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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933260/use-of-a-10-22%C3%A2-m-diameter-epb-shield-a-case-study-in-beijing-subway-construction
#1
Xinggao Li, Dajun Yuan, Yuhai Guo, Zhiyong Cai
INTRODUCTION: Beijing subway line 14 includes four stations and approximately 2.8 km of tunnels between the Dongfengbeiqiao and Jingshunlu areas of the city. Due to the surface and underground space limitations of this section, a double-track running tunnel instead of two single-track running tunnels was adopted to connect the two stations. The double-track tunnels were excavated by a 10.22 m diameter earth pressure balance (EPB) shield. It was the first time that an EPB shield more than 10 m in diameter was used in Beijing subway construction...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932788/health-system-productivity-change-in-zambia-a-focus-on-the-child-health-services
#2
Tom Achoki, Yohannes Kinfu, Felix Masiye, Geert W J Frederix, Anke Hovels, Hubert G Leufkens
Efficiency and productivity improvement have become central in global health debates. In this study, we explored productivity change, particularly the contribution of technological progress and efficiency gains associated with improvements in child survival in Zambia (population 15 million). Productivity was measured by applying the Malmquist productivity index on district-level panel data. The effect of socioeconomic factors was further analyzed by applying an ordinary least squares regression technique. During 2004-2009, overall productivity in Zambia increased by 5...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932496/sonic-hedgehog-pathway-activation-increases-mitochondrial-abundance-and-activity-in-hippocampal-neurons
#3
Pamela J Yao, Uri Manor, Ronald S Petralia, Rebecca D Brose, Ryan T Y Wu, Carolyn Ott, Ya-Xian Wang, Ari Charnoff, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Mark P Mattson
Mitochondria are essential organelles whose biogenesis, structure, and function are regulated by many signaling pathways. In this study we present evidence that, in hippocampal neurons, activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway impacts multiple aspects of mitochondria. Mitochondrial mass was increased significantly in neurons treated with Shh. Using biochemical and fluorescence imaging analyses, we show that Shh signaling activity reduces mitochondrial fission and promotes mitochondrial elongation, at least in part, via suppression of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like GTPase Drp1...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931227/epigenetics-of-amphetamine-induced-sensitization-hdac5-expression-and-microrna-in-neural-remodeling
#4
Philip K Liu, Christina H Liu
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities modify chromatin structure and play a role in learning and memory during developmental processes. Studies of adult mice suggest HDACs are involved in neural network remodeling in brain repair, but its function in drug addiction is less understood. We aimed to examine in vivo HDAC5 expression in a preclinical model of amphetamine-induced sensitization (AIS) of behavior. We generated specific contrast agents to measure HDAC5 levels by in vivo molecular contrast-enhanced (MCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in amphetamine-naïve mice as well as in mice with AIS...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931187/computational-strategies-for-alternative-single-step-bayesian-regression-models-with-large-numbers-of-genotyped-and-non-genotyped-animals
#5
Rohan L Fernando, Hao Cheng, Bruce L Golden, Dorian J Garrick
BACKGROUND: Two types of models have been used for single-step genomic prediction and genome-wide association studies that include phenotypes from both genotyped animals and their non-genotyped relatives. The two types are breeding value models (BVM) that fit breeding values explicitly and marker effects models (MEM) that express the breeding values in terms of the effects of observed or imputed genotypes. MEM can accommodate a wider class of analyses, including variable selection or mixture model analyses...
December 8, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930865/surrogate-outcome-measures-of-in-vitro-osteoclast-resorption-of-%C3%AE-tricalcium-phosphate
#6
Susan A Clarke, Joanne Martin, John Nelson, Jean-Christophe Hornez, Marc Bohner, Nicholas Dunne, Fraser Buchanan
Introduction of porosity to calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone repair has created a new challenge when measuring bioresorption in vitro, rendering traditional outcome measures redundant. The aim of this study is to identify a surrogate endpoint for use with 3D scaffolds. Murine RAW 264.7 cells are cultured on dense discs of β-tricalcium phosphate in conditions to stimulate osteoclast (OC) formation. Multinucleated OCs are visible from day 6 with increases at days 8 and 10. Resorption pits are first observed at day 6 with much larger pits visible at days 8, 10, and 12...
