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disorders of sexual differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682107/eating-disorder-symptoms-in-female-veterans-the-role-of-childhood-adult-and-military-trauma-exposure
#1
Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Brooke A Bartlett, Katherine M Iverson, Karen S Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders are understudied among female U.S. military veterans, who may be at increased risk due to their high rates of trauma exposure and trauma-related sequelae. The current study sought to examine whether different types of trauma in childhood and adulthood confer differential risk for eating disorder symptoms (EDSs) in this population. METHOD: We analyzed survey data from a sample of female Veterans Health Administration patients (N = 186) to examine the association between 5 trauma types (i...
July 6, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669024/substance-use-disorders-violence-mental-health-and-hiv-differentiating-a-syndemic-factor-by-gender-and-sexuality
#2
Kiyomi Tsuyuki, Eileen V Pitpitan, Maria A Levi-Minzi, Lianne A Urada, Steven P Kurtz, Jamila K Stockman, Hilary L Surratt
This paper measures syndemic substance use disorder, violence, and mental health and compares the syndemic among HIV-infected heterosexual men, heterosexual women, and men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were from a sample of high needs substance-using, HIV-infected people in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n = 481). We used confirmatory factor analysis to measure a syndemic latent variable and applied measurement invariance models to identify group differences in the data structure of syndemic co-morbidities among heterosexual men, heterosexual women, and MSM...
July 1, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625786/drug-induces-depression-like-phenotypes-and-alters-gene-expression-profiles-in-drosophila
#3
Ming-Di Jiang, Ya Zheng, Jia-Lin Wang, Yu-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental illness that affects more than 350 million people worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of depression are currently unclear. Studies suggest that Drosophila and humans have similar depression-like symptoms under pressure. In this research, we choose Drosophila melanogaster as the animal model to explore the molecular mechanisms that trigger depression. RESULTS: We found that feeding D. melanogaster with the medium containing Levodopa or Chlorpromazine could induce depression-like phenotypes in both behavioral and biochemical biomarkers, including significantly decreased food intake, mating frequency, serotonin (5-HT) concentration, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as well as reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
June 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620497/painful-ovulation-in-a-46-xx-sry-ve-adult-male-with-sox9-duplication
#4
Nandini Shankara Narayana, Anne-Maree Kean, Lisa Ewans, Thomas Ohnesorg, Katie L Ayers, Geoff Watson, Arthur Vasilaras, Andrew H Sinclair, Stephen M Twigg, David J Handelsman
46,XX disorders of sexual development (DSDs) occur rarely and result from disruptions of the genetic pathways underlying gonadal development and differentiation. We present a case of a young phenotypic male with 46,XX SRY-negative ovotesticular DSD resulting from a duplication upstream of SOX9 presenting with a painful testicular mass resulting from ovulation into an ovotestis. We present a literature review of ovulation in phenotypic men and discuss the role of SRY and SOX9 in testicular development, including the role of SOX9 upstream enhancer region duplication in female-to-male sex reversal...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613046/anti-mullerian-hormone-amh-determinations-in-the-pediatric-and-adolescent-endocrine-practice
#5
Amir Weintraub, Talia Eldar-Geva
Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), secreted by immature testicular Sertoli-cells, triggers the regression of male fetal Mullerian ducts. During puberty, AMH is downregulated by intratesticular testosterone. In females, AMH is secreted from granulosa cells of immature ovarian follicles from late prenatal life until menopause; serum concentration is 5-20 times lower in females than in males through lifetime. In boys, AMH determination is useful in the clinical setting as a marker of Sertoli cell function. Serum AMH is low in infants with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (and increases with FSH treatment), in patients with primary hypogonadism from early postnatal life and in Klinefelter syndrome from midpuberty...
June 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597829/urogenital-infection-as-a-risk-factor-for-male-infertility
#6
Hans-Christian Schuppe, Adrian Pilatz, Hamid Hossain, Thorsten Diemer, Florian Wagenlehner, Wolfgang Weidner
BACKGROUND: Infections of the genital tract are considered common causes of male fertility disorders, with a prevalence of 6-10%. Most of the affected men are asymptomatic. The diagnostic evaluation is based mainly on laboratory testing. Inconsistent diagnostic criteria have been applied to date, and this may explain the controversial debate about the role of infection and inflammation in the genital tract as a cause of infertility. The risk of an irreversible fertility disorder should not be underestimated...
May 12, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580451/a-case-with-late-onset-of-ambiguous-genitalia
#7
Soraya Saleh Gargari, Faezeh Azizi, Nasrin Saleh, Mir Davood Omrani
BACKGROUND: Ambiguous genitalia is an uncommon situation that happens between 1 and 2 per every 1000 live births and falls under the umbrella diagnosis of disorders of sexual development. CASE: In this article, we report a case of male pseudohermaphroditism with ambiguous genitalia. The proband was a 12 yr old girl without any uterus or ovarian tissues. Karyotype of the case is 46, XY. Genes involved in sexual differentiation such as AR, SRD5A2, LH, LHR, FSH, 17 B HSD and SRY genes were sequenced in both directions...
