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Extranodal extension

Kai Qian, Lu Di, Kai Guo, Xiaoke Zheng, Qinghai Ji, Zhuoying Wang
PURPOSE: Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive malignancy that is not yet fully understood. We designed the present retrospective study to investigate the factors affecting the prognosis of SDC and the effects of adjuvant therapies on the clinical outcomes of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with SDC treated surgically from 2006 to 2016 were enrolled in the present retrospective cohort study. The demographic data, clinical pathologic characteristics, and follow-up results were recorded...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Chun-I Wang, Chia-Jung Yu, Yenlin Huang, Jui-Shan Yi, Hsing-Wen Cheng, Huang-Kai Kao, William Wei-Kai Lao, Kai-Ping Chang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological associations and molecular mechanisms of karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) progression. METHODS: The KPNA2 expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 209 tissues and 181 saliva samples, respectively. The functions of KPNA2 in migration and invasion were examined in KPNA2-knowdown cells. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
March 15, 2018: Head & Neck
A Beltz, D Gösswein, S Zimmer, R H Stauber, J Hagemann, S Strieth, C Matthias, J Künzel
BACKGROUND: The TNM (tumor, nodes, metastasis) classification is updated periodically according to the literature and international recommendations. With the 8th edition, notable changes have been developed especially with regard to oropharyngeal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The modifications as well as the practicability of the classification for staging of oropharyngeal cancers are demonstrated on the basis of cases from the tumor database. RESULTS: The latest edition of the TNM classification realizes requirements to differentiate between human papilloma virus (HPV) positive and HPV-negative tumors during staging...
March 13, 2018: HNO
Stefan D Dojcinov, Falko Fend, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez
The contribution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to the development of specific types of benign lymphoproliferations and malignant lymphomas has been extensively studied since the discovery of the virus over the last 50 years. The importance and better understanding of the EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) of B, T or natural killer (NK) cell type has resulted in the recognition of new entities like EBV+ mucocutaneous ulcer or the addition of chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection in the revised 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) lymphoma classification...
March 7, 2018: Pathogens
Nikolaos Spetsieris, Nefeli Giannakopoulou, Eleni Variami, Konstantinos Zervakis, Niki Rougala, Georgios Garefalakis, Vasiliki Skarlatou, Nora-Athina Viniou, Panagiotis Diamantopoulos
RATIONALE: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a malignancy of the B cells with extranodal primary involvement being estimated at 30% to 40% of cases. Primary skeletal muscle presentation of DLBCL is extremely rare, with an estimated incidence of about 0.5% of extranodal lymphomas, presenting mostly in the lower extremities. The possible mechanisms of muscle involvement of DLBCL include primary extranodal disease, extension from adjacent organs (such as lymph nodes) or disseminated disease...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aviram Mizrachi, Jocelyn C Migliacci, Pablo H Montero, Sean McBride, Jatin P Shah, Snehal G Patel, Ian Ganly
OBJECTIVES: Neck failure in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) carries a poor outcome, yet the management of patients who initially present with clinically node-negative (cN0) neck is not clearly defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with cN0 OSCC treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 1985 to 2012, focusing on rate, pattern and predictors of neck failure, salvage treatment, and survival outcomes. RESULTS: Of 1,302 patients, 806 (62%) underwent elective neck dissection (END) and 496 (38%) had observation...
March 2018: Oral Oncology
Tetsuya Tsujikawa, Norihiko Narita, Masafumi Kanno, Tetsuji Takabayashi, Shigeharu Fujieda, Hidehiko Okazawa
The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) released the 8th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual in 2017 that includes significant modifications from the 7th edition in the sections on oral cavity cancer (OCC) and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). These highlights comprise the incorporation of the depth of invasion and exclusion of extrinsic tongue muscle involvement in the T staging of OCC, the separation of OPC staging based on the high-risk human papilloma virus status, and the inclusion of extranodal extension in N staging...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Salvatrice Mancuso, Melania Carlisi, Mariasanta Napolitano, Sergio Siragusa
The thyroid gland is often involved in the development of neoplastic diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the multiple interactions between lymphoma and thyroid. Through an extensive research among the literature, the relationship between lymphomas and thyroid can be established at various levels, and the possible interconnections are here summarized in 5 points: (1) the greater risk of lymphoma development in some thyroid diseases; (2) the primary thyroid lymphoma, with focus on issues related to the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment; (3) the incidence of thyroid involvement in primitive nodal lymphomas or in extranodal lymphomas of the other sites; (4) thyroid changes after treatment of lymphoma, in relation to the effects of radiation therapy and immuno-chemotherapy; (5) the incidental findings of thyroid changes, on imaging, in patients with lymphoma, without a direct involvement of the gland in malignant disease...