December 8, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930435/polypoidal-choroidal-vasculopathy-a-clinicopathologic-study
#7
Kareem Moussa, Michele M Bloomer, Daniel M Schwartz, Carolyn K Pan, Brian C Toy, Joseph B Crawford, Armin R Afshar
PURPOSE: To present a unique case of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy presenting as a blind, painful eye with a suspected intraocular mass, and to correlate clinical findings with histopathologic studies. METHODS: Clinical case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 58-year-old Vietnamese man presented with a blind, painful eye with concern for an intraocular mass. B-scan ultrasonography showed massive intraocular hemorrhage and could not rule out a tumor...
December 7, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930324/dopamine-release-from-the-locus-coeruleus-to-the-dorsal-hippocampus-promotes-spatial-learning-and-memory
#8
Kimberly A Kempadoo, Eugene V Mosharov, Se Joon Choi, David Sulzer, Eric R Kandel
Dopamine neurotransmission in the dorsal hippocampus is critical for a range of functions from spatial learning and synaptic plasticity to the deficits underlying psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the presumed source of dopamine in the dorsal hippocampus. However, there is a surprising scarcity of VTA dopamine axons in the dorsal hippocampus despite the dense network of dopamine receptors. We have explored this apparent paradox using optogenetic, biochemical, and behavioral approaches and found that dopaminergic axons and subsequent dopamine release in the dorsal hippocampus originate from neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC)...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930321/biconcave-shape-of-human-red-blood-cell-ghosts-relies-on-density-differences-between-the-rim-and-dimple-of-the-ghost-s-plasma-membrane
#9
Joseph F Hoffman
The shape of the human red blood cell is known to be a biconcave disk. It is evident from a variety of theoretical work that known physical properties of the membrane, such as its bending energy and elasticity, can explain the red-blood-cell biconcave shape as well as other shapes that red blood cells assume. But these analyses do not provide information on the underlying molecular causes. This paper describes experiments that attempt to identify some of the underlying determinates of cell shape. To this end, red-blood-cell ghosts were made by hypotonic hemolysis and then reconstituted such that they were smooth spheres in hypo-osmotic solutions and smooth biconcave discs in iso-osmotic solutions...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929366/in-vitro-gastrointestinal-resistant-pectin-hydrogel-particles-for-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-adsorption
#10
Sergey V Popov, Pavel A Markov, Olga A Patova, Fedor V Vityazev, Larisa A Bakutova, Mikhail F Borisenkov, Ekaterina A Martinson, Boris A Ananchenko, Eugene A Durnev, Andrey A Burkov, Sergey G Litvinets, Vladimir A Belyi, Elena A Ipatova
Pectin hydrogel particles (PHPs) were prepared by ionotropic gelation of low methylesterified pectin of Tanacetum vulgare L. with calcium ions. Wet PHPs prepared from TVF exhibited a smaller diameter and the lower weight as well as exhibited the best textural properties in terms of hardness and elasticity compared to the PHPs prepared from commercial low methylesterified pectin (CU701) used for comparison. Upon air drying, PHPs prepared from CU701 became small and dense microspheres whereas the dry PHPs prepared from TVF exhibited a drop-like shape...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929198/b%C3%AE-arg448lys-polymorphism-is-associated-with-altered-fibrin-clot-structure-and-fibrinolysis-in-type-2-diabetes
#11
Katie A Greenhalgh, Mark W Strachan, Saad Alzahrani, Paul D Baxter, Kristina F Standeven, Robert F Storey, Robert A S Ariens, Peter J Grant, Jackie F Price, Ramzi A Ajjan
Both type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and Bβ448Lys variant of fibrinogen are associated with dense fibrin clots, impaired fibrinolysis and increased cardiovascular risk. It was our objective to investigate whether BβArg448Lys adds to vascular risk by modulating fibrin network structure and/or fibrinolysis in diabetes. The primary aim was to study effects of BβArg448Lys on fibrin network characteristics in T2DM. Secondary aims investigated interactions between gender and BβArg448Lys substitution in relation to fibrin clot properties and vascular disease...
