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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243531/impact-of-reward-and-loss-anticipation-on-cognitive-control-an-event-related-potential-study-in-subjects-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#1
Annarita Vignapiano, Armida Mucci, Eleonora Merlotti, Giulia Maria Giordano, Antonella Amodio, Davide Palumbo, Silvana Galderisi
INTRODUCTION: Deficits of cognitive functions and motivation are core aspects of schizophrenia. The interaction of these deficits might contribute to impair the ability to flexibly adjust behavior in accordance with one's intentions and goals. Many studies have focused on the anterior N2 as a correlate of cognitive control based on motivational value. AIMS: Given the key role of motivation impairment in schizophrenia as a predictor of functional outcome, we aimed to study the impact of reward- and avoidance-based motivation on cognitive control using N2...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242104/structural-network-differences-in-chronic-muskuloskeletal-pain-beyond-fractional-anisotropy
#2
James H Bishop, Marina Shpaner, Antoni Kubicki, Sarah Clements, Richard Watts, Magdalena R Naylor
Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a condition that influences central nervous system structure. In this study, we combined novel structural neuroimaging techniques, using well-validated software packages including FSL, Mrtrix3, and DSI Studio, to characterize brain grey (GM) and white matter (WM) differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain participants (n = 74), compared to age-matched pain-free controls (n = 31). In participants with chronic pain, we identified significantly higher volume in subcortical GM structures using voxel-based morphometry (FSLVBM)...
December 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241395/oxytocin-regulates-social-approach
#3
Daniela Cohen, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
The physical space individuals share is known as interpersonal space. As social creatures, people tend to approach others actively and explore the environment around them, opting for different space preferences with different people. In the current study, we sought to examine the role of oxytocin (OT) in regulating active social interpersonal space preferences. Contrary to previous studies that reported a preference for increased space following intranasal OT, we predicted that following OT administration individuals would exhibit increased active approach towards a protagonist...
December 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237282/modulation-of-salience-network-intranetwork-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-women-with-chronic-migraine
#4
X Michelle Androulakis, Chris Rorden, B Lee Peterlin, Kaitlin Krebs
Objective To investigate the intranetwork resting state fMRI connectivity within the Salience Network of chronic migraine with and without medication overuse headache. Methods We compared 351 pairs of intranetwork connectivity in chronic migraine (n = 13) and chronic migraine with medication overuse headache (n = 16) compared to matched controls, and between each chronic migraine subgroup. Results Compared to controls, 17 pairs of intranetwork connections in chronic migraine and 27 pairs in chronic migraine with medication overuse headache were decreased...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237276/differential-effects-of-left-and-right-prefrontal-high-frequency-rtms-on-resting-state-fmri-in-healthy-individuals
#5
Renee S Schluter, Jochem M Jansen, Ruth J van Holst, Wim van den Brink, Anna E Goudriaan
High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) has gained great interest in multiple clinical and research fields and is believed to accomplish its effect by influencing neuronal networks. The dlPFC is frequently chosen as the cortical target for HF-rTMS. However very little is known about the differential effect of HF-rTMS over the left and right dlPFC on intrinsic functional connectivity networks in patients or in healthy individuals. The current study assessed the differential effects of left or right HF-rTMS (corrected for sham) on intrinsic Independent Component Analysis (ICA) defined functional connectivity networks in a sample of 45 healthy individuals...
December 14, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235690/improving-alcohol-and-mental-health-treatment-for-lesbian-bisexual-and-queer-women-identity-matters
#6
Amy Pennay, Ruth McNair, Tonda L Hughes, William Leonard, Rhonda Brown, Dan I Lubman
OBJECTIVE: Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience substantial unmet alcohol and mental health treatment needs. This paper explores the way in which sexual identity shapes experience, and needs, in relation to alcohol and mental health treatment, and presents key messages for improving treatment. METHODS: Twenty-five in-depth interviews were undertaken with same-sex attracted Australian women, aged 19-71. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically...
