keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Salience

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933003/altered-insular-function-during-aberrant-salience-processing-in-relation-to-the-severity-of-psychotic-symptoms
#1
Anna Walter, Claudia Suenderhauf, Renata Smieskova, Claudia Lenz, Fabienne Harrisberger, André Schmidt, Tobias Vogel, Undine E Lang, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Anne Eckert, Stefan Borgwardt
There is strong evidence for abnormal salience processing in patients with psychotic experiences. In particular, there are indications that the degree of aberrant salience processing increases with the severity of positive symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate this relationship by means of brain imaging. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired to assess hemodynamic responses during the Salience Attribution Test, a paradigm for reaction time that measures aberrant salience to irrelevant stimulus features...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932978/gender-specific-re-organization-of-resting-state-networks-in-older-age
#2
Aimée Goldstone, Stephen D Mayhew, Izabela Przezdzik, Rebecca S Wilson, Joanne R Hale, Andrew P Bagshaw
Advancing age is commonly associated with changes in both brain structure and function. Recently, the suggestion that alterations in brain connectivity may drive disruption in cognitive abilities with age has been investigated. However, the interaction between the effects of age and gender on the re-organization of resting-state networks is not fully understood. This study sought to investigate the effect of both age and gender on intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) and the extent to which resting-state network (RSN) node definition may alter with older age...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931846/gaze-control-as-prediction
#3
REVIEW
John M Henderson
The recent study of overt attention during complex scene viewing has emphasized explaining gaze behavior in terms of image properties and image salience independently of the viewer's intentions and understanding of the scene. In this Opinion article, I outline an alternative approach proposing that gaze control in natural scenes can be characterized as the result of knowledge-driven prediction. This view provides a theoretical context for integrating and unifying many of the disparate phenomena observed in active scene viewing, offers the potential for integrating the behavioral study of gaze with the neurobiological study of eye movements, and provides a theoretical framework for bridging gaze control and other related areas of perception and cognition at both computational and neurobiological levels of analysis...
December 5, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931210/ontological-security-and-connectivity-provided-by-pets-a-study-in-the-self-management-of-the-everyday-lives-of-people-diagnosed-with-a-long-term-mental-health-condition
#4
Helen Brooks, Kelly Rushton, Sandra Walker, Karina Lovell, Anne Rogers
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that connecting people to relevant wellbeing-related resources brings therapeutic benefit, there is limited understanding, in the context of mental health recovery, of the potential value and contribution of pet ownership to personal support networks for self-management. This study aimed to explore the role of pets in the support and management activities in the personal networks of people with long-term mental health problems. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews centred on 'ego' network mapping were conducted in two locations (in the North West and in the South of England) with 54 participants with a diagnosis of a long-term mental health problem...
December 9, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926449/the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-apathy
#5
T T-J Chong, M Husain
Disorders of diminished motivation, such as apathy, are common and prevalent across a wide range of medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, depression, and schizophrenia. Such disorders have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life, yet their management lacks consensus and remains unsatisfactory. Here, we review laboratory and clinical evidence for the use of dopaminergic therapies in the treatment of apathy. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates motivated decision making in humans and other species...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926447/motivation-and-attention-following-hemispheric-stroke
#6
E Olgiati, C Russell, D Soto, P Malhotra
Spatial neglect (SN) is an extremely common disorder of attention; it is most frequently a consequence of stroke, especially to the right cerebral hemisphere. The current view of SN is that it is not a unitary deficit but a multicomponent syndrome. Crucially, it has been repeatedly shown that it has a considerable negative impact on rehabilitation outcome. Although a number of behavioral and pharmacological therapies have been developed, none of these appears to be applicable to all patients with SN or has proved unequivocally successful in clinical trials...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919099/look-before-you-seek-preview-adds-a-fixed-benefit-to-all-searches
#7
Sricharan Sunder, S P Arun
Knowing in advance what to look for speeds up search, but how this knowledge guides search is poorly understood. The little available evidence suggests that previewing the target produces larger reductions in search times for harder searches. To investigate this issue further, we performed seven experiments in which subjects searched for an oddball target after previewing the target, distracter, or an unrelated square. Consistent with previous studies, harder searches showed bigger reductions in search time for an informative preview...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918910/altered-dynamics-of-brain-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder-at-rest-and-during-task-performance
#8
Fabio Sambataro, Eleonora Visintin, Nadja Doerig, Janis Brakowski, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Erich Seifritz, Simona Spinelli
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with alterations in several functional brain networks. Previous studies investigating brain networks in MDD during the performance of a task have yielded inconsistent results with the function of the brain at rest. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest and during a goal-directed task to investigate dynamics of functional connectivity in 19 unmedicated patients with MDD and 19 healthy controls across both experimental paradigms...
