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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683693/multiple-feature-use-in-pigeons-category-discrimination-the-influence-of-stimulus-set-structure-and-the-salience-of-stimulus-differences
#1
Stephen E G Lea, Emmanuel M Pothos, Andy J Wills, Lisa A Leaver, Catriona M E Ryan, Christina Meier
Two experiments investigated what makes it more likely that pigeons' behavior will come under the control of multiple relevant visual stimulus dimensions. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of stimulus set structure, using a conditional discrimination between circles that differed in both hue and diameter. Two training conditions differed in whether hue and diameter were correlated in the same way within positive and negative stimulus sets as between sets. Transfer tests showed that all pigeons came under the control of both dimensions, regardless of stimulus set structure...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681004/religious-and-spiritual-salience-well-being-and-psychosocial-functioning-among-psychotherapy-clients-moderator-effects-for-humility
#2
David R Paine, Steven J Sandage, Elizabeth G Ruffing, Peter C Hill
A number of studies have examined the mediating factors in the relationship between religion and spirituality (R/S) and psychological health. Humility is a virtue that has been positively correlated with R/S variables, measures of well-being, and indicators of psychosocial functioning. In this study, we investigate dispositional humility as a potential moderator in the relationship between religious and spiritual salience and (1) well-being and (2) psychosocial functioning outcomes in a clinical sample. Results indicated that dispositional humility significantly moderated the relationships tested...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680318/using-a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-test-whether-modifications-to-contingency-management-improve-outcomes-for-heavy-drinkers-with-serious-mental-illness
#3
Oladunni Oluwoye, Jordan Skalisky, Ekaterina Burduli, Naomi S Chaytor, Sterling McPherson, Sean Murphy, Jalene Herron, Katherine Hirchak, Mason Burley, Richard K Ries, John M Roll, Michael G McDonell
BACKGROUND: In contingency management (CM), individuals receive rewards for alcohol abstinence. CM is associated with reduced alcohol use in adults with co-occurring serious mental illnesses (SMI). Pre-treatment urine ethyl glucuronide (uEtG) levels equivalent to daily heavy drinking (uEtG > 349 ng/mL) are associated with poor response to CM. Modifications to CM are needed to improve outcomes for non-responders. AIMS: To determine if pre-treatment heavy drinkers, defined by uEtG, with SMI achieve higher levels of alcohol abstinence when they receive an increased magnitude of reinforcement for abstinence (High-Magnitude CM) or reinforcers for reduced drinking, prior to receiving reinforcers for abstinence (Shaping CM), relative to those who receive typical low-magnitude abstinence based CM (Usual CM)...
April 19, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676600/searching-online-for-information-about-vaccination-assessing-the-influence-of-user-specific-cognitive-factors-using-eye-tracking
#4
Sabrina Heike Kessler, Arne Freya Zillich
In Germany, the Internet is gaining increasing importance for laypeople as a source of health information, including information about vaccination. While previous research has focused on the characteristics of online information about vaccination, this study investigated the influence of relevant user-specific cognitive factors on users' search behavior for online information about vaccination. Additionally, it examined how searching online for information about vaccination influences users' attitudes toward vaccination...
April 20, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676507/dimensions-of-religion-associated-with-suicide-attempt-and-suicide-ideation-in-depressed-religiously-affiliated-patients
#5
Matthias Jongkind, Bart van den Brink, Hanneke Schaap-Jonker, Nathan van der Velde, Arjan W Braam
There is substantial evidence to support the claim that religion can protect against suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide. There is also evidence that religion does not always protect against suicidality. More insight is needed into the relationship between suicidal parameters and dimensions of religion. A total of 155 in- and outpatients with major depression from a Christian Mental Health Care institution were included. The following religious factors were assessed: religious service attendance, frequency of prayer, religious salience, type of God representation, and moral objections to suicide (MOS)...
