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Dark field microscopy

H E du Plessis, J P R de Villiers, A Tuling, E J Olivier
Supported cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are characteristically nanoparticulate and the reduced SiC supported catalyst was found to contain both HCP and FCC polymorphs. This is reflected in the powder XRD patterns and generally there is a poor fit between the experimental and calculated diffractograms. This was ascribed to small crystallite sizes and the occurrence of disorder, manifested as peak broadening and peak shifts. Selected area electron diffraction data of suitably oriented cobalt catalyst grains on silicon carbide supports show non-periodic disorder in the zone axis orientations that contain the common (001) (HCP) and (111) (FCC) reciprocal lattice planes...
October 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ferdous Ara, Zhi Kun Qi, Jie Hou, Tadahiro Komeda, Keiichi Katoh, Masahiro Yamashita
In this article, we investigate a single molecule magnet bis(phthalocyaninato)terbium(iii) (TbPc2) molecule film by using low temperature STM. In order to investigate the effect of molecule-substrate interaction on the electronic and spin properties of the adsorbed molecule, we tune the molecule-substrate coupling by switching the substrate between Au(111) and Ag(111), the latter of which provides stronger interaction with the molecule than the former. Despite the enhanced chemical reactivity of the Ag(111) surface compared with Au(111), a well-organized pseudo-square film is formed...
October 25, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Akio Hayashi, Hiromi Ota, Xavier López, Norihito Hiyoshi, Nao Tsunoji, Tsuneji Sano, Masahiro Sadakane
Dipotassium cation (K(+))-encapsulated Preyssler-type phosphotungstate, [P5W30O110K2](13-), was prepared by heating monobismuth (Bi(3+))-encapsulated Preyssler-type phosphotungstate, [P5W30O110Bi(H2O)](12-), in acetate buffer in the presence of an excess amount of potassium cations. Characterization of the isolated potassium salt, K13[P5W30O110K2] (1a), and its acid form, H13[P5W30O110K2] (1b), by single crystal X-ray structure analysis, (31)P and (183)W nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS), and elemental analysis revealed that two potassium cations are encapsulated in the Preyssler-type phosphotungstate molecule with formal D5h symmetry, which is the first example of a Preyssler-type compound with two encapsulated cations...
October 24, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Keiko Tawa, Shohei Yamamura, Chisato Sasakawa, Izumi Shibata, Masatoshi Kataoka
Plasmonic chip was applied to the live cancer cell imaging. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a surface marker that can be used to classify breast cancer cell lines into distinct differentiation states. EpCAM and the nuclei of two kinds of living breast cancer cells, MDA-MB231 and MCF-7, were stained with allophycocyanin (APC)-labeled anti-EpCAM antibody and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), respectively, and the cells were scattered on either a plasmonic chip (metal-coated wavelength-scale grating substrate) or a control glass slide...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Eva Bladt, Relinde J A van Dijk-Moes, Joep Peters, Federico Montanarella, Celso de Mello Donegá, Daniël Vanmaekelbergh, Sara Bals
Hetero-nanocrystals consisting of a CdSe core and a giant CdS shell have shown remarkable optical properties which are promising for applications in opto-electrical devices. Since these properties sensitively depend on the size and shape, a morphological characterization is of high interest. Here, we present a High Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) study of CdSe (core) / CdS (giant shell) hetero-nanocrystals. Electron tomography reveals that the nanocrystals have a bullet shape, either ending in a tip or a small dip, and that the CdSe core is positioned closer to the tip (or dip) than to the hexagonal base...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Akihiro Suzuki, Kei Shimomura, Makoto Hirose, Nicolas Burdet, Yukio Takahashi
The phase shift of light or electrons in objects is now necessary for probing weak-phase objects such as unstained biological specimens. Optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to observe weak-phase objects. However, conventional OM has low spatial resolution and TEM is limited to thin specimens. Here, we report on the development of dark-field X-ray ptychography, which combines X-ray ptychography and X-ray in-line holography, to observe weak-phase objects with a phase resolution better than 0...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nan Jian, Miriam Dowle, Richard D Horniblow, Chris Tselepis, Richard E Palmer
As the major iron storage protein, ferritin stores and releases iron for maintaining the balance of iron in fauna, flora, and bacteria. We present an investigation of the morphology and iron loading of ferritin (from equine spleen) using aberration-corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. Atom counting method, with size selected Au clusters as mass standards, was employed to determine the number of iron atoms in the nanoparticle core of each ferritin protein. Quantitative analysis shows that the nuclearity of iron atoms in the mineral core varies from a few hundred iron atoms to around 5000 atoms...