November 17, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918862/reexamining-the-relationship-between-mortality-salience-and-prosocial-behavior-in-chinese-context
#9
Qianguo Xiao, Weijie He, Yi Zhu
Given the mixed findings regarding the relationship between Mortality Salience (MS) and prosocial behavior, the present research retested how MS influences prosocial behaviors in Chinese culture. Results showed that although participants have different level of death thought accessibility between an organ donation scenario and a general charity scenario, their willingness for prosocial behaviors were not significantly different between the two scenarios, indicating that under the influence of Chinese culture MS did not decrease prosocial behaviors...
December 5, 2016: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918279/the-sensory-features-of-a-food-cue-influence-its-ability-to-act-as-an-incentive-stimulus-and-evoke-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#10
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Raymond Scarff, Cody Carter, Erin Wright, Brandon J Aragona, Terry E Robinson
The sensory properties of a reward-paired cue (a conditioned stimulus; CS) may impact the motivational value attributed to the cue, and in turn influence the form of the conditioned response (CR) that develops. A cue with multiple sensory qualities, such as a moving lever-CS, may activate numerous neural pathways that process auditory and visual information, resulting in CRs that vary both within and between individuals. For example, CRs include approach to the lever-CS itself (rats that "sign-track"; ST), approach to the location of reward delivery (rats that "goal-track"; GT), or an "intermediate" combination of these behaviors...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917133/the-salience-of-complex-words-and-their-parts-which-comes-first
#11
REVIEW
Hélène Giraudo, Serena Dal Maso
This paper deals with the impact of the salience of complex words and their constituent parts on lexical access. While almost 40 years of psycholinguistic studies have focused on the relevance of morphological structure for word recognition, little attention has been devoted to the relationship between the word as a whole unit and its constituent morphemes. Depending on the theoretical approach adopted, complex words have been seen either in the light of their paradigmatic environment (i.e., from a paradigmatic view), or in terms of their internal structure (i...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917013/birthing-nativity-and-maternal-depression-australia-and-the-united-states
#12
Melissa L Martinson, Marta Tienda
This study analyzes two birth cohort surveys, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n=3944) and Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n=7700), to examine variation in maternal depression by nativity, duration of residence, age at migration, and English proficiency in Australia and the United States. Both countries have long immigrant traditions and a common language. The results demonstrate that US immigrant mothers are significantly less depressed than native-born mothers, but maternal depression does not differ by nativity in Australia...
2016: International Migration Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916664/experience-dependent-modulation-of-right-anterior-insula-and-sensorimotor-regions-as-a-function-of-noise-masked-auditory-feedback-in-singers-and-nonsingers
#13
Boris Kleber, Anders Friberg, Anthony Zeitouni, Robert Zatorre
Previous studies on vocal motor production in singing suggest that the right anterior insula (AI) plays a role in experience-dependent modulation of feedback integration. Specifically, when somatosensory input was reduced via anesthesia of the vocal fold mucosa, right AI activity was down regulated in trained singers. In the current fMRI study, we examined how masking of auditory feedback affects pitch-matching accuracy and corresponding brain activity in the same participants. We found that pitch-matching accuracy was unaffected by masking in trained singers yet declined in nonsingers...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914416/pitch-priming-in-sequences-of-two-sounds
#14
Laurent Demany, Tom Lucas, Catherine Semal
Frequency discrimination limens (FDLs) were measured for pairs of stimuli differing from each other with respect to pitch salience. One of the two stimuli to be compared within a trial was a pure tone of at least 100 ms, evoking a salient pitch, while the other stimulus consisted of only eight sinusoidal cycles (experiment 1), or was a noise band with a Gaussian spectral envelope, evoking a weak pitch corresponding to the peak frequency (experiment 2). From trial to trial, frequency was varied randomly and widely...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914301/hierarchical-organization-in-visual-working-memory-from-global-ensemble-to-individual-object-structure
#15
Qi-Yang Nie, Hermann J Müller, Markus Conci
When remembering a natural scene, both detailed information about specific objects and summary representations such as the gist of a scene are encoded. However, formal models of change detection that are used to estimate working memory capacity, typically assume observers simply encode and maintain memory representations that are treated independently from one another without considering the (hierarchical) object or scene structure. To overcome this limitation, we present a hierarchical variant of the change detection task that attempts to formalize the role of object structure, thus, allowing for richer, more graded memory representations...
