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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087656/conspecific-aggregations-mitigate-the-effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-calcification-of-the-coral-pocillopora-verrucosa
#1
Nicolas R Evensen, Peter J Edmunds
In densely populated communities, such as coral reefs, organisms can modify the physical and chemical environment for neighbouring individuals. We tested the hypothesis that colony density (12 colonies each placed∼0.5 cm apart versus∼8 cm apart) can modulate the physiological response (measured through rates of calcification, photosynthesis, and respiration in the light and dark) of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa to pCO2 treatments (∼ 400 µatm and∼1200 µatm) by altering the seawater flow regimes experienced by colonies placed in aggregations within a flume at a single flow speed...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086890/feasibility-and-preliminary-efficacy-of-the-heyman-healthy-lifestyle-program-for-young-men-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Lee M Ashton, Philip J Morgan, Melinda J Hutchesson, Megan E Rollo, Clare E Collins
BACKGROUND: In young men, unhealthy lifestyle behaviours can be detrimental to their physical and/or mental health and set them on a negative health trajectory into adulthood. Despite this, there is a lack of evidence to guide development of effective health behaviour change interventions for young men. This study assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the 'HEYMAN' (Harnessing Ehealth to enhance Young men's Mental health, Activity and Nutrition) healthy lifestyle program for young men...
January 13, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086872/dapagliflozin-decreases-small-dense-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-increases-high-density-lipoprotein-2-cholesterol-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-comparison-with-sitagliptin
#3
Toshiyuki Hayashi, Tomoyasu Fukui, Noriko Nakanishi, Saki Yamamoto, Masako Tomoyasu, Anna Osamura, Makoto Ohara, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yasuki Ito, Tsutomu Hirano
BACKGROUND: The sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been reported to increase both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C). This study aimed to determine how SGLT-2 inhibitors affect LDL and HDL-C subspecies. METHODS: This single center, open-label, randomized, prospective study included 80 patients with type 2 diabetes taking prescribed oral hypoglycemic agents. Patients were allocated to receive dapagliflozin (n = 40) or sitagliptin (n = 40) as add-on treatment...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081199/mesons-from-laser-induced-processes-in-ultra-dense-hydrogen-h-0
#4
Leif Holmlid
Large signals of charged light mesons are observed in the laser-induced particle flux from ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) layers. The mesons are formed in such layers on metal surfaces using < 200 mJ laser pulse-energy. The time variation of the signal to metal foil collectors and the magnetic deflection to a movable pin collector are now studied. Relativistic charged particles with velocity up to 500 MeV u-1 thus 0.75 c are observed. Characteristic decay time constants for meson decay are observed, for charged and neutral kaons and also for charged pions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081008/elastic-properties-of-amorphous-t-0-75y0-75b14-t%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-sc-ti-v-y-zr-nb-and-the-effect-of-o-incorporation-on-bonding-density-and-elasticity-t-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ti-zr
#5
Oliver Hunold, Philipp Keuter, Pascal Bliem, Denis Music, Friederike Wittmers, Anna L Ravensburg, Daniel Primetzhofer, Jochen M Schneider
We have systematically studied the effect of transition metal valence electron concentration (VEC) of amorphous T 0.75Y0.75B14 (a-T 0.75Y0.75B14, T  =  Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zr, Nb) on the elastic properties, bonding, density and electronic structure using ab initio molecular dynamics. As the transition metal VEC is increased in both periods, the bulk modulus increases linearly with molar- and mass density. This trend can be understood by a concomitant decrease in cohesive energy. T'  =  Ti and Zr were selected to validate the predicted data experimentally...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080032/heteroprotein-complex-formation-of-bovine-lactoferrin-and-pea-protein-isolate-a-multiscale-structural-analysis
#6
Eda Adal, Amin Sadeghpour, Simon D A Connell, Michael Rappolt, Esra Ibanoglu, Anwesha Sarkar
Associative electrostatic interactions between two oppositely charged globular proteins, lactoferrin (LF) and pea protein isolate (PPI), the latter being a mixture of vicilin, legumin and convicilin, was studied with a specific PPI/ LF molar ratio at room temperature. Structural aspects of the electrostatic complexes probed at different length scales were investigated as a function of pH by means of different complementary techniques, namely with dynamic light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), turbidity measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
January 12, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079771/advanced-research-and-data-methods-in-women-s-health-big-data-analytics-adaptive-studies-and-the-road-ahead
#7
Christian R Macedonia, Clark T Johnson, Indika Rajapakse
Technical advances in science have had broad implications in reproductive and women's health care. Recent innovations in population-level data collection and storage have made available an unprecedented amount of data for analysis while computational technology has evolved to permit processing of data previously thought too dense to study. "Big data" is a term used to describe data that are a combination of dramatically greater volume, complexity, and scale. The number of variables in typical big data research can readily be in the thousands, challenging the limits of traditional research methodologies...
