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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108415/how-does-mindfulness-modulate-self-regulation-in-pre-adolescent-children-an-integrative-neurocognitive-review
#1
REVIEW
Rebekah Jane Kaunhoven, Dusana Dorjee
Pre-adolescence is a key developmental period in which complex intrinsic volitional methods of self-regulation are acquired as a result of rapid maturation within the brain networks underlying the self-regulatory processes of attention control and emotion regulation. Fostering adaptive self-regulation skills during this stage of development has strong implications for physical health, emotional and socio-economic outcomes during adulthood. There is a growing interest in mindfulness-based programmes for pre-adolescents with initial findings suggesting self-regulation improvements, however, neurodevelopmental studies on mindfulness with pre-adolescents are scarce...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107679/meta-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-impulsivity-and-substance-related-cognitive-biases
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Leung, Petra K Staiger, Melissa Hayden, Jarrad A G Lum, Kate Hall, Victoria Manning, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that substance-related cognitive biases (attentional, memory, and approach bias) contribute to the maintenance and development of substance misuse. Impulsivity has been suggested to influence how cognitive biases contribute to substance misuse, possibly by biasing incentive salience attribution processes. However, the strength and moderators of the relationship between impulsivity and substance-related cognitive biases has yet to be empirically examined...
January 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101529/cortico-cortical-connections-of-primary-sensory-areas-and-associated-symptoms-in-migraine
#3
Duncan J Hodkinson, Rosanna Veggeberg, Aaron Kucyi, Koene R A van Dijk, Sophie L Wilcox, Steven J Scrivani, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Migraine is a recurring, episodic neurological disorder characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensory disturbances. These events are thought to arise from the activation and sensitization of neurons along the trigemino-vascular pathway. From animal studies, it is known that thalamocortical projections play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signals from the meninges to the cortex. However, little is currently known about the potential involvement of cortico-cortical feedback projections from higher-order multisensory areas and/or feedforward projections from principle primary sensory areas or subcortical structures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100246/genetic-effect-of-interleukin-1-beta-c-511t-polymorphism-on-the-structural-covariance-network-and-white-matter-integrity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Chi-Wei Huang, Shih-Wei Hsu, Shih-Jen Tsai, Nai-Ching Chen, Mu-En Liu, Chen-Chang Lee, Shu-Hua Huang, Weng-Neng Chang, Ya-Ting Chang, Wan-Chen Tsai, Chiung-Chih Chang
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory processes play a pivotal role in the degenerative process of Alzheimer's disease. In humans, a biallelic (C/T) polymorphism in the promoter region (position-511) (rs16944) of the interleukin-1 beta gene has been significantly associated with differences in the secretory capacity of interleukin-1 beta. In this study, we investigated whether this functional polymorphism mediates the brain networks in patients with Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 135 patients with Alzheimer's disease (65 males, 70 females), and investigated their gray matter structural covariance networks using 3D T1 magnetic resonance imaging and their white matter macro-structural integrities using fractional anisotropy...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096673/apathy-and-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-networks-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Soo Hyun Joo, Chang Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
BACKGROUND: Although several prior works reported that apathy is associated with conversion to Alzheimer's disease in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), effects of apathy on the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the pattern of association between apathy and default mode network (DMN), salience network and central executive network (CEN) in aMCI subjects. METHODS: Fifty subjects with aMCI and 50 controls (CONs) participated in this study...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096249/natural-language-processing-to-extract-symptoms-of-severe-mental-illness-from-clinical-text-the-clinical-record-interactive-search-comprehensive-data-extraction-cris-code-project
#6
Richard G Jackson, Rashmi Patel, Nishamali Jayatilleke, Anna Kolliakou, Michael Ball, Genevieve Gorrell, Angus Roberts, Richard J Dobson, Robert Stewart
OBJECTIVES: We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. DESIGN: Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of discharge summaries...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#7
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
January 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092585/saliency-based-lesion-segmentation-via-background-detection-in-dermoscopic-images
#8
Euijoon Ahn, Jinman Kim, Lei Bi, Ashnil Kumar, Changyang Li, Michael Fulham, Dagan Feng
The segmentation of skin lesions in dermoscopic images is a fundamental step in automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of melanoma. Conventional segmentation methods, however, have difficulties when the lesion borders are indistinct and when contrast between the lesion and the surrounding skin is low. They also perform poorly when there is a heterogeneous background or a lesion that touches the image boundaries; this then results in under- and over-segmentation of the skin lesion. We suggest that saliency detection using the reconstruction errors derived from a sparse representation model coupled with a novel background detection can more accurately discriminate the lesion from surrounding regions...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092556/study-of-saliency-in-objective-video-quality-assessment
#9
Wei Zhang, Hantao Liu
Reliably predicting video quality as perceived by humans remains challenging and is of high practical relevance. A significant research trend is to investigate visual saliency and its implications for video quality assessment. Fundamental problems regarding how to acquire reliable eye-tracking data for the purpose of video quality research and how saliency should be incorporated in objective video quality metrics (VQMs) are largely unsolved. In this paper, we propose a refined methodology for reliably collecting eye-tracking data, which essentially eliminates bias induced by each subject having to view multiple variations of the same scene in a conventional experiment...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092539/object-based-multiple-foreground-segmentation-in-rgbd-video
#10
Huazhu Fu, Dong Xu, Stephen Lin