December 13, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227243/cue-reactivity-essentials-event-related-potentials-during-identification-of-visual-alcoholic-stimuli-in-social-drinkers
#7
Agnes M Kroczek, Florian B Haeussinger, Justin Hudak, Lucy D Vanes, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
OBJECTIVE: Cue reactivity is an automatic reaction to alcohol-related cues, contributing to the maintenance of drinking behavior and relapse in alcohol dependency. The identification of valid cue-reactivity features is a prerequisite for its clinical application. We were interested in the effects of visual features of alcohol cues (e.g., color) on cue reactivity. Assuming its development at a pre-pathological stage, we analyzed cue reactivity in heavy social drinkers, with light social drinkers as controls...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222936/role-of-central-oxytocin-and-dopamine-systems-in-nociception-and-their-possible-interactions-suggested-hypotheses
#8
Mohammed Gamal-Eltrabily, Alfredo Manzano-García
Central oxytocin and dopamine have an important role in the process of nociception at the spinal level as well as supraspinal structures, e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus. Many studies have pointed out the importance of both systems in the pain descending modulatory system and in pain-related symptoms in some chronic disorders, e.g. Parkinson disease and fibromyalgia. The interaction between oxytocin and dopamine systems has been addressed in some motivational behaviors, e...
December 9, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220361/pre-stimulus-pupil-dilation-and-the-preparatory-control-of-attention
#9
Jessica L Irons, Minjeong Jeon, Andrew B Leber
Task preparation involves multiple component processes, including a general evaluative process that signals the need for adjustments in control, and the engagement of task-specific control settings. Here we examined the dynamics of these different mechanisms in preparing the attentional control system for visual search. We explored preparatory activity using pupil dilation, a well-established measure of task demands and effortful processing. In an initial exploratory experiment, participants were cued at the start of each trial to search for either a salient color singleton target (an easy search task) or a low-salience shape singleton target (a difficult search task)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220319/poi-summarization-by-aesthetics-evaluation-from-crowd-source-social-media
#10
Xueming Qian, Cheng Li, Ke Lan, Xingsong Hou, Zhetao Li, Junwei Han
Place-of-Interest (POI) summarization by aesthetics evaluation can recommend a set of POI images to the user and it is significant in image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a system that summarizes a collection of POI images regarding both aesthetics and diversity of the distribution of cameras. First, we generate visual albums by a coarse-to-fine POI clustering approach and then generate 3D models for each album by the collected images from social media. Second, based on the 3D to 2D projection relationship, we select candidate photos in terms of the proposed crowd source saliency model...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217684/retrieval-demands-adaptively-change-striatal-old-new-signals-and-boost-subsequent-long-term-memory
#11
Nora A Herweg, Tobias Sommer, Nico Bunzeck
The striatum is a central part of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and contributes both to the encoding and retrieval of long-term memories. In this regard, the co-occurrence of striatal novelty and retrieval success effects in independent studies underlines the structure's double duty and suggests dynamic contextual adaption. To test this hypothesis and further investigate the underlying mechanisms of encoding and retrieval dynamics, human subjects viewed pre-familiarized scene images intermixed with new scenes and classified them as indoor vs...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216861/impaired-mixed-emotion-processing-in-the-right-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-an-fmri-study
#12
Ádám György Szabó, Kinga Farkas, Csilla Marosi, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Rudas, János Réthelyi, Gábor Csukly
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has a negative effect on the activity of the temporal and prefrontal cortices in the processing of emotional facial expressions. However no previous research focused on the evaluation of mixed emotions in schizophrenia, albeit they are frequently expressed in everyday situations and negative emotions are frequently expressed by mixed facial expressions. METHODS: Altogether 37 subjects, 19 patients with schizophrenia and 18 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study...