October 13, 2016: Nanotechnology
Hidenobu Nakao, Katsuichi Saito, Satoru Tomita, Yukio Magariyama, Yoshihisa Kaizuka, Yoshihiko Takeda
The ecological functions of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been utilized in human life for food processing and probiotic therapy. Understanding the interaction mechanisms between LAB and food ingredients may help to clarify the fermentation process and physiological functions of LAB in the production of fermented foods made from plant materials and dairy products. However, the interaction mechanisms have yet to be fully clarified. Although laser diffraction was used for measuring the size changes of aggregates caused by the interaction between LAB and food ingredients, aggregate sizes could not be determined because of the precipitation of aggregates and its disruption from stirring...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Anzhela Malysheva, Nicolas H Voelcker, Peter E Holm, Enzo Lombi
While the importance of nanoparticle (NP) characterization under relevant test conditions is widely recognized in nanotoxicology, few studies monitor NPs behavior in the presence of exposed organisms. Here we studied the behavior of nine types of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) during the 48h algal toxicity test. In particular, we investigated NP aggregation and dissolution by time-resolved inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ultrafiltration, and performed mass balance measurements to study the distribution of Ag in the test system...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Vitor Brasiliense, Pascal Berto, Catherine Combellas, Robert Kuszelewicz, Gilles Tessier, Frédéric Kanoufi
Although extremely sensitive, electrical measurements are essentially unable to discriminate complex chemical events involving individual nanoparticles. The coupling of electrochemistry to dark field imaging and spectroscopy allows the triggering of the electrodissolution of an ensemble of Ag nanoparticles (by electrochemistry) and the inference of both oxidation and dissolution processes (by spectroscopy) at the level of a single nanoparticle. Besides the inspection of the dissolution process from optical scattering intensity, adding optical spectroscopy reveals chemical changes through drastic spectral changes...
September 13, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Chao Jing, Zhen Gu, Yi-Tao Long
Imaging electrochemical processes has attracted increasing attention in past decades. Particularly, monitoring electrochemical reactions rapidly at the nano-scale is still a challenge due to the ultra-low current detection and long scanning time required. The development of optical techniques provide a new way to demonstrate electrochemical processes through optical signals which enhance sensitivity and spatial resolution. Herein, we developed a novel method to image electrocatalytic processes on single gold nanorods (GNRs) during Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) scanning based on plasmon resonance scattering information by using dark-field microscopy...
September 16, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Katherine N Clayton, Janelle W Salameh, Steven T Wereley, Tamara L Kinzer-Ursem
As the field of colloidal science continues to expand, tools for rapid and accurate physiochemical characterization of colloidal particles will become increasingly important. Here, we present Particle Scattering Diffusometry (PSD), a method that utilizes dark field microscopy and the principles of particle image velocimetry to measure the diffusivity of particles undergoing Brownian motion. PSD measures the diffusion coefficient of particles as small as 30 nm in diameter and is used to characterize changes in particle size and distribution as a function of small, label-free, surface modifications of particles...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Prasenjit Kabi, Swetaprovo Chaudhuri, Saptarshi Basu
Surface patterning with functional colloids is an important research area due to its widespread applicability in domains ranging from nano-electronics, pharmaceutics, semi-conductors, photovoltaics among others. To this endeavour, we propose a low-cost patterning technique that aspires to eliminate the more expensive methodologies presently in practise. Using a simple document stamp on which patterns of any geometry can be embossed, we are able to print two-dimensional mm-scale "wall-less confinement" using ink based hydrophobic fence on any plasma treated superhydrophilic surface...
