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dysautonomia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705971/roles-of-catechol-neurochemistry-in-autonomic-function-testing
#1
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, William P Cheshire
Catechols are a class of compounds that contain adjacent hydroxyl groups on a benzene ring. Endogenous catechols in human plasma include the catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and dopamine; the catecholamine precursor DOPA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), which is the main neuronal metabolite of norepinephrine; and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), which is the main neuronal metabolite of dopamine. In the diagnostic evaluation of patients with known or suspected dysautonomias, measurement of plasma catechols is rarely diagnostic but often is informative...
April 28, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652832/sympathetic-nerve-hyperactivity-in-the-spleen-causal-for-nonpathogenic-driven-chronic-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-imids
#2
REVIEW
Denise L Bellinger, Dianne Lorton
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjőgren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614636/autonomic-nervous-system-involvement-in-sickle-cell-disease
#3
Thomas D Coates, Patjanaporn Chalacheva, Lonnie Zeltzer, Michael C K Khoo
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder of hemoglobin producing hemoglobin-S (HbS) and resulting in recurrent severe episodes of pain, organ damage and premature death due to vaso- occlusion. Deoxy HbS polymerizes, causing red cells to become rigid and lodge in the microvasculature if they do not escape into larger vessels before this transformation occurs. The mechanism that triggers this transition from steady state to vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is not known. Patients state that cold, emotional stress, and pain itself can trigger these events...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541560/managing-postural-hypotension-in-diabetic-autonomic-dysfunction-when-adrenergic-drugs-are-contraindicated-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Syed Rizwan A Bokhari, Faisal Akhtar, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Abid, Uzma Jahanzaib, Maria R Bokhari, Sana Hasan, Khurshid Khan
Postural hypotension, as a manifestation of autonomic neuropathy is a very sinister long-term debilitating complication of diabetes, is usually irreversible and tough to manage with medications. The treatment of this condition following the standard treatment protocols can be contraindicated in the patients with underlying heart conditions. We report the case of a patient at our hospital who presented with full-blown symptomatic dysautonomia secondary to long-standing diabetes, with bedside testing positive for autonomic dysfunction...
January 8, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508456/autonomic-dysfunction-in-genetic-forms-of-synucleinopathies
#5
REVIEW
Viorica Chelban, Ekawat Vichayanrat, Lucia Schottlaende, Valeria Iodice, Henry Houlden
The discovery of genetic links between alpha-synuclein and PD has opened unprecedented opportunities for research into a new group of diseases, now collectively known as synucleinopathies. Autonomic dysfunction, including cardiac sympathetic denervation, has been reported in familial forms of synucleinopathies that have Lewy bodies at the core of their pathogenesis. SNCA mutations and multiplications, LRRK2 disease with Lewy bodies as well as other common, sporadic forms of idiopathic PD, MSA, pure autonomic failure, and dementia with Lewy bodies have all been associated with dysautonomia...
March 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506598/headache-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-diagnostic-and-management-implications
#6
Anas Alrohimi, Rajive Jassal
Headache is an uncommon symptom in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We review four clinical settings related to GBS in which headache may be present. We focus on pathophysiological explanations, alerting the clinician to further potential investigations and treatment. Most reports of headache in GBS occur in the context of the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, an increasingly recognized dysautonomia-related GBS complication. Less frequent is headache in the setting of increased intracranial pressure and papilledema (secondary intracranial hypertension), Miller Fisher syndrome, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477220/thiamin
#7
REVIEW
Derrick Lonsdale
Starting with a brief history of beriberi and the discovery that thiamin deficiency is its cause, the symptoms and signs are reviewed. None are pathognomonic. The disease has a low mortality and a long morbidity. The appearance of the patient can be deceptive, often being mistaken for psychosomatic disease in the early stages. The chemistry of thiamin and the laboratory methodology for depicting its deficiency are outlined. The diseases associated with thiamin deficiency, apart from malnutrition, include a number of genetically determined conditions where mutations, either in the cofactor relationship or a transporter, provide the etiology...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446032/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-joint-hypermobility-related-disorders-and-pain-expanding-body-mind-connections-to-the-developmental-age
#8
REVIEW
Carolina Baeza-Velasco, Lorenzo Sinibaldi, Marco Castori
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and generalized joint hypermobility (JH) are two separated conditions, assessed, and managed by different specialists without overlapping interests. Recently, some researchers highlighted an unexpected association between these two clinical entities. This happens in a scenario of increasing awareness on the protean detrimental effects that congenital anomalies of the connective tissue may have on human health and development. To review pertinent literature to identify possible connections between ADHD and GJH, special emphasis was put on musculoskeletal pain and syndromic presentations of GJH, particularly the hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome...