December 8, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928496/bioactive-mesoporous-wollastonite-particles-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#12
S Saravanan, Nagarajan Selvamurugan
The current investigation was aimed at identifying the role of mesoporous wollastonite particles on the healing of rat tibial bone defect. The bone defect was created with a 3-mm-diameter dental drill, and it was filled with mesoporous wollastonite particles. After second and fourth weeks of filling treatments, it was found that mesoporous wollastonite particles promoted bone formation as evidenced by X-ray, histological, scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive spectra studies. X-ray study showed the closure of drill hole as seen by high-dense radio-opacity image...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928124/the-effect-of-the-consumption-of-egg-on-serum-lipids-and-antioxidant-status-in-healthy-subjects
#13
Yoshimi Kishimoto, Chie Taguchi, Norie Suzuki-Sugihara, Emi Saita, Mika Usuda, Wei Wang, Yasunobu Masuda, Kazuo Kondo
The egg is a nutrient-dense food and contains a number of antioxidants. The consumption of eggs has been considered to improve the balance of diets, although its impact on serum cholesterol levels has been a matter of concern in many countries. Here, we conducted a pilot study to investigate whether daily additional consumption of an egg might affect serum lipid profiles and also antioxidant status in healthy subjects. Fourteen male subjects were provided with breakfasts including a boiled egg for 4 wk. At the end of intervention, serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were unchanged, despite the significant increase in the intake of dietary cholesterol...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928031/multi-casting-approach-for-vascular-networks-in-cellularized-hydrogels
#14
Alexander W Justin, Roger A Brooks, Athina E Markaki
Vascularization is essential for living tissue and remains a major challenge in the field of tissue engineering. A lack of a perfusable channel network within a large and densely populated tissue engineered construct leads to necrotic core formation, preventing fabrication of functional tissues and organs. We report a new method for producing a hierarchical, three-dimensional (3D) and perfusable vasculature in a large, cellularized fibrin hydrogel. Bifurcating channels, varying in size from 1 mm to 200-250 µm, are formed using a novel process in which we convert a 3D printed thermoplastic material into a gelatin network template, by way of an intermediate alginate hydrogel...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928025/individualized-vaccination-of-aml-patients-in-remission-is-associated-with-induction-of-antileukemia-immunity-and-prolonged-remissions
#15
Jacalyn Rosenblatt, Richard M Stone, Lynne Uhl, Donna Neuberg, Robin Joyce, James D Levine, Jon Arnason, Malgorzata McMasters, Katarina Luptakova, Salvia Jain, Jeffrey I Zwicker, Ayad Hamdan, Vassiliki Boussiotis, David P Steensma, Daniel J DeAngelo, Ilene Galinsky, Poorvi Somaiya Dutt, Emma Logan, Mary Paty Bryant, Dina Stroopinsky, Lillian Werner, Kristen Palmer, Max Coll, Abigail Washington, Leandra Cole, Donald Kufe, David Avigan
We developed a personalized cancer vaccine in which patient-derived acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are fused with autologous dendritic cells, generating a hybridoma that potently stimulates broad antitumor responses. We report results obtained from the first 17 AML patients, who achieved remission after chemotherapy and were then serially vaccinated to target minimal residual disease and prevent relapse. Vaccination was well tolerated and induced inflammatory responses at the site of administration, characterized by the dense infiltration of T cells...