October 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Fangyao Hu, Robert Morhard, Helen A Murphy, Caigang Zhu, Nimmi Ramanujam
In this study, we propose a low-cost cross-polarized dark field microscopy system for in vivo vascular imaging to detect head and neck cancer. A simple-to-use Gabor-filter-based image processing technique was developed to objectively and automatically quantify several important vascular features, including tortuosity, length, diameter and area fraction, from vascular images. Simulations were performed to evaluate the accuracies of vessel segmentation and feature extraction for our algorithm. Sensitivity and specificity for vessel segmentation of the Gabor masks both remained above 80% at all contrast levels when compared to gold-standard masks...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Taylor Woehl, Robert Keller
An annular dark field (ADF) detector was placed beneath a specimen in a field emission scanning electron microscope operated at 30kV to calibrate detector response to incident beam current, and to create transmission images of gold nanoparticles on silicon nitride (SiN) substrates of various thicknesses. Based on the linear response of the ADF detector diodes to beam current, we developed a method that allowed for direct determination of the percentage of that beam current forward scattered to the ADF detector from the sample, i...
August 6, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
Yu Tong, Eva Bladt, Meltem F Aygüler, Aurora Manzi, Karolina Z Milowska, Verena A Hintermayr, Pablo Docampo, Sara Bals, Alexander S Urban, Lakshminarayana Polavarapu, Jochen Feldmann
We describe the simple, scalable, single-step, and polar-solvent-free synthesis of high-quality colloidal CsPbX3 (X=Cl, Br, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) with tunable halide ion composition and thickness by direct ultrasonication of the corresponding precursor solutions in the presence of organic capping molecules. High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) revealed the cubic crystal structure and surface termination of the NCs with atomic resolution. The NCs exhibit high photoluminescence quantum yields, narrow emission line widths, and considerable air stability...
October 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Zili Wu, Guoxiang Hu, De-En Jiang, David R Mullins, Qian-Fan Zhang, Lawrence F Allard, Lai-Sheng Wang, Steven H Overbury
Investigation of atomically precise Au nanoclusters provides a route to understand the roles of coordination, size, and ligand effects on Au catalysis. Herein, we explored the catalytic behavior of a newly synthesized Au22(L(8))6 nanocluster (L = 1,8-bis(diphenylphosphino) octane) with in situ uncoordinated Au sites supported on TiO2, CeO2, and Al2O3. Stability of the supported Au22 nanoclusters was probed structurally by in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), and their ability to adsorb and oxidize CO was investigated by IR absorption spectroscopy and a temperature-programmed flow reaction...
October 3, 2016: Nano Letters
Luis Alfredo Rodríguez, Cristina Bran, David Reyes, Eider Berganza, Manuel Vázquez, Christophe Gatel, Etienne Snoeck, Agustina Asenjo
The comprehension of the magnetic configuration in FeCoCu nanowires with a diameter-modulated cylindrical geometry will allow controlling the domain wall motion in this low-dimensional system under the application of magnetic fields and/or the injection of current pulses. Here we perform a quantitative magnetic characterization of isolated diameter-modulated FeCoCu nanowires by combining nanoscale magnetic characterization techniques such as electron holography, magnetic force microscopy, and micromagnetic simulations...
October 6, 2016: ACS Nano
Tülin Güven Gökmen, Ayben Soyal, Yıldız Kalayci, Cansu Önlen, Fatih Köksal
Leptospirosis is still one of the most important health problems in developing countries located in humid tropical and subtropical regions. Human infections are generally caused by exposure to water, soil or food contaminated with the urine of infected wild and domestic animals such as rodents and dogs. The clinical course of leptospirosis is variable and may be difficult to distinguish from many other infectious diseases. The dark-field microscopy (DFM), serology and nucleic acid amplification techniques are used to diagnose leptospirosis, however, a distinctive standard reference method is still lacking...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Paramita Ray, Jennifer L Gray, John V Badding, Angela D Lueking
The high-pressure reactivity of caged olefinic carbons and polyatomic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of interest because of their ability to produce unique C-H networks with varying geometries and bonding environments. Here, we have selected triptycene to explore the creation of pores via high-pressure polymerization. Triptycene has internal free volume on a molecular scale that arises due to its paddle wheel-like structure, formed via fusion of three benzene rings via sp(3)-hybridized bridgehead carbon sites...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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