February 14, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430562/specific-symptoms-may-discriminate-between-fibromyalgia-patients-with-vs-without-objective-test-evidence-of-small-fiber-polyneuropathy
#9
Mette Lodahl, Roi Treister, Anne Louise Oaklander
Introduction: Multiple studies now confirm that ∼40% of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome meet diagnostic criteria for small-fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN) and have objective pathologic or physiologic evidence of SFPN, whereas 60% do not. Given possibilities that tens or hundreds of millions globally could have SFPN, developing screening tools becomes important. Objectives: This analysis explored whether specific symptoms might help distinguish these fibromyalgia endophenotypes...
January 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416500/msa-mimic-rare-occurrence-of-anti-hu-autonomic-failure-and-thymoma-in-a-patient-with-parkinsonism-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Vito A G Ricigliano, Barbara Fossati, Lorenzo Saraceno, Michele Cavalli, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Giovanni Meola
Thymoma is a tumor originating from thymic gland, frequently manifesting with paraneoplastic neurological disorders. Its association with paraneoplastic dysautonomia is relatively uncommon. Here, we describe the challenging case of a 71 year-old female who developed subacute autonomic failure with digestive pseudo-obstruction, dysphagia, urinary tract dysfunction and orthostatic hypotension complicating an underlying extrapyramidal syndrome that had started 3 months before hospital admission. Autonomic symptoms had 2-month course and acutely worsened just before and during hospitalization...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398183/equine-dysautonomia
#11
REVIEW
Bruce C McGorum, R Scott Pirie
Equine dysautonomia (ED; also known as equine grass sickness) is a neurological disease of unknown cause, which primarily affects grazing adult horses. The clinical signs reflect degeneration of specific neuronal populations, predominantly within the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, with disease severity and prognosis determined by the extent of neuronal loss. This review is primarily focused on the major clinical decision-making processes in relation to ED, namely, (1) clinical diagnosis, (2) selection of appropriate ancillary diagnostic tests, (3) obtaining diagnostic confirmation, (4) selection of treatment candidates, and (5) identifying appropriate criteria for euthanasia...
April 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370977/severe-dysautonomia-as-a-main-feature-of-anti-gad-encephalitis-report-of-a-paediatric-case-and-literature-review
#12
Nedia Ben Achour, Thouraya Ben Younes, Ibtihel Rebai, Melika Ben Ahmed, Ichraf Kraoua, Ilhem Ben Youssef-Turki
INTRODUCTION: Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD65) antibodies are a rare cause of autoimmune encephalitis. This entity is mainly recognized in adults and very few cases were reported in children. We report on a paediatric case of anti-GAD encephalitis with severe presentation and uncontrollable dysautonomia. CASE STUDY: A 9-year-old girl was referred to our department for refractory seizures and behavioral disturbances. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal...
May 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212396/dysautonomia-in-the-pathogenesis-of-migraine
#13
Parisa Gazerani, Brian Edwin Cairns
Migraine is a common complex neurological disorder involving multiple brain areas that regulate autonomic, affective, cognitive, and sensory functions. This review explores autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in migraine headache sufferers. Areas covered: Reference material for this review was obtained through PubMed searches. Migraine attacks can present with up to 4 phases (premonitory, aura, headache, postdrome) each with distinguishable signs and symptoms. Altered ANS tone can be found from the premonitory through the postdrome phases...