November 30, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913362/learning-to-predict-eye-fixations-via-multiresolution-convolutional-neural-networks
#16
Nian Liu, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu, Xuelong Li
Eye movements in the case of freely viewing natural scenes are believed to be guided by local contrast, global contrast, and top-down visual factors. Although a lot of previous works have explored these three saliency cues for several years, there still exists much room for improvement on how to model them and integrate them effectively. This paper proposes a novel computation model to predict eye fixations, which adopts a multiresolution convolutional neural network (Mr-CNN) to infer these three types of saliency cues from raw image data simultaneously...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913348/automatic-refinement-strategies-for-manual-initialization-of-object-trackers
#17
Hao Zhu, Fatih Porikli
Tracking objects across multiple frames is a wellinvestigated problem in computer vision. The majority of the existing algorithms assume an accurate initialization is readily available. However, in many real-life settings, in particular for applications where the video is streaming in real-time, the initialization has to be provided by a human operator. This limitation raises an inevitable uncertainty issue. Here, we first collect a large and new dataset of inputs that consists of more than 20K human initialization clicks, called as HIC, by several subjects under three practical user interface scenarios for the popular TB50 tracking benchmark...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913056/the-best-of-intentions-a-structural-analysis-of-the-association-between-socioeconomic-disadvantage-and-unintended-pregnancy-in-a-sample-of-mothers-from-the-national-longitudinal-survey-of-youth-1979
#18
Akilah Wise, Arline T Geronimus, Pamela J Smock
OBJECTIVES: Births to less educated women are more likely to be classified as unintended than other births. We question a common interpretation that this association reflects a lack of contraceptive knowledge or self-efficacy among less educated women. We theorize that differences in early life educational advantages structure pregnancy desires and the salience and opportunity costs of precise fertility timing. We hypothesize that net of covariates indicative of early educational disadvantage, mothers with less education are not more likely to report births as unintended compared with mothers who have attained higher levels of education before becoming mothers...
November 29, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910222/cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-is-characterized-by-altered-functional-brain-connectivity-of-the-insular-cortex-a-cross-comparison-with-migraine-and-healthy-adults
#19
D-M Ellingsen, R G Garcia, J Lee, R L Lin, J Kim, A H Thurler, S Castel, L Dimisko, B R Rosen, N Hadjikhani, B Kuo, V Napadow
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) has been linked to episodic migraine, yet little is known about the precise brain-based mechanisms underpinning CVS, and whether these associated conditions share similar pathophysiology. We investigated the functional integrity of salience (SLN) and sensorimotor (SMN) intrinsic connectivity networks in CVS, migraine and healthy controls using brain functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. CVS, relative to both migraine and controls, showed increased SLN connectivity to middle/posterior insula, a key brain region for nausea and viscerosensory processing...
December 1, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910120/at-the-margins-of-biomedicine-the-ambiguous-position-of-registered-medical-practitioners-in-rural-indian-healthcare
#20
Papreen Nahar, Nanda Kishore Kannuri, Sitamma Mikkilineni, G V S Murthy, Peter Phillimore
This analysis challenges a tendency in public health and the social sciences to associate India's medical pluralism with a distinction between biomedicine, as a homogeneous entity, and its non-biomedical 'others'. We argue that this overdrawn dichotomy obscures the important part played by 'informal' biomedical practice, an issue with salience well beyond India. Based on a qualitative study in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India, we focus on a figure little discussed in the academic literature - the Registered Medical Practitioner (RMP) - who occupies a niche in the medical market-place as an informal exponent of biomedical treatment...
December 2, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
keyword
keyword
9067
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"