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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131362/sex-discordance-identification-following-non-invasive-prenatal-testing
#1
Ebony J Richardson, Fergus P Scott, Andrew C McLennan
OBJECTIVE: To characterize genotype-phenotype discordance identified in the routine clinical setting, and explore the associated diagnostic and counseling challenges. METHOD: Cases were derived from a cohort of pregnant women who attended a multi-site specialist prenatal screening and ultrasound service for non-invasive prenatal testing by cell-free DNA analysis and mid-trimester fetal morphology assessment. RESULTS: Seven cases of genotype-phenotype discordance were identified from a cohort of 12,919 women between June 2013 - March 2017 (incidence 1/1845 pregnancies)...
November 13, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120276/personality-disorder-features-and-paraphilic-interests-among-undergraduates-differential-relations-and-potential-antecedents
#2
Ashley L Watts, Madeline G Nagel, Robert D Latzman, Scott O Lilienfeld
We examined the relations between: (1) narcissism, psychopathy, DSM-5 personality disorder symptom counts; and (2) paraphilic interests among undergraduates (N = 608). Base rates of paraphilic interests were appreciable. The disinhibition and meanness features of psychopathy and the entitlement and exploitativeness features of narcissism were robustly associated with paraphilic interests, particularly sexual sadism, whereas the boldness features of narcissism and psychopathy were essentially unrelated to these interests...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110024/parenting-style-and-mental-disorders-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-us-adolescents
#3
John David Eun, Diana Paksarian, Jian-Ping He, Kathleen Ries Merikangas
PURPOSE: We examined associations between parenting style and past-year mental disorders in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of US adolescents and whether the associations differed by adolescent demographic characteristics. METHODS: The sample included 6483 adolescents aged 13-18 years who were interviewed for a full range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Parenting style was assessed by adolescent-reported maternal and paternal care and control using items from the Parental Bonding Instrument...
November 6, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107990/long-lasting-masculinizing-effects-of-postnatal-androgens-on-myelin-governed-by-the-brain-androgen-receptor
#4
Charly Abi Ghanem, Cindy Degerny, Rashad Hussain, Philippe Liere, Antoine Pianos, Sophie Tourpin, René Habert, Wendy B Macklin, Michael Schumacher, Abdel M Ghoumari
The oligodendrocyte density is greater and myelin sheaths are thicker in the adult male mouse brain when compared with females. Here, we show that these sex differences emerge during the first 10 postnatal days, precisely at a stage when a late wave of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells arises and starts differentiating. Androgen levels, analyzed by gas chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry, were higher in males than in females during this period. Treating male pups with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, or female pups with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), revealed the importance of postnatal androgens in masculinizing myelin and their persistent effect into adulthood...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102835/the-differential-association-between-history-of-childhood-sexual-abuse-and-body-mass-index-in-early-and-late-stages-of-bipolar-disorder
#5
Emilie Leclerc, Rodrigo B Mansur, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Quirino Cordeiro, Flavio Kapczinski, Roger S McIntyre, Elisa Brietzke
BACKGROUND: History of distal stressors such as childhood trauma is a well-established, non-specific vulnerability factor for multiple mental illnesses. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association between history of childhood trauma and body mass index (BMI) in individuals in early and late stages of bipolar disorder (BD) and to verify is there was any difference in the association of sexual abuse history and obesity in early versus late stages of BD. METHODS: Seventy-one euthymic BD-type I patients and eighty-one healthy controls were evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and body mass index (BMI)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091779/towards-a-psychopathology-specific-to-substance-use-disorder-should-emotional-responses-to-life-events-be-included
#6
Angelo G I Maremmani, Marco Maiello, Manuel Glauco Carbone, Alessandro Pallucchini, Francesca Brizzi, Iacopo Belcari, Ciro Conversano, Giulio Perugi, Icro Maremmani
INTRODUCTION: The severity of emotional responses to life events (PTSD spectrum) as part of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Substance Use Disorder (SUD) patients has often been considered from a unitary perspective. Light has also been shed on the possible definition of a specific psychopathology of SUD patients. This psychopathology has been proved to be independent of treatment choice, of being active in using substances, of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and primary substance of abuse (heroin, alcohol, cocaine)...
October 6, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082726/-differential-diagnosis-and-management-of-abnormal-uterine-bleeding-in-adolescence
#7
Tiziano Motta, Antonio S Laganà, Gaetano Valenti, Valentina L LA Rosa, Marco Noventa, Amerigo Vitagliano, Benito Chiofalo, Agnese M Rapisarda, Diego Rossetti, Salvatore G Vitale
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is defined as any atypical genital bleeding originating from the uterine cavity, without the characteristics of normal menstrual period. AUB is an important symptom both for adolescents and their parents, and it usually leads to a state of anxiety. Although about 95% of AUB could be considered as a dysfunctional disorder, AUB requires well-defined diagnostic procedures in order to detect a physical cause, ruling out complex or systemic diseases, including oncological ones. Diagnostic procedures require the acquisition of a full and detailed history, and it is also crucial to obtain as much compliance from the patient as possible...
