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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735078/revisiting-the-role-of-the-insula-and-smoking-cue-reactivity-in-relapse-a-replication-and-extension-of-neuroimaging-findings
#1
A C Janes, J M Gilman, M Radoman, G Pachas, M Fava, A E Evins
INTRODUCTION: The ability to direct smoking cessation treatment based on neuroscientific findings holds incredible promise. However, there is a strong need for consistency across studies to confirm neurobiological targets. While our prior work implicated enhanced insula reactivity to smoking cues in tobacco smoking relapse vulnerability, this finding has not been confirmed. METHOD: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we evaluated the pre-cessation brain reactivity to smoking vs...
July 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734549/habitual-versus-goal-driven-attention
#2
REVIEW
Yuhong V Jiang
Recent research has expanded the list of factors that control spatial attention. Beside current goals and perceptual salience, statistical learning, reward, motivation and emotion also affect attention. But do these various factors influence spatial attention in the same manner, as suggested by the integrated framework of attention, or do they target different aspects of spatial attention? Here I present evidence that the control of attention may be implemented in two ways. Whereas current goals typically modulate where in space attention is prioritized, search habits affect how one moves attention in space...
July 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734059/localized-reductions-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#3
Jia Fan, Paul A Taylor, Sandra W Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Suril Gohel, Bharat B Biswal, Joseph L Jacobson, Ernesta M Meintjes
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by impairment in cognitive function that may or may not be accompanied by craniofacial anomalies, microcephaly, and/or growth retardation. Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), which examines the low-frequency component of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of an explicit task, provides an efficient and powerful mechanism for studying functional brain networks even in low-functioning and young subjects. Studies using independent component analysis (ICA) have identified a set of resting-state networks (RSNs) that have been linked to distinct domains of cognitive and perceptual function, which are believed to reflect the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain...
July 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730943/collective-in-exile-utilizing-terror-management-theory-to-understand-women-s-wailing-performance
#4
Tova Gamliel
Although women's wailing at death rites in various cultures typically amplifies mortality salience, this ritual phenomenon is absent in the research literature on terror management theory (TMT). This study explored Yemenite-Jewish wailing in Israel as an example of how a traditional performance manages death anxiety in a community context. Observations of wailing events and interviews with Yemenite-Jewish wailers and mourners in Israel were analyzed to understand respondents' perceptions of the experience of wailing as well as the anxiety-oriented psychotherapeutic expertise involved...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730732/shared-atypical-default-mode-and-salience-network-functional-connectivity-between-autism-and-schizophrenia
#5
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Junjie Zheng, Zhiliang Long, Youxue Zhang, Xiaonan Guo, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730183/aberrant-cerebellar-connectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-with-psychosis
#6
Ann K Shinn, Youkyung S Roh, Caitlin T Ravichandran, Justin T Baker, Dost Öngür, Bruce M Cohen
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum, which modulates affect and cognition in addition to motor functions, may contribute substantially to the pathophysiology of mood and psychotic disorders, such as bipolar disorder. A growing literature points to cerebellar abnormalities in bipolar disorder. However, no studies have investigated the topographic representations of resting state cerebellar networks in bipolar disorder, specifically their functional connectivity to cerebral cortical networks. METHODS: Using a well-defined cerebral cortical parcellation scheme as functional connectivity seeds, we compared ten cerebellar resting state networks in 49 patients with bipolar disorder and a lifetime history of psychotic features and 55 healthy control participants matched for age, sex, and image signal-to-noise ratio...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724460/health-and-well-being-promotion-strategies-for-hard-to-reach-older-people-in-england-a-mapping-exercise
#7
Steve Iliffe, Kate Walters, Jill Manthorpe, Claire Goodman, Kalpa Kharicha
BACKGROUND: Older people from deprived areas, the oldest old and those from ethnic minorities engage less in health promotion interventions and related research, potentially generating inequities. Aim To explore and map the extent to which such 'hard to reach' groups of older people, are the focus of local health and well-being strategies in England. METHODS: Document analysis of current health and well-being promotion strategies in a purposive sample of 10 localities in England with high proportions of some or all of the three hard to reach groups...