March 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544045/are-there-sensitive-periods-when-child-maltreatment-substantially-elevates-suicide-risk-results-from-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-adolescents
#8
Stephanie H Gomez, Jenny Tse, Yan Wang, Brianna Turner, Alexander J Millner, Matthew K Nock, Erin C Dunn
BACKGROUND: Although child maltreatment is a well documented risk factor for suicidal behavior, little is known about whether the timing of child maltreatment differentially associates with risk of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, or suicide attempts. The goal of this study was to examine whether a first exposure to physical or sexual abuse during specific developmental periods significantly elevated risk for suicidal behavior in adolescents. METHODS: Data came from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, a population-based sample of US adolescents aged 13-18 years old (n = 9,272)...
May 23, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484862/disinhibited-exposing-behavior-hypersexuality-and-erectile-dysfunction-as-a-consequence-of-posttraumatic-stress-in-a-42-year-old-male-patient
#9
Mirja Petri-Kelvasa, Olaf Schulte-Herbrüggen
Research into sexual dysfunction and its explanations within a cognitive behavioral framework in patients with posttraumatic stress is sparse. In this report, we present the case of a 42-year-old male with severe posttraumatic stress symptoms who displayed apparent exhibitionistic behavior, hypersexual behavior in the form of excessive masturbation, and erectile dysfunction. Differential diagnostics showed that the presented exhibitionistic behavior could be more accurately classified as non-paraphilic disinhibited exposing behavior...
May 8, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458903/using-kisspeptin-to-assess-gnrh-function-in-an-unusual-case-of-primary-amenorrhoea
#10
S Vimalesvaran, S Narayanaswamy, L Yang, J K Prague, A Buckley, A D Miras, S Franks, K Meeran, W S Dhillo
SUMMARY: Primary amenorrhoea is defined as the failure to commence menstruation by the age of 15 years, in the presence of normal secondary sexual development. The potential causes of primary amenorrhoea extend from structural to chromosomal abnormalities. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of secondary amenorrhoea but an uncommon cause of primary amenorrhoea. An early and prompt diagnosis of PCOS is important, as up to 30% of these women are predisposed to glucose intolerance and obesity, with the subgroup of women presenting with primary amenorrhoea and PCOS displaying a higher incidence of metabolic dysfunction...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416458/on-the-origins-of-sex-based-differences-in-respiratory-disorders-lessons-and-hypotheses-from-stress-neuroendocrinology-in-developing-rats
#11
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Tara Adele Janes, Stéphanie Fournier, Richard Kinkead
The environment plays a critical role in shaping development and function of the brain. Stress, especially when experienced early in life, can interfere with these processes. In the context of respiratory control, perinatal stress can therefore alter the ability to achieve the "fine-tuning" necessary for proper detection of chemosensory stimuli and production of an adequate motor (respiratory) command. Depending on the timing, intensity, and duration, the detrimental consequences of perinatal exposure to adverse conditions on the respiratory network become manifest at various life stages and can persist into adulthood...
April 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412334/ovotestis-in-adolescence-2-case-reports
#12
Jyoti D Chouhan, David I Chu, Antoinette Birs, Louise C Pyle, Jason P Van Batavia, Rebecca L Linn, Susan J Back, Pierre Russo, Kassa Darge, Thomas F Kolon, Arun K Srinivasan
We present 2 patients found to have ovotesticular disorder of sexual development (otDSD) in late adolescence. Two 15-year-old phenotypically male patients presented to a large pediatric hospital with different complaints: 1 with concern for testicular rupture after a straddle injury; 1 with gynecomastia. Further workup, including imaging and laboratory tests, was performed before surgical exploration. The first patient had unilateral ovotestis, contralateral testis, and SRY-negative 46,XX karyotype. The second patient with gynecomastia had unilateral ovotestis with hemi-uterus and fallopian tube, contralateral ovarian tissue, and 46,XX/47,XXY Klinefelter mosaic karyotype...