December 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216195/reduced-visual-attention-in-heterogeneous-textures-is-reflected-in-occipital-alpha-and-theta-band-activity
#13
Tobias Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Makoto Miyakoshi, Marco Alessandro Petilli, Anna Schubö, Scott Makeig
Increasing context heterogeneity has been found to reduce attention deployment towards an embedded target item. Heterogeneity in visual search tasks is typically induced by segmenting the background into several perceptual groups. In the present study, however, context heterogeneity was induced by varying whole-field heterogeneity, i.e., the degree of distractor variability within the entire context. This allowed us to (i) more gradually vary context heterogeneity, and (ii) investigate attention deployment on a whole-field scale...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215555/the-effect-of-branding-to-promote-healthy-behavior-reducing-tobacco-use-among-youth-and-young-adults
#14
Donna Vallone, Marisa Greenberg, Haijun Xiao, Morgane Bennett, Jennifer Cantrell, Jessica Rath, Elizabeth Hair
Policy interventions such as public health mass media campaigns disseminate messages in order to improve health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors at the population level. Only more recently have campaigns that promote health-related behaviors adopted branding, a well-established marketing strategy, to influence how consumers think and feel about a message. This study examines whether positive brand equity for the national truth® campaign is associated with lower likelihood of cigarette use over time using the nationally representative Truth Longitudinal Cohort of youth and young adults, aged 15-21...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214847/introducing-a-new-assessment-tool-for-measuring-ethnic-racial-identity-the-cross-ethnic-racial-identity-scale-adult-ceris-a
#15
Frank C Worrell, Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton, Amanda Wang
In this article, we examined the psychometric properties of scores on a new instrument, the Cross Ethnic-Racial Identity Scale-Adult (CERIS-A) for use across different ethnic and racial groups. The CERIS-A measures seven ethnic-racial identity attitudes-assimilation, miseducation, self-hatred, anti-dominant, ethnocentricity, multiculturalist inclusive, and ethnic-racial salience. Participants consisted of 803 adults aged 18 to 76, including African Americans (19.3%), Asian Americans (17.6%), European Americans (37...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211500/correlates-of-tinder-use-and-risky-sexual-behaviors-in-young-adults
#16
Gilla K Shapiro, Ovidiu Tatar, Arielle Sutton, William Fisher, Anila Naz, Samara Perez, Zeev Rosberger
Tinder is a frequently used geosocial networking application that allows users to meet sexual partners in their geographical vicinity. Research examining Tinder use and its association with behavioral outcomes is scarce. The objectives of this study were to explore the correlates of Tinder use and risky sexual behaviors in young adults. Participants aged 18-26 were invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire between January and May 2016. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, Tinder use, health related behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and sexual attitudes...
December 6, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209913/the-influence-of-sex-information-on-gender-word-processing
#17
Alba Casado, Alfonso Palma, Daniela Paolieri
Three different tasks (word repetition, lexical decision, and gender decision) were designed to explore the impact of the sex clues (sex of the speaker, sex of the addressee) and the type of gender (semantic, arbitrary) on the processing of isolated Spanish gendered words. The findings showed that the grammatical gender feature was accessed when no mandatory attentional focus was required. In addition, the results indicated that the participants organize information according to their own sex role, which provides more salience to the words that match in grammatical gender with their own sex role representation, even when the gender assignment is arbitrary...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209184/dynamics-of-intersubject-brain-networks-during-anxious-anticipation
#18
Mahshid Najafi, Joshua Kinnison, Luiz Pessoa
How do large-scale brain networks reorganize during the waxing and waning of anxious anticipation? Here, threat was dynamically modulated during human functional MRI as two circles slowly meandered on the screen; if they touched, an unpleasant shock was delivered. We employed intersubject correlation analysis, which allowed the investigation of network-level functional connectivity across brains, and sought to determine how network connectivity changed during periods of approach (circles moving closer) and periods of retreat (circles moving apart)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209095/life-role-salience-and-subjective-well-being-among-macedonian-employees-does-family-supportive-organization-perception-moderate-this-relationship
#19
Biljana Blaževska Stoilkovska, Orhideja Šurbanovska, Ana Fritzhand, Tatjana Stojanoska Ivanova
OBJECTIVES: As many studies have shown, one of the most important tendencies of employees nowadays is to achieve work- life balance. Organizations should develop various activities and create supportive climate, within the framework of which employees will have opportunities to realize aforementioned goals which in turn would increase work productivity and work motivation. The aim of this paper was to examine how subjective well-being (life satisfaction and exhaustion) is associated with commitment to work and family roles under the conditions of strongly and weakly perceived organizational support for family life among health care professionals, teachers and bankers in Macedonia...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208422/support-vector-machine-based-classification-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-and-healthy-controls-using-structural-mri
#20
Yuan Xiao, Zhihan Yan, Youjin Zhao, Bo Tao, Huaiqiang Sun, Fei Li, Li Yao, Wenjing Zhang, Shah Chandan, Jieke Liu, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
Although regional brain deficits have been demonstrated in schizophrenia patients by structural MRI studies, one important question that remains largely unanswered is whether the complex and subtle deficits revealed by MRI could be used as objective biomarkers to discriminate patients from healthy controls individually. To address this question, a total of 326 right-handed participants were recruited, including 163 drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and 163 demographically matched healthy controls...
December 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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