December 7, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927981/xylem-surfactants-introduce-a-new-element-to-the-cohesion-tension-theory
#16
H Jochen Schenk, Susana Espino, David M Romo, Neda Nima, Aissa Y T Do, Joseph M Michaud, Brigitte Papahadjopoulos-Sternberg, Jinlong Yang, Yi Y Zuo, Kathy Steppe, Steven Jansen
Vascular plants transport water under negative pressure without constantly creating gas bubbles that would disable their hydraulic systems. Attempts to replicate this feat in artificial systems almost invariably result in bubble formation, except under highly controlled conditions with pure water and only hydrophilic surfaces present. In theory, conditions in the xylem should favor bubble nucleation even more: There are millions of conduits with at least some hydrophobic surfaces; xylem sap is saturated or sometimes supersaturated with atmospheric gas, and may contain surface active molecules that can lower surface tension...
December 7, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927609/data-analysis-protocol-for-the-development-and-evaluation-of-population-pharmacokinetic-models-for-incorporation-into-the-web-accessible-population-pharmacokinetic-service-hemophilia-wapps-hemo
#17
Alanna McEneny-King, Gary Foster, Alfonso Iorio, Andrea N Edginton
BACKGROUND: Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in a specific clotting factor. This results in spontaneous bleeding episodes and eventual arthropathy. The mainstay of hemophilia treatment is prophylactic replacement of the missing factor, but an optimal regimen remains to be determined. Rather, individualized prophylaxis has been suggested to improve both patient safety and resource utilization. However, uptake of this approach has been hampered by the demanding sampling schedules and complex calculations required to obtain individual estimates of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters...
December 7, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925156/case-report-of-multiple-pustules-of-the-bilateral-lower-limbs-caused-by-a-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-producing-solid-pseudopapillary-tumour-of-the-pancreas
#18
Y Iwata, T Kobayashi, M Kuroda, Y Mizoguchi, M Arima, S Numata, S Watanabe, A Yagami, K Matsunaga, K Sugiura
Here we report the first case of neutrophilic dermatoses related to a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF)-producing solid pseudopapillary tumour (SPT). The patient was a 39-year-old woman presenting with scattered pustules and crusts of the palms/heels/thighs and plaques of the bilateral lower legs. The skin biopsy revealed dense neutrophil infiltration in the epidermis to the corium. A pancreatic head tumour was detected on computed tomography. A pathological examination of the resected specimen suggested a SPT...
December 7, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925141/nutritional-interventions-that-slow-the-age-associated-decline-in-renal-function-in-a-canine-geriatric-model-for-elderly-humans
#19
J A Hall, M Yerramilli, E Obare, M Yerramilli, K S Panickar, G Bobe, D E Jewell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of feeding traditional and renal protective foods (RPF) supplemented with functional food bioactives on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), lean body percent (LB%), and selected circulating biomarker and metabolite concentrations in a geriatric dog model. DESIGN: Randomized block design and cross-sectional study. SETTING: Hill's Pet Nutrition, Inc. dog colony. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-one geriatric dogs (mean age, 10...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924928/unified-rheology-of-vibro-fluidized-dry-granular-media-from-slow-dense-flows-to-fast-gas-like-regimes
#20
Andrea Gnoli, Antonio Lasanta, Alessandro Sarracino, Andrea Puglisi
Granular media take on great importance in industry and geophysics, posing a severe challenge to materials science. Their response properties elude known soft rheological models, even when the yield-stress discontinuity is blurred by vibro-fluidization. Here we propose a broad rheological scenario where average stress sums up a frictional contribution, generalizing conventional μ(I)-rheology, and a kinetic collisional term dominating at fast fluidization. Our conjecture fairly describes a wide series of experiments in a vibrofluidized vane setup, whose phenomenology includes velocity weakening, shear thinning, a discontinuous thinning transition, and gaseous shear thickening...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
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