July 20, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723975/a-view-not-to-be-missed-salient-scene-content-interferes-with-cognitive-restoration
#8
Alexander P N Van der Jagt, Tony Craig, Mark J Brewer, David G Pearson
Attention Restoration Theory (ART) states that built scenes place greater load on attentional resources than natural scenes. This is explained in terms of "hard" and "soft" fascination of built and natural scenes. Given a lack of direct empirical evidence for this assumption we propose that perceptual saliency of scene content can function as an empirically derived indicator of fascination. Saliency levels were established by measuring speed of scene category detection using a Go/No-Go detection paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that built scenes are more salient than natural scenes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722023/potential-involvement-of-impaired-bkca-channel-function-in-sensory-defensiveness-and-some-behavioral-disturbances-induced-by-unfamiliar-environment-in-a-mouse-model-of-fxs
#9
Maria Isabel Carreno-Munoz, Fabienne Martins, Maria Carmen Medrano, Elisabetta Aloisi, Susanna Pietropaolo, Corentin Dechaud, Enejda Subashi, Guillaume Bony, Melanie Ginger, Abdelmalik Moujahid, Andreas Frick, Xavier Leinekugel
In Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), sensory-hypersensitivity and impaired habituation is thought to result in attention overload and various behavioral abnormalities in reaction to the excessive and remanent salience of environment-features that would normally be ignored. This phenomenon, termed sensory defensiveness, has been proposed as the potential cause of hyperactivity, hyperarousal, and negative reactions to changes in routine that are often deleterious for FXS patients. However, the lack of tools for manipulating sensory-hypersensitivity has not allowed the experimental testing required to evaluate the relevance of this hypothesis...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721574/operant-discrimination-of-relative-frequency-ratios-in-black-capped-chickadee-song
#10
Sean P Roach, Daniel J Mennill, Leslie S Phillmore
The two-note fee bee song of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is sung at many different absolute frequencies, but the relative frequencies, or "pitch ratios", between the start and end of the fee note (glissando) and the fee and the bee notes (inter-note interval) are preserved with each pitch-shift. Ability to perceive these ratios and their relative salience varies with sex of the bird and setting: while both sexes appear to perceive changes in the inter-note interval, males appear to attend to the glissando in the field, and females appear to attend to both ratios...
July 18, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721480/intermittent-and-daily-smokers-subjective-responses-to-smoking
#11
Saul Shiffman, Lauren Terhorst
RATIONALE: One third of US smokers are intermittent smokers (ITS) who do not smoke daily. Unlike daily smokers (DS), whose smoking is negatively reinforced by withdrawal relief, ITS may be motivated by immediate positive reinforcement. In contrast, incentive salience theory posits hypothesis that "liking" of drug effects fades in established users, such as DS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare ITS' and DS' hedonic responses to smoking. METHODS: Participants were 109 ITS (smoking 4-27 days/month) and 52 DS (smoking daily 5-25 cigarettes/day), aged ≥21, smoking ≥3 years, and not quitting smoking...
July 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720249/using-wheel-availability-to-shape-running-behavior-of-the-rat-towards-improved-behavioral-and-neurobiological-outcomes
#12
Julia C Basso, Joan I Morrell
BACKGROUND: Though voluntary wheel running (VWR) has been used extensively to induce changes in both behavior and biology, little attention has been given to the way in which different variables influence VWR. This lack of understanding has led to an inability to utilize this behavior to its full potential, possibly blunting its effects on the endpoints of interest. NEW METHOD: We tested how running experience, sex, gonadal hormones, and wheel apparatus influence VWR in a range of wheel access "doses"...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719056/tracking-salience-in-young-people-a-psychometric-field-test-of-the-aberrant-salience-inventory-asi
#13
Andrea Raballo, David C Cicero, John G Kerns, Sara Sanna, Mirra Pintus, Ingrid Agartz, Elisa Pintus, Irene Corrias, Veronica Lai, Donatella Rita Petretto, Mauro G Carta, Antonio Preti
AIM: To explore the prevalence of Aberrant Salience (AS, an alleged experiential feature of psychosis-proneness) in Italian young people and corroborate the transcultural validity of the Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI). METHODS: Young adults attending an Italian university (n = 649) underwent serial evaluations with the ASI together with psychometric proxies for help seeking General Health Questionnaire and attenuated positive and negative symptoms Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)...