We present an RGBD video segmentation method that takes advantage of depth data and can extract multiple foregrounds in the scene. This video segmentation is addressed as an object proposal selection problem formulated in a fullyconnected graph where a flexible number of foregrounds may be chosen. In the graph, each node represents a proposal, and the edges model intra-frame and inter-frame constraints on the solution. The proposals are generated based on an RGBD video saliency map in which depth-based features are utilized to enhance identification of foregrounds...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092055/differentiating-emotional-processing-and-attention-in-psychopathy-with-functional-neuroimaging
#11
Nathaniel E Anderson, Vaughn R Steele, J Michael Maurer, Vikram Rao, Michael R Koenigs, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Individuals with psychopathy are often characterized by emotional processing deficits, and recent research has examined the specific contexts and cognitive mechanisms that underlie these abnormalities. Some evidence suggests that abnormal features of attention are fundamental to emotional deficits in persons with psychopathy, but few studies have demonstrated the neural underpinnings responsible for such effects. Here, we use functional neuroimaging to examine attention-emotion interactions among incarcerated individuals (n = 120) evaluated for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
January 16, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089758/pupil-responses-and-pain-ratings-to-heat-stimuli-reliability-and-effects-of-expectations-and-a-conditioning-pain-stimulus
#12
James C Eisenach, Regina Curry, Carol A Aschenbrenner, Robert C Coghill, Timothy T Houle
BACKGROUND: The locus coeruleus (LC) signals salience to sensory stimuli and these responses can modulate the experience of pain stimuli. The pupil dilation response (PDR) to noxious stimuli is thought to be a surrogate for LC responses, but PDR response to Peltier-controlled noxious heat stimuli, the most commonly used method in experimental pain research, has not been described. NEW METHOD: Healthy volunteers were presented with randomly presented heat stimuli of 5 sec duration and provided pain intensity ratings to each stimulus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089714/effects-of-touch-on-emotional-face-processing-a-study-of-event-related-potentials-facial-emg-and-cardiac-activity
#13
M M Spapé, Harjunen, N Ravaja
Being touched is known to affect emotion, and even a casual touch can elicit positive feelings and affinity. Psychophysiological studies have recently shown that tactile primes affect visual evoked potentials to emotional stimuli, suggesting altered affective stimulus processing. As, however, these studies approached emotion from a purely unidimensional perspective, it remains unclear whether touch biases emotional evaluation or a more general feature such as salience. Here, we investigated how simple tactile primes modulate event related potentials (ERPs), facial EMG and cardiac response to pictures of facial expressions of emotion...
January 12, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088703/dopaminergic-rules-of-engagement-for-memory-in-drosophila
#14
REVIEW
Karla R Kaun, Adrian Rothenfluh
Dopamine is associated with a variety of conserved responses across species including locomotion, sleep, food consumption, aggression, courtship, addiction and several forms of appetitive and aversive memory. Historically, dopamine has been most prominently associated with dynamics underlying reward, punishment, or salience. Recent emerging evidence from Drosophila supports a role in all of these functions, as well as additional roles in the interplay between external sensation and internal states and forgetting of the very memories dopamine helped encode...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086827/mothers-accounts-of-the-impact-on-emotional-wellbeing-of-organised-peer-support-in-pregnancy-and-early-parenthood-a-qualitative-study
#15
Jenny McLeish, Maggie Redshaw
BACKGROUND: The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080149/positive-preferences-the-emotional-valence-of-what-an-avatar-says-matters
#16
Jennifer Wu, Philipp Kraemer
This study examined preferences and ascriptions of human control for avatars associated with positive and negative language. An avatar is a graphical representation of an individual user in a virtual world. Users form judgments of other virtual world users based on the appearance and behavior of their avatars in the absence of physical cues. In particular, users have previously displayed sensitivity toward anthropomorphism and verbal behavior of avatars they encounter within virtual environments. Thus far, investigations of language in online and virtual spaces have been limited to specific contexts...
January 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080087/perceptual-salience-does-not-influence-emotional-arousal-s-impairing-effects-on-top-down-attention
#17
Matthew R Sutherland, Douglas A McQuiggan, Jennifer D Ryan, Mara Mather
Emotional arousal impairs top-down attentional control while strengthening bottom-up attentional biases. In this study, we examined whether top-down impairments due to arousal can be modulated by increasing the perceptual salience of the target stimulus. To examine this question, we briefly displayed positive and negative arousing images prior to the encoding of 2 emotionally neutral items, 1 of which was to be remembered and 1 of which was perceptually salient (the to-be-remembered and the salient items were either the same item or different items)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078620/education-and-the-transition-to-fatherhood-the-role-of-selection-into-union
#18
Alessandra Trimarchi, Jan Van Bavel
Although advanced education has been found to be consistently associated with a later transition to parenthood for women, findings about education and the transition to parenthood have been much less consistent for men, and no stylized fact has emerged from the literature. We argue that the inconsistency of findings for men is due to the fact that the selection process involved in union formation has been disregarded in earlier studies. We hypothesize that men's educational attainment consistently and positively affects the transition to fatherhood via higher rates of union formation...
January 11, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078093/health-communication-implications-of-the-perceived-meanings-of-terms-used-to-denote-unhealthy-foods
#19
Simone Pettigrew, Zenobia Talati, Iain S Pratt
BACKGROUND: Using appropriate terminology in nutrition education programs and behaviour change campaigns is important to optimise the effectiveness of these efforts. To inform future communications on the topic of healthy eating, this study explored adults' perceptions of the meaning of four terms used to describe unhealthy foods: junk food, snack food, party food, and discretionary food. METHODS: Australian adults were recruited to participate in an online survey that included demographic items and open-ended questions relating to perceptions of the four terms...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077708/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#20
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. However, how changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal remains unknown...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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