February 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055902/lgi1-caspr2-and-related-antibodies-a-molecular-evolution-of-the-phenotypes
#14
REVIEW
Sophie N M Binks, Christopher J Klein, Patrick Waters, Sean J Pittock, Sarosh R Irani
Recent biochemical observations have helped redefine antigenic components within the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. The related autoantibodies may be now divided into likely pathogenic entities, which target the extracellular domains of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), and species that target intracellular neuronal components and are likely non-pathogenic. This distinction has enhanced clinical practice as direct determination of LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies offers optimal sensitivity and specificity...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976233/a-review-of-drug-therapy-for-sporadic-fatal-insomnia
#15
REVIEW
Pardis Tabaee Damavandi, Martin T Dove, Richard W Pickersgill
BACKGROUND: Sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI) is a rapid progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by gradual to perpetual insomnia, followed by dysautonomia, coma and death. 1 The cause of sFI was recently mapped to a mutation in a protein, the prion, found in the human brain. It is the unfolding of the prion that leads to the generation of toxic oligomers that destroy brain tissue and function. Recent studies have confirmed that a methionine mutation at codon 129 of the human Prion is characteristic of sFI...
September 3, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959482/sleep-apnoea-and-stroke
#16
REVIEW
Sameer Sharma, Antonio Culebras
Sleep disorders have been known to physicians for a long time. In his famous aphorisms, Hippocrates said "Sleep or watchfulness exceeding that which is customary, augurs unfavorably". Modern medicine has been able to disentangle some of the phenomena that disturb sleep. Among the most notable offenders is sleep apnoea that has gained prominence in the past few decades. It is being proposed as one of the potentially modifiable risk factors for vascular diseases including stroke. The pathological mechanisms linking sleep apnoea to vascular risk factors include hypoxia, cardiac arrhythmias, dysautonomia, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and inflammation...
December 2016: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904566/is-vitamin-d-deficiency-implicated-in-autonomic-dysfunction
#17
REVIEW
Rozina Wadhwania
Dysautonomia, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, presents with heterogeneous clinical features from an imbalanced regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Low Vitamin D levels can explain the heterogeneous clinical features of migraine headaches, cardiac and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and oxidative stress evident in dysautonomia patients. The role of Vitamin D in modulating pain sensitivity has been recently established. However, there is a lack of research and understanding regarding the association between Vitamin D deficiency and autonomic dysfunction...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770651/multiple-system-atrophy-many-lessons-from-the-transcriptome
#18
Ashton Curry-Hyde, Bei Jun Chen, Uwe Ueberham, Thomas Arendt, Michael Janitz
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a complex, multifactorial, debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is often misdiagnosed and misunderstood. MSA has two subclasses, MSA-P and MSA-C, defined by the dominance of parkinsonism or cerebellar dysfunction in the earlier stages of disease, coupled with dysautonomia. This distinction between subclasses becomes largely redundant as the disease progresses. Aggregation of α-synuclein is a clinical marker used to confirm MSA diagnoses, which can only be performed postmortem...
August 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738696/the-role-of-autoantibodies-in-the-syndromes-of-orthostatic-intolerance-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Mohammed Ruzieh, Lillian Batizy, Osama Dasa, Carson Oostra, Blair Grubb
Orthostatic intolerance is defined as the provocation of symptoms upon standing, commonly caused by neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (OH) and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), the etiology for which has not been fully uncovered yet. Many reports have described the occurrence of dysautonomia, orthostatic intolerance and POTS following febrile illness, presumably viral and post-vaccine. Furthermore, patients with dysautonomia have higher rates of autoimmune disorders such as Hashimoto thyroiditis and SLE...
October 2017: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725706/the-effect-of-deep-brain-stimulation-on-the-non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-critical-review-of-the-current-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Mónica M Kurtis, Thadshani Rajah, Luisa F Delgado, Haidar S Dafsari
The benefit of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in controlling the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is well established, however, the impact on the non-motor symptoms (NMS) remains to be elucidated, although the growing investigative efforts are promising. This article reviews the reported data and considers the level of evidence available with regard to the effect of DBS on NMS total burden and on the cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, pain, dysautonomic, and weight domains. Multiple case series suggest that DBS improves the burden of NMS by reducing prevalence, intensity, and non-motor fluctuations...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
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