April 20, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673322/the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-deviance-and-target-detection-in-the-passive-and-active-auditory-oddball-paradigm-a-sloreta-study
#6
Christoph Justen, Cornelia Herbert
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of passive and active deviance and target detection in the well-known auditory oddball paradigm by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present auditory oddball study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of passive versus active deviance and target detection by analyzing amplitude modulations of early and late ERPs while at the same time exploring the neural sources underling this modulation with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) ...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672876/regional-brain-volume-changes-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-during-short-term-and-long-term-abstinence
#7
Xiaowei Zou, Timothy C Durazzo, Dieter J Meyerhoff
BACKGROUND: Widespread brain atrophy in alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) has been consistently documented in pathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Longitudinal MRI studies have shown that the regional brain volume losses in ALC are partially reversible during abstinence from alcohol. The goal of this study was to determine volume reductions in cortical and subcortical regions functionally important to substance use behavior and their changes during short-term (1 week to 1 month) and long-term abstinence (1 month to 7 months) from alcohol...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672091/resting-state-connectivity-dynamics-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis
#8
Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Vijay A Mittal
Clarifying dynamic fluctuations in resting-state connectivity in individuals at risk for psychosis (termed clinical high risk [CHR]) may inform understanding of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, which have been associated with dysconnectivity and aberrant salience processing. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) investigations provide insight into how neural networks exchange information over time. Currently, there are no published DFC studies involving CHR individuals. This is notable, because understanding how networks may come together and disassociate over time could lend insight into the neural communication that underlies psychosis development and symptomatology...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670551/-the-two-brothers-reconciling-perceptual-cognitive-and-statistical-models-of-musical-evolution
#9
Steven Jan
While the "units, events and dynamics" of memetic evolution have been abstractly theorized (Lynch, 1998), they have not been applied systematically to real corpora in music. Some researchers, convinced of the validity of cultural evolution in more than the metaphorical sense adopted by much musicology, but perhaps skeptical of some or all of the claims of memetics, have attempted statistically based corpus-analysis techniques of music drawn from molecular biology, and these have offered strong evidence in favor of system-level change over time (Savage, 2017)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670166/the-salience-of-self-not-social-pain-is-encoded-by-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-and-insula
#10
Irene Perini, Per A Gustafsson, J Paul Hamilton, Robin Kämpe, Maria Zetterqvist, Markus Heilig
The human neural correlates of social rejection have attracted significant research interest, but remain subject to vigorous debate. Specifically, it has been proposed that a matrix of brain regions overlapping with the classical pain matrix, and including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AI) is critical for processing of social rejection. The present study expands on this conceptualization, by showing that these areas are involved in processing of self-relevant social evaluation, irrespective of valence...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669901/biased-generalization-of-salient-traits-drives-the-evolution-of-warning-signals
#11
Gabriella Gamberale-Stille, Baharan Kazemi, Alexandra Balogh, Olof Leimar
The importance of receiver biases in shaping the evolution of many signalling systems is widely acknowledged. Here, we show that receiver bias can explain which traits evolve to become warning signals. For warning coloration, a generalization bias for a signalling trait can result from predators learning to discriminate unprofitable from profitable prey. However, because the colour patterns of prey are complex traits with multiple components, it is crucial to understand which of the many aspects of prey appearance evolve into signals...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668383/neural-mechanisms-of-speed-accuracy-tradeoff-saccade-vigor-the-origin-of-targeting-errors-and-comparison-of-superior-colliculus-and-frontal-eye-field
#12
Thomas R Reppert, Mathieu Servant, Richard P Heitz, Jeffrey D Schall
Balancing the speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) is necessary for successful behavior. Using a visual search task with interleaved cues emphasizing speed or accuracy, we recently reported diverse contributions of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons instantiating salience evidence and response preparation. Here we report replication of visual search SAT performance in two macaque monkeys, new information about variation of saccade dynamics with SAT, extension of the neurophysiological investigation to describe processes in the superior colliculus, and description of the origin of search errors in this task...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662430/rules-infants-look-by-testing-the-assumption-of-transitivity-in-visual-salience
#13
Melissa M Kibbe, Zsuzsa Kaldy, Erik Blaser
What drives infants' attention in complex visual scenes? Early models of infant attention suggested that the degree to which different visual features were detectable determines their attentional priority. Here, we tested this by asking whether two targets - defined by different features, but each equally salient when evaluated independently - would drive attention equally when pitted head-to-head. In Experiment 1, we presented 6-month-old infants with an array of gabor patches in which a target region varied either in color or spatial frequency from the background...
March 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656245/individual-differences-in-socioemotional-sensitivity-are-an-index-of-salience-network-function
#14
Gianina Toller, Jesse Brown, Marc Sollberger, Suzanne M Shdo, Laura Bouvet, Paul Sukhanov, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Connectivity in intrinsically connected networks (ICNs) may predict individual differences in cognition and behavior. The drastic alterations in socioemotional awareness of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are presumed to arise from changes in one such ICN, the salience network (SN). We examined how individual differences in SN connectivity are reflected in overt social behavior in healthy individuals and patients, both to provide neuroscientific insight into this key brain-behavior relationship, and to provide a practical tool to diagnose patients with early bvFTD...