December 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075426/trauma-and-ptsd-in-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#8
Ronald C Kessler, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Corina Benjet, Evelyn J Bromet, Graça Cardoso, Louisa Degenhardt, Giovanni de Girolamo, Rumyana V Dinolova, Finola Ferry, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Yueqin Huang, Elie G Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Daphna Levinson, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Kate M Scott, Dan J Stein, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Maria Carmen Viana, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Karestan C Koenen
Background: Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset-persistence is thought to vary significantly by trauma type, most epidemiological surveys are incapable of assessing this because they evaluate lifetime PTSD only for traumas nominated by respondents as their 'worst.' Objective: To review research on associations of trauma type with PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of epidemiological surveys that obtained representative data on trauma-specific PTSD. Method: WMH Surveys in 24 countries (n = 68,894) assessed 29 lifetime traumas and evaluated PTSD twice for each respondent: once for the 'worst' lifetime trauma and separately for a randomly-selected trauma with weighting to adjust for individual differences in trauma exposures...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042182/are-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-environmental-risk-factors-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Amer Moosa, Henry Shu, Tewarit Sarachana, Valerie W Hu
Recent research on the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has shifted in part from a singular focus on genetic causes to the involvement of environmental factors and their gene interactions. This shift in focus is a result of the rapidly increasing prevalence of ASD coupled with the incomplete penetrance of this disorder in monozygotic twins. One such area of environmentally focused research is the association of exposures to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with elevated risk for ASD. EDCs are exogenous chemicals that can alter endogenous hormone activity and homeostasis, thus potentially disrupting the action of sex and other natural hormones at all stages of human development...
October 23, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024164/understanding-role-of-steroids-in-typical-and-atypical-brain-development-advantages-of-using-a-brain-in-a-dish-approach
#10
REVIEW
Dwaipayan Adhya, Emily Annuario, Madeline A Lancaster, Jack Price, Simon Baron-Cohen, Deepak P Srivastava
Steroids have an important role in growth, development, sexual differentiation and reproduction. All four classes of steroids, androgens, estrogens, progestogens and glucocorticoids, have varying effects on the brain. Androgens and estrogens are involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain, and also influence cognition. Progestogens such as progesterone and its metabolites have been shown to be involved in neuroprotection, although their protective effects are timing dependent. Glucocorticoids are linked with stress and memory performance, also in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964001/-is-sexual-identity-optional-a-study-of-the-genetics-of-transsexuality
#11
Rosa M Fernández García, Eduardo Pásaro Méndez
Transsexualism in the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision), Gender Dysphoria in adolescents and adults in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition), is characterized by a marked incongruence between one's experienced gender and biological sex. The etiology is complex, but some hypotheses suggest that Gender Dysphoria (GD) arises from discrepant cerebral and biological sexual differentiation. Increasing evidence supports the idea of genetic vulnerability...
September 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958593/opinion-paper-on-the-diagnosis-classification-of-sexual-arousal-concerns-in-women
#12
Stanley E Althof, Cindy M Meston, Michael A Perelman, Ariel B Handy, Chelsea D Kilimnik, Amelia M Stanton
BACKGROUND: In the professional literature and among our professional societies, female sexual dysfunction nomenclature and diagnostic criterion sets have been the source of considerable controversy. Recently, a consensus group, supported by the International Society for Women's Sexual Health, published its recommendations for nosology and nomenclature, which included only one type of arousal dysfunction, female genital arousal disorder, in its classification system. Subjective arousal was considered an aspect of sexual desire and not part of the arousal phase...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953787/neurosyphilis-presenting-with-cognitive-deficits-a-report-of-two-cases
#13
Adam Włodarczyk, Joanna Szarmach, Katarzyna Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Maria Gałuszko-Węgielnik, Mariusz S Wiglusz
BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is an infection of the brain or spinal cord caused by Treponema pallidum. In the third phase of syphilis involving the central nervous system it may manifest in a widespread dysfunctions including psychiatric manifestations being often underestimated in the differential diagnosis. CASE REPORTS: Two patients demonstrating rapid cognitive decline as the primary symptom for neurosyphillis are described with particular focus on the diagnostic process complexity and adequate treatment delivery...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935660/childhood-adversities-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-evidence-for-stress-sensitisation-in-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#14