January 9, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079575/cystic-biliary-atresia-and-choledochal-cysts-are-distinct-histopathologic-entities
#8
Inna N Lobeck, Rachel Sheridan, Mark Lovell, Phylicia Dupree, Greg M Tiao, Kevin E Bove
Cystic biliary atresia (CBA), a rare cystic expansion of atretic extrahepatic bile ducts in young infants, overlaps in age at presentation and imaging features with early choledochal cysts (CC). Treatment and prognosis differ; histologic differences are unsettled. We compared 10 patients with CBA, 1975 to 2015, to an age-similar cohort of 13 infants, and to older patients who had surgery for CC. Operative details, imaging, and clinical courses were correlated to pathologic specimens. Immunostains for smooth muscle actin and myosin heavy chain were used to evaluate cyst walls and atretic segments...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078862/a-placebo-controlled-trial-of-a-proprietary-lipid-lowering-nutraceutical-supplement-in-the-management-of-dyslipidemia
#9
M Houston, R Rountree, J Lamb, S Phipps, S Meng, B Zhang
There is an ever growing emergence in the popularity of patient-driven care. As this health and wellness model grows, inquiries into diet, lifestyle, and supplemental approaches will continue to become a focal point for the healthcare consumer. Because of this, the aim of this study is to determine the tolerability, and overall effectiveness of a proprietary multi-ingredient lipid-lowering supplement in subjects with dyslipidemia. Forty participants were recruited for a single-center, double-blind randomized, placebocontrolled trial...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078676/the-ultrastructural-characterization-of-mitochondria-rich-cells-as-a-response-to-variations-in-salinity-in-two-types-of-teleostean-pseudobranch-milkfish-chanos-chanos-and-mozambique-tilapia-oreochromis-mossambicus
#10
Sheng-Hui Yang, Jeng-Dau Tsai, Chao-Kai Kang, Wen-Kai Yang, Hsiu-Ni Kung, Tsung-Han Lee
The pseudobranchs of two euryhaline teleost species, the milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), were studied after acclimization to different salinities using optical and electron microscopy. The milkfish pseudobranch was the lamellae-free type, with separate lamellae along the filaments containing two groups of mitochondria (Mt)-rich cells: chloride cells (CCs) and pseudobranch type cells (PSCs). Conversely, the tilapia pseudobranch was the embedded type, covered with connective tissues and with only one group of Mt-rich PSCs...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078516/dense-gene-physical-maps-of-the-non-model-species-drosophila-subobscura
#11
Dorcas J Orengo, Eva Puerma, Montserrat Papaceit, Carmen Segarra, Montserrat Aguadé
The comparative analysis of genetic and physical maps as well as of whole genome sequences had revealed that in the Drosophila genus, most structural rearrangements occurred within chromosomal elements as a result of paracentric inversions. Genome sequence comparison would seem the best method to estimate rates of chromosomal evolution, but the high-quality reference genomes required for this endeavor are still scanty. Here, we have obtained dense physical maps for Muller elements A, C, and E of Drosophila subobscura, a species with an extensively studied rich and adaptive chromosomal polymorphism...
January 11, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078109/prognostic-impact-of-tumour-associated-b-cells-and-plasma-cells-in-oesophageal-and-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#12
Richard Fristedt, David Borg, Charlotta Hedner, Jonna Berntsson, Björn Nodin, Jakob Eberhard, Patrick Micke, Karin Jirström
BACKGROUND: While it is well established that the cell-mediated immune response plays an important role in cancer progression and spread, the role of the humoral immune response in this regard has been less studied. According to the existing literature, dense infiltration of B cells or plasma cells appears to correlate mainly with an improved prognosis in several types of cancer, but their prognostic impact in oesophageal and gastric cancer has not yet been described. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was applied on tissue microarrays (TMA) to assess the stromal density of B cells (CD20+) and plasma cells [CD138+ or immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC+)] in chemo-/radiotherapy-naive tumours from a consecutive cohort of 174 patients with resected oesophageal or gastric adenocarcinoma...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077707/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#13
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. Although studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077416/platelet-secretion-is-crucial-to-prevent-bleeding-in-the-ischemic-brain-but-not-in-the-inflamed-skin-or-lung-in-mice
#14
Carsten Deppermann, Peter Kraft, Julia Volz, Michael K Schuhmann, Sarah Beck, Karen Wolf, David Stegner, Guido Stoll, Bernhard Nieswandt
Platelets maintain hemostasis after injury, but also during inflammation. Recent studies have shown that platelets prevent inflammatory bleeding through (hem)ITAM-dependent mechanisms irrespective of aggregation during skin and lung inflammation. While the exact mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown, it was speculated that mediators released from platelet granules might be involved. Maintaining cerebral hemostasis during stroke treatment is of high clinical relevance as hemorrhage may aggravate the disease state and increase mortality...