February 27, 2018: Hematological Oncology
Sang Hun Lee, Jong-Lyel Roh, Gyungyup Gong, Kyung-Ja Cho, Seung-Ho Choi, Soon Yuhl Nam, Sang Yoon Kim
OBJECTIVES: To examine risk factors for posttreatment recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients with initial presentation of lateral neck metastasis (N1b). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: N1b PTC recurs after definitive treatment. METHODS: Study subjects were 437 consecutive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and therapeutic neck dissection of central and lateral compartments and postoperative radioactive iodine ablation therapy...
February 16, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Irene Defrancesco, Luca Arcaini
Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (EMZLs) of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are indolent lymphomas which can present at any extranodal site. The most frequent localizations (other than stomach) are ocular adnexa, salivary gland, skin, lung and thyroid. Chronic inflammation and antigenic stimulation are a potential risk for the development of MALT lymphomas. While Helicobacter Pylori (HP) is known to be associated with gastric MALT lymphoma and antibiotic therapy is effective in the setting of HP-positive, other microorganisms (such as Chlamydophila Psittaci, Campylobacter Jejiuni, Borrelia Burgdoferi) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of non-gastric MALT lymphomas...
March 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
Nathalie Chereau, Etienne Dauzier, Gaëlle Godiris-Petit, Séverine Noullet, Isabelle Brocheriou, Laurence Leenhardt, Camille Buffet, Fabrice Menegaux
BACKGROUND: International guidelines for the management of differentiated thyroid cancers are based on the 7th TNM classification: pT3 tumors are defined as differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) measuring more than 4 cm in their greatest dimension that are limited to the thyroid or any tumor with minimal extrathyroidal extension (ETE; sternothyroid muscle or perithyroid soft tissues). Differences in clinicohistological features and prognosis among patients with pT3 tumors remain controversial, and studies regarding pT3 subgroups are lacking...
February 14, 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Yan Li, You Qin, Liduan Zheng, Hong Liu
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is typically a systemic disease with involvement of the cervical, supraclavicular and mediastinal lymph nodes. An extra-nodal presentation of HL is unusual and seldom encountered in the clinic. The most common sites of presentation for extra-nodal extension are the spleen, liver, lungs, bones and marrow. The bones that are frequently involved are the vertebrae, pelvis, ribs and femur. Involvement of the sternum has occasionally been reported. The current study presents an unusual case on the extra-nodal presentation of HL of the sternum arising in a 25-year-old woman, and reviews the relevant literature with particular emphasis on treatment...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Toni Beninato, Wouter P Kluijfhout, Frederick Thurston Drake, Elham Khanafshar, Jessica E Gosnell, Wen T Shen, Quan-Yang Duh, Insoo Suh
BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid carcinoma with squamous differentiation (PTC-SD) is a poorly understood pathologic finding of unknown clinical significance. Selected case reports have suggested that PTC-SD is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Here we present the largest case series of PTC-SD reported in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cancer registry at our tertiary care referral center was reviewed to identify all patients from 1995-2015 who had been diagnosed with PTC-SD on initial total thyroidectomy or lymph node dissection for recurrent disease...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Emi J Yoshida, Michael Luu, John M David, Sungjin Kim, Alain Mita, Kevin Scher, Stephen L Shiao, Mourad Tighiouart, Allen S Ho, Zachary S Zumsteg
BACKGROUND: Postoperative concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves outcomes for younger adults with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and positive margins or extranodal extension (ENE), but its benefit for older adults is not well established. METHODS: Patients from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) with HNSCC undergoing curative-intent resection, neck dissection, and postoperative radiation with positive margins or ENE were identified. RESULTS: This analysis included 1199 patients aged ≥ 70 years with median follow-up of 42...