Katie A McLaughlin, Karestan C Koenen, Evelyn J Bromet, Elie G Karam, Howard Liu, Maria Petukhova, Ayelet Meron Ruscio, Nancy A Sampson, Dan J Stein, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Guilherme Borges, Koen Demyttenaere, Rumyana V Dinolova, Finola Ferry, Silvia Florescu, Giovanni de Girolamo, Oye Gureje, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Marina Piazza, Beth-Ellen Pennell, José Posada-Villa, Margreet Ten Have, Maria Carmen Viana, Ronald C Kessler
BackgroundAlthough childhood adversities are known to predict increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic experiences, it is unclear whether this association varies by childhood adversity or traumatic experience types or by age.AimsTo examine variation in associations of childhood adversities with PTSD according to childhood adversity types, traumatic experience types and life-course stage.MethodEpidemiological data were analysed from the World Mental Health Surveys (n = 27 017)...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923721/evidence-of-sexual-dimorphism-of-htr1b-gene-on-major-adult-adhd-comorbidities
#15
Diana Müller, Eugenio H Grevet, Alana C Panzenhagen, Renata B Cupertino, Bruna S da Silva, Djenifer B Kappel, Nina R Mota, Paula Blaya-Rocha, Stefania P Teche, Eduardo S Vitola, Luis A Rohde, Verônica Contini, Diego L Rovaris, Jaqueline B Schuch, Claiton H D Bau
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a very common psychiatric disorder across the life cycle and frequently presents comorbidities. Since ADHD is highly heritable, several studies have focused in the underlying genetic factors involved in its etiology. One of the major challenges in this search is the phenotypic heterogeneity, which could be partly attributable to the sexual dimorphism frequently seen in psychiatric disorders. Taking into account the well-known sexual dimorphic effect observed in serotonergic system characteristics, we differentially tested the influence of HTR1B SNPs (rs11568817, rs130058, rs6296 and rs13212041) on ADHD susceptibility and on its major comorbidities according to sex...
December 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894175/sexual-congruency-in-the-connectome-and-translatome-of-vta-dopamine-neurons
#16
Amanda S Chung, Samara M Miller, Yanjun Sun, Xiangmin Xu, Larry S Zweifel
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system is important for reward, motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. Dysfunctions in the dopamine system are linked to multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, many of which present with sex differences. Little is known about the extent of heterogeneity in the basic organization of VTA dopamine neurons with regard to sex. Here, we characterized the cell-specific connectivity of VTA dopamine neurons, their mRNA translational profile, and basic electrophysiological characteristics in a common strain of mice...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876167/sexual-orientation-based-discrimination-excessive-alcohol-use-and-substance-use-disorders-among-sexual-minority-adults
#17
Megan E Slater, Dionne Godette, Boji Huang, W June Ruan, Bradley T Kerridge
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between sexual orientation-based discrimination and excessive alcohol use and substance use disorders and to identify how these relationships differ by sexual identity, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and education among sexual minorities. METHODS: We used logistic regression to analyze associations between discrimination and substance use measures among 1351 gay/lesbian, bisexual, or unsure adults from a nationally representative survey...
October 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857174/transcriptional-profiling-reveals-mechanisms-of-sexually-dimorphic-responses-of-populus-cathayana-to-potassium-deficiency
#18
Qingquan Han, Haifeng Song, Yanni Yang, Hao Jiang, Sheng Zhang
Potassium (K) deficiency causes a series of physiological and metabolic disorders in plants, and dioecious species exhibit different responses based on sex. Our previous morphological and physiological observations indicated that Populus cathayana males were more tolerant to K(+) deficiency than females. To continue this work, comparative transcriptome analyses were carried out to investigate sexually differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in this study. The results indicate that 10 weeks of K(+) deficiency result in 111 and 181 DEGs in males and females, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845623/human-sex-development-from-basic-science-to-clinical-practice-and-back
#19
Anna Biason-Lauber
The process of sexual differentiation is central for the reproduction of almost all metazoan, and therefore for the maintenance of multicellular organisms. In sex development, we can distinguish two different processes¸ sex determination, the l decision directing the undifferentiated embryo into a sexually dimorphic individual. In mammals, sex determination equals gonadal development. The second process, sex differentiation, takes place once factors produced by the gonads determine the development of the phenotypic sex...
September 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838011/-bio-psycho-social-characteristics-and-therapeutic-aspects-of-methamphetamine-dependent-women-gender-specific-results-of-a-systematic-literature-search
#20
Stefanie Neumann, Michael Soyka, Andreas G Franke
Subject Compared to other illicit drugs Methamphetamine (MethA) is used more frequently by women than by men. Assuming the biopsychosocial etiology model, the dependency is based on several factors in which women and men differ significantly. Systematic gender-differentiated knowledge is missing until today. Method Based on a database research (PUBMED) the review examines biological, social and psychological as well as therapeutic aspects in MethA-dependent women. Results MethA-induced cognitive disturbance appear to have severer manifestations in women than in men...
August 24, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
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