July 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401580/military-sexual-trauma-is-associated-with-post-deployment-eating-disorders-among-afghanistan-and-iraq-veterans
#13
Rebecca K Blais, Emily Brignone, Shira Maguen, Marjorie E Carter, Jamison D Fargo, Adi V Gundlapalli
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association of military sexual trauma (MST) screen status with eating disorder diagnoses among veterans within 1- and 5-years after initiating Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care, and whether the association varied by sex. METHOD: Retrospective cohort study of US Afghanistan/Iraq veterans who used VHA services between FY 2004 and 2014 (N = 595,525). This study used VHA administrative data to assess the presence of eating disorder diagnoses in medical records within 1- and 5-years of initiating VHA care, and whether a positive screen for MST was associated with eating disorders...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396969/psychological-and-behavioral-moderators-of-the-relationship-between-trauma-severity-and-hiv-transmission-risk-behavior-among-msm-with-a-history-of-childhood-sexual-abuse
#14
Abigail W Batchelder, Peter P Ehlinger, Michael S Boroughs, Jillian C Shipherd, Steven A Safren, Gail H Ironson, Conall O'Cleirigh
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can be associated with condomless sex among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, the impact of moderating factors on the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and condomless sex is poorly understood. We examined whether PTSD symptom severity was associated with condomless sex among MSM with CSA histories, and whether substance dependence, self-esteem, and distress tolerance moderated that relationship (n = 288)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385526/sex-difference-in-mouse-hypothalamic-transcriptome-profile-in-stress-induced-depression-model
#15
Bhanu Chandra Karisetty, Nitin Khandelwal, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
The influence of sex on prevalence and presentation of human depression necessitates studying its role in depression. Additionally, stress can also affect the incidence and progression of depressive phenotypes. Hypothalamus is a well-reported sexually dimorphic brain region. Hence, we performed a gene-array to uncover the chronic stress-induced transcriptional changes in the hypothalamus of male, intact female (with ovaries) and ovariectomized female mice. Chronic variable mild stress model was used to induce depression-like behavior in mice, assessed by despair behavior in forced swim test...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376282/history-of-sexual-trauma-moderates-psychotherapy-outcome-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#16
John C Markowitz, Yuval Neria, Karina Lovell, Page E Van Meter, Eva Petkova
BACKGROUND: Moderators of differential psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are rare, yet have crucial clinical importance. We tested the moderating effects of trauma type for three psychotherapies in 110 unmedicated patients with chronic DSM-IV PTSD. METHODS: Patients were randomized to 14 weeks of prolonged exposure (PE, N = 38), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT, N = 40), or relaxation therapy (RT, N = 32). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was the primary outcome measure...
April 4, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372939/c-tactile-mediated-erotic-touch-perception-relates-to-sexual-desire-and-performance-in-a-gender-specific-way
#17
Johanna Bendas, Janniko R Georgiadis, Gerhard Ritschel, Håkan Olausson, Kerstin Weidner, Ilona Croy
BACKGROUND: Unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors-the so-called C-tactile (CT) afferents-play a crucial role in the perception and conduction of caressing and pleasant touch sensations and significantly contribute to the concept of erotic touch perception. AIM: To investigate the relations between sexual desire and sexual performance and the perception of touch mediated by CT afferents. METHODS: Seventy healthy participants (28 men, 42 women; mean age ± SD = 24...
May 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366704/sexual-function-and-quality-of-life-in-young-men-with-spina-bifida-could-it-be-neglected-aspects-in-clinical-practice
#18
Eun Kyoung Choi, Yoonhye Ji, Sang Won Han
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sexual function of young men with spina bifida and the impact of the disorder on the quality of life (QOL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess sexual function and QOL by using self-administered questionnaires (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF] and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) for young men with spina bifida. We collected data from 47 young men with spina bifida between June 2013 and October 2013 at the spina bifida clinic of Severance Children's Hospital, Seoul, South Korea RESULTS: Of the 47 men, 13 (27...
March 30, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339706/differential-proliferation-and-metabolic-activity-of-sertoli-cells-in-the-testes-of-broiler-and-layer-breeder-chickens
#19
Mélanie Faure, Edith Guibert, Sabine Crochet, Pascal Chartrin, Jean-Pierre Brillard, Anne Collin, Pascal Froment
Decades of genetic selection have generated 2 different, highly specialized types of chickens in which 1 type, known as the layer-type chicken, expresses high laying performance while the other type, known as the broiler-type chicken, is dedicated to the production of fast-growing birds. Selected lines for the latter type often express disorders in their reproductive performance including early sexual maturation and accelerated, non-reversible seasonal decline of their semen production and mating behavior. The aim of the present study was to characterize some metabolic markers of the Sertoli cell populations...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325146/hypersexuality-as-a-neuropsychiatric-disorder-the-neurobiology-and-treatment-options
#20
Hatta Sidi, Muna Asiff, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Cesar Alfonso
Hypersexuality refers to abnormally increased or extreme involvement in any sexual activity. It is clinically challenging, presents trans-diagnostically and there is extensive medical literature addressing nosology, pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric aspects. Classification includes deviant behaviours, diagnosable entities related to impulsivity, and obsessional phenomena. Some clinicians view an increase in sexual desire as 'normal' while psychodynamic theorists consider it ego-defensive at times alleviating unconscious anxiety rooted in intrapsychic conflicts...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
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