarni, Julie Glanville, Sally Phillot, Adam Balen
Adolescence is a distinctive stage in human development during which many simple and complex medical conditions can present for the first time. Paediatric and adolescent gynaecological conditions need careful multidisciplinary clinical management with a sensitive approach understanding the patients' psychological and physiological circumstances. The objective of this study is to review the tertiary paediatric and adolescent gynaecology service in Leeds, United Kingdom and to present an overview of the various conditions that present to such a clinic...
February 2, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149308/normative-penile-anthropometry-in-term-newborns-in-kumasi-ghana-a-cross-sectional-prospective-study
#14
Serwah Bonsu Asafo-Agyei, Emmanuel Ameyaw, Jean-Pierre Chanoine, Samuel Blay Nguah
BACKGROUND: Genital measurements are a useful adjunct in the early detection of various endocrine conditions including hypopituitarism and disorders of sexual differentiation. Standards for genital sizes have been published but racial/ethnic differences exist. This study was done to establish norms for genital sizes in term Ghanaian male newborns. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of all apparently well full-term newborns of postnatal age < 48 h and birth weight between 2...
2017: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120258/psychopathology-subgroups-and-hiv-risk-among-women-in-psychiatric-treatment
#15
Robert C McMahon, John M Abbamonte, Jessy G Dévieux
Among individuals with mental illness, the HIV infection rate is generally found to be substantially higher than in the general population. Understanding dimensions or subtypes of psychopathology linked with HIV risk behavior may enable development of targeted interventions to reduce HIV transmission. This study identified subgroups of women (n = 243) receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment based upon cluster analysis of indices of personality disorder and clinical symptom syndromes. High, medium, and low psychiatric severity cluster subgroups were found to differ significantly on key HIV risk variables...
January 24, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095340/body-image-in-patients-with-mental-disorders-characteristics-associations-with-diagnosis-and-treatment-outcome
#16
Mia Scheffers, Jooske T van Busschbach, Ruud J Bosscher, Liza C Aerts, Durk Wiersma, Robert A Schoevers
OBJECTIVE: Despite the increasing recognition in clinical practice of body image problems in other than appearance related mental disorders, the question remains how aspects of body image are affected in different disorders. The aim of this study was to measure body image in patients with a variety of mental disorders and to compare scores with those in the general population in order to obtain more insight in the relative disturbance of body image in the patients group compared to healthy controls...
January 10, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087634/genome-wide-identification-of-regulatory-elements-in-sertoli-cells
#17
Danielle M Maatouk, Anirudh Natarajan, Yoichiro Shibata, Lingyun Song, Gregory E Crawford, Uwe Ohler, Blanche Capel
A current goal of molecular biology is to identify transcriptional networks that regulate cell differentiation. However, identifying functional gene regulatory elements has been challenging in the context of developing tissues where material is limited and cell types are mixed. To identify regulatory sites during sex determination, we subjected Sertoli cells from mouse fetal testes to DNaseI-seq and ChIP-seq for H3K27ac. DNaseI-seq identified putative regulatory sites around genes enriched in Sertoli and pregranulosa cells; however, active enhancers marked by H3K27ac were enriched proximal to only Sertoli-enriched genes...
February 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#18
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041853/stem-cells-in-male-sexual-dysfunction-are-we-getting-somewhere
#19
REVIEW
Mohammad Ayodhia Soebadi, Uros Milenkovic, Emmanuel Weyne, Fabio Castiglione, Maarten Albersen
INTRODUCTION: Stem cells for sexual disorders are steadily being introduced into clinical trials. Two conditions of importance are the main target for this line of treatment, especially when regarding the wide array of translational and basic science highlighting the potential advantages of regenerative therapy: erectile dysfunction (ED) and more recently Peyronie disease (PD). Cellular therapy offers a treatment modality that might reverse disease progression. It would be used in a curative setting, in contrast to other pharmaceutical agents that are currently available...
December 29, 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033663/review-disorders-of-sex-development-the-evolving-role-of-genomics-in-diagnosis-and-gene-discovery
#20
REVIEW
Brittany Croft, Katie Ayers, Andrew Sinclair, Thomas Ohnesorg
Disorders of Sex Development (DSDs) are a major paediatric concern and are estimated to occur in around 1.7% of all live births (Fausto-Sterling, Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality, Basic Books, New York, 2000). They are often caused by the breakdown in the complex genetic mechanisms that underlie gonadal development and differentiation. Having a genetic diagnosis can be important for patients with a DSD: it can increase acceptance of a disorder often surrounded by stigma, alter clinical management and it can assist in reproductive planning...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
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