July 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718512/overweight-is-associated-with-lower-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-females-after-eliminating-genetic-effects-a-twin-study
#14
Stieneke Doornweerd, Eelco van Duinkerken, Eco J de Geus, Parniane Arbab-Zadeh, Dick J Veltman, Richard G IJzerman
Obesity is related to altered functional connectivity of resting state brain networks that are involved in reward and motivation. It is unknown to what extent these associations reflect genetic confounding and whether the obesity-related connectivity changes are associated with differences in dietary intake. In this study, resting state functional MRI was performed after an overnight fast in 16 female monozygotic twin pairs (aged 48.8 ± 9.8 years) with a mean BMI discordance of 3.96 ± 2.1 kg/m(2) (range 0...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718177/saliency-maps-for-finding-changes-in-visual-scenes
#15
Heinrich René Liesefeld, Anna Marie Liesefeld, Hermann J Müller, Dragan Rangelov
Sudden changes in the environment reliably summon attention. This rapid change detection appears to operate in a similar fashion as pop-out in visual search, the phenomenon that very salient stimuli are directly attended, independently of the number of distracting objects. Pop-out is usually explained by the workings of saliency maps, i.e., map-like representations that code for the conspicuity at each location of the visual field. While past research emphasized similarities between pop-out search and change detection, our study highlights differences between the saliency computations in the two tasks: in contrast to pop-out search, saliency computation in change detection (i) operates independently across different stimulus properties (e...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#16
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Since both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N= 359 [22-36 yrs], 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#17
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715675/resting-state-brain-networks-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-impulse-control-disorders
#18
Alessandro Tessitore, Gabriella Santangelo, Rosa De Micco, Alfonso Giordano, Simona Raimo, Marianna Amboni, Fabrizio Esposito, Paolo Barone, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Carmine Vitale
INTRODUCTION: To investigate intrinsic neural networks connectivity changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). METHODS: Fifteen patients with PD with ICD (ICD+), 15 patients with PD without ICD (ICD-) and 24 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in the study. To identify patients with and without ICD and/or punding, we used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI) and a clinical interview based on diagnostic criteria for each symptom...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715141/walnut-consumption-increases-activation-of-the-insula-to-highly-desirable-food-cues-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-fmri-study
#19
Olivia M Farr, Dario Tuccinardi, Jagriti Upadhyay, Sabrina M Oussaada, Christos S Mantzoros
AIMS: The use of walnuts is recommended for obesity and type 2 diabetes, although the mechanisms through which walnuts may improve appetite and/or glycemic control remain largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine whether short-term walnut consumption could alter the neural control of appetite using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of 10 patients who received, while living in the controlled environment of a clinical research center, either walnuts or placebo (using a validated smoothie delivery system) for 5 days each, separated by a wash-out period of one month...
July 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714952/a-circuit-based-mechanism-underlying-familiarity-signaling-and-the-preference-for-novelty
#20
Susanna Molas, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Liwang Liu, Steven R DeGroot, Paul D Gardner, Andrew R Tapper
Novelty preference (NP) is an evolutionarily conserved, essential survival mechanism often dysregulated in neuropsychiatric disorders. NP is mediated by a motivational dopamine signal that increases in response to novel stimuli, thereby driving exploration. However, the mechanism by which once-novel stimuli transition to familiar stimuli is unknown. Here we describe a neuroanatomical substrate for familiarity signaling, the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the midbrain, which is activated as novel stimuli become familiar with multiple exposures...
July 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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