February 8, 2018: Head & Neck
N A O'Keeffe, C O'Neill, A Zahere, V Livingstone, T J Browne, H P Redmond, M A Corrigan
BACKGROUND: The presence of extranodal extension (ENE) is well documented as a predictor of non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis. The ACOSOG Z0011 trial (2011) concluded that patients who satisfy criteria including the absence of sentinel lymph node (SLN) ENE can forgo axillary clearance (AC). Currently there are no studies analysing the rate of ENE in NSLN metastasis in which the sentinel node was positive but had no ENE. Determining this incidence will help determine if current paradigms are resulting in residual ENE in NSLN metastasis by forgoing AC based on the Z0011 trial...
February 3, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Mayara Peres Barbosa, Denise Momesso, Daniel Alves Bulzico, Terence Farias, Fernando Dias, Roberto Araújo Lima, Rossana Corbo, Mario Vaisman, Fernanda Vaisman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between this characteristic and outcomes in patients with lymph node metastasis in a Brazilian cohort. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study examined a retrospective cohort of adult patients diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer and lymph node metastases from 1998 to 2015 in two referral centers. Number, location, size and extranodal extension (ENE) of metastatic lymph nodes were assessed and correlated with response to initial therapy...
December 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Meghan E Rowe, Umut Ozbek, Rosalie A Machado, Lauren E Yue, Juan C Hernandez-Prera, Alessandro Valentino, Muhammad Qazi, Margaret Brandwein-Weber, Xulei Liu, Bruce M Wenig, Mark L Urken
Extranodal extension (ENE) is a prognostic indicator of aggressiveness for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The association between the size of metastatic nodes and the prevalence of ENE has not been previously explored. However, there is a common belief that small lymph nodes with metastatic disease do not significantly impact patient outcome. This study investigates the relationship between the prevalence of ENE and the size of a positive lymph node. Linear dimensions and malignant histological characteristics of 979 metastatic lymph nodes from 152 thyroid cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed...
February 2, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Claudio Luchini, Nicola Veronese, Alessia Nottegar, Monica Cheng, Takuma Kaneko, Camilla Pilati, Fabrizio Tabbò, Brendon Stubbs, Antonio Pea, Fabio Bagante, Jacopo Demurtas, Matteo Fassan, Maurizio Infante, Liang Cheng, Aldo Scarpa
Extranodal extension (ENE) of nodal metastasis is defined as the extension of metastatic cells through the nodal capsule into the perinodal tissue. This morphological parameter, recently proposed as an important prognostic factor in different types of malignancy, has not been included in the TNM staging system for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this systematic review with meta-analysis, we weighted the prognostic role of ENE in patients with lymph node-positive NSCLC. Two independent authors searched SCOPUS and PubMed through 28 February 2017...
February 1, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Rachel A Mariani, Rachel Kadakia, Nicoleta C Arva
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (noniEFVPTC) has low risk of adverse outcome in adults, warranting reclassification as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). In children, thyroid nodules have higher risk of malignancy and it is unknown if encapsulated FVPTC (EFVPTC) and infiltrative FVPTC (IFVPTC) tumors have different behavior. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) subtypes in our pediatric population to determine if noniEFVPTC has an indolent course as reported in adults...
January 30, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Nikolaus Moeckelmann, Ardalan Ebrahimi, Richard Dirven, Jessica Liu, Tsu-Hui Hubert Low, Ruta Gupta, Bruce Ashford, Sydney Ch'ng, Carsten E Palme, Jonathan R Clark
BACKGROUND: The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) uses the same nodal staging system for cutaneous and mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in its 8th edition (AJCC 8) despite differences in the etiology, risk factors, and clinical behavior of the two diseases. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the AJCC 8 nodal staging system by direct comparison of cutaneous (cSCC) versus oral squamous cell carcinoma (oSCC) patients. METHODS: Patients with metastatic cSCC (N = 382) and oSCC (N = 325) were identified from a prospective database (years 1987-2016)...
January 19, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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