February 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652628/salience-and-impact-of-health-warning-label-on-cigarette-packs-in-vietnam-findings-from-the-global-adult-tobacco-survey-2015
#15
Nguyen Ngoc Bich, Tran Thu Ngan, Kim Bao Giang, Phan Thi Hai, Doan Thi Thu Huyen, Luong Ngoc Khue, Nguyen Tuan Lam, Hoang Van Minh, Pham Thi Quynh Nga, Nguyen The Quan, Vu Hoang Loan
Viet Nam is among the countries having highest rate of male smokers in the world. The country has joined the Global Tobacco Surveillance System since 2010. Under this system, two rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) were conducted in 2010 and 2015. Those two surveys provide excellent comparable data on tobacco usage and its related aspects in Vietnam. This study using the data from GATS 2015 to examine the salience and impact of cigarette pack health warnings on quitting intention in Vietnam. The Vietnam GATS 2015 was a nationally representative survey in which 9,513 households were selected using two-stage random systematic sampling method...
April 13, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651014/altered-connection-properties-of-important-network-hubs-may-be-neural-risk-factors-for-individuals-with-primary-insomnia
#16
Xuming Liu, Jiyong Zheng, Bi-Xia Liu, Xi-Jian Dai
Primary insomnia (PIs) is highly prevalent and can lead to adverse socioeconomic impacts, but the underlying mechanism of its complex brain network impairment remains largely unknown. Functional studies are too few and diverse in methodology, which makes it difficult to glean general conclusions. To answer this question, we first used graph theory-based network analyse, together with seed-based functional connectivity approach, to characterize the topology architecture of whole-brain functional networks associated with PIs...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649652/differentiating-aversive-conditioning-in-bistable-perception-avoidance-of-a-percept-vs-salience-of-a-stimulus
#17
Gregor Wilbertz, Philipp Sterzer
Alternating conscious visual perception of bistable stimuli is influenced by several factors. In order to understand the effect of negative valence, we tested the effect of two types of aversive conditioning on dominance durations in binocular rivalry. Participants received either aversive classical conditioning of the stimuli shown alone between rivalry blocks, or aversive percept conditioning of one of the two possible perceptual choices during rivalry. Both groups showed successful aversive conditioning according to skin conductance responses and affective valence ratings...
April 9, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648868/does-visual-salience-of-action-affect-gesture-production
#18
Amelia Yeo, Martha W Alibali
Past research suggests that speakers gesture more when motor simulations are more strongly activated. We investigate whether simulations of a perceptual nature also influence gesture production. Participants viewed animations of a spider moving with a manner of motion that was either highly salient (n = 29) or less salient (n = 31) and then described each motion event. Speakers in the high-salience condition produced significantly more gestures that depicted manner information. However, they did not produce significantly more gestures overall, more gestures that depicted the spider's path and direction of motion, or more manner descriptions in speech...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643826/a-neurodynamic-model-of-feature-based-spatial-selection
#19
Mateja Marić, Dražen Domijan
Huang and Pashler (2007) suggested that feature-based attention creates a special form of spatial representation, which is termed a Boolean map. It partitions the visual scene into two distinct and complementary regions: selected and not selected. Here, we developed a model of a recurrent competitive network that is capable of state-dependent computation. It selects multiple winning locations based on a joint top-down cue. We augmented a model of the WTA circuit that is based on linear-threshold units with two computational elements: dendritic non-linearity that acts on the excitatory units and activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission between excitatory and inhibitory units...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627857/do-already-grasped-objects-activate-motor-affordances
#20
Cristina Iani, Luca Ferraro, Natale Vincenzo Maiorana, Vittorio Gallese, Sandro Rubichi
This study investigated whether in a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task affordance effects in response to picture of graspable objects emerge when these objects appear as already grasped. It also assessed whether the observed effects could be explained as due to spatial compatibility between the most salient part in the object/display and the hand of response rather than to action potentiation. To this aim, we conducted three behavioural experiments in which participants were required to discriminate the vertical orientation (upright vs...
April 7, 2018: Psychological Research
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