January 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077308/cookie-or-fruit-relative-reinforcing-value-of-snack-foods-among-preschoolers-with-overweight-obesity-compared-to-healthy-weight
#15
Mary Beth McCullough, Hayley Guilkey, Lori Stark
The reinforcing value of food is an important determinant of food intake. Research has yet to examine the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of snack foods in young children with overweight and obesity (OW/OB). The current study compared the RRV of high-energy dense foods (cookies) to low-energy dense foods (fruits) between preschoolers with OW/OB and healthy weight (HW). RRV of cookies and fruits in preschoolers with OW/OB (n = 30; Mage = 4.4 ± 0.84; 60% male) and HW (n = 30; Mage = 4.5 ± 0.85; 70% male) was assessed with a developmentally-tailored computer program which used a progressive fixed ratio reward schedule...
January 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076351/ultra-fine-scale-spatially-integrated-mapping-of-habitat-and-occupancy-using-structure-from-motion
#16
Philip McDowall, Heather J Lynch
Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM), a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale) three-dimensional (3D) habitat models at low cost...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075530/dysregulation-of-pldn-pallidin-is-a-mechanism-for-platelet-dense-granule-deficiency-in-runx1-haplodeficiency
#17
G F Mao, L E Goldfinger, D C Fan, M P Lambert, G Jalagadugula, R Freishtat, A K Rao
BACKGROUND: Inherited RUNX1 haplodeficiency is associated with thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction. Dense granule (DG) deficiency is reported in patients with RUNX1 haplodeficiency, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Platelet mRNA expression profiling in a patient previously reported by us with a RUNX1 mutation and platelet dysfunction showed decreased expression of PLDN (BLOC1S6), which encodes for pallidin, a subunit of BLOC-1 (biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1) involved in granule biogenesis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075492/a-thematic-content-analysis-of-cheatmeal-images-on-social-media-characterizing-an-emerging-dietary-trend
#18
Eva Pila, Jonathan M Mond, Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Stuart B Murray
Despite the pervasive social endorsement of "cheat meals" within pro-muscularity online communities, there is an absence of empirical work examining this dietary phenomenon. The present study aimed to characterize cheat meals, and explore the meaning ascribed to engagement in this practice. Thematic content analysis was employed to code the photographic and textual elements of a sample (n = 600) that was extracted from over 1.6 million images marked with the #cheatmeal tag on the social networking site, Instagram...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075372/distributed-sensor-nodes-charged-by-mobile-charger-with-directional-antenna-and-by-energy-trading-for-balancing
#19
Celso Moraes, Sunghee Myung, Sangkeum Lee, Dongsoo Har
Provision of energy to wireless sensor networks is crucial for their sustainable operation. Sensor nodes are typically equipped with batteries as their operating energy sources. However, when the sensor nodes are sited in almost inaccessible locations, replacing their batteries incurs high maintenance cost. Under such conditions, wireless charging of sensor nodes by a mobile charger with an antenna can be an efficient solution. When charging distributed sensor nodes, a directional antenna, rather than an omnidirectional antenna, is more energy-efficient because of smaller proportion of off-target radiation...
January 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075352/a-case-study-of-upper-room-uvgi-in-densely-occupied-elementary-classrooms-by-real-time-fluorescent-bioaerosol-measurements
#20
Chunxiao Su, Josephine Lau, Fang Yu
Recently, the requirement to continuously collect bioaerosol samples using shorter response times has called for the use of real-time detection. The decreased cost of this technology makes it available for a wider application than military use, and makes it accessible to pharmaceutical and academic research. In this case study, real-time bioaerosol monitors (RBMs) were applied in elementary school classrooms-a densely occupied environment-along with upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) devices...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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