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IV antibiotics

Felix Benjamin Warwas, Berthold Schneider
PURPOSE: This study set out to compare the in-hospital outcomes of early elective and elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy due to diverticulitis. METHODS: We examined the data for 378 diverticulitis patients who received an elective laparoscopic sigmoid resection between 2008 and 2012. We divided the patients into two groups: elective (group A, n = 278) and early elective (group B, n = 100). Patients in group A received surgery during the inflammation-free interval, and those in group B immediately after treating the attack with IV antibiotics for a mean period of 8 days (IQR = 3)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Benjamin B A Raymond, Ranya Madhkoor, Ina Schleicher, Cord C Uphoff, Lynne Turnbull, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Manfred Rohde, Matthew P Padula, Steven P Djordjevic
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , an agriculturally important porcine pathogen, disrupts the mucociliary escalator causing ciliostasis, loss of cilial function, and epithelial cell death within the porcine lung. Losses to swine production due to growth rate retardation and reduced feed conversion efficiency are severe, and antibiotics are used heavily to control mycoplasmal pneumonia. Notably, little is known about the repertoire of host receptors that M. hyopneumoniae targets to facilitate colonization. Here we show, for the first time, that actin exists extracellularly on porcine epithelial monolayers (PK-15) using surface biotinylation and 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM), and that M...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Anyun Zhang, Yunxia Li, Zhongbin Guan, Hongmei Tuo, Dan Liu, Yanxian Yang, Changwen Xu, Changwei Lei, Hongning Wang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of apramycin administration on the development of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) strains isolated from chicken feces and houseflies under field conditions. Chickens in the medicated group ( n = 25,000) were given successive prophylactic doses (0.5 mg/l) of apramycin in their drinking water from Days 1 to 5, while no antibiotics were added to the un-medicated groups drinking water ( n = 25,000). Over 40 days, a total of 1170 E. coli strains were isolated from fecal samples obtained from medicated and un-medicated chickens and houseflies from the same chicken farm...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kinh Van Nguyen, Trung Vu Nguyen, Hang Thi Thuy Nguyen, Duyet Van Le
Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa has many mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones. The main mechanism is to change the effect of two enzymes that open the DNA helix - the enzyme DNA gyrase ( gyrA ) and the topoisomerase IV ( parC ). In addition, mutations that render the MexAB-oprM pump ( mexR ) dysfunctional, leading to its overexpression, also enhance resistance to fluoroquinolones. In this study, we aim to detect point mutations of gyrA , parC , and mexR genes that are predicted to be associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in 141 fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of P...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Irena R Štenglová-Netíková, Luboš Petruželka, Martin Šťastný, Václav Štengl
Nanostructured titanium(IV) oxide was used for the destructive adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of mitoxantrone (MTX), a cytostatic drug from the group of anthracycline antibiotics. During adsorption on a titania dioxide surface, four degradation products of MTX, mitoxantrone dicarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydroxy-5-((2-((2-hydroxyethyl)amino)ethyl)amino)-8-((2-(methylamino)ethyl)amino)anthracene-9,10-dione, 1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-diiminoanthracene-9,10(5H,8H)-dione and 1,4-dihydroxy-5-imino-8-(methyleneamino)anthracene-9,10(5H,8H)-dione, were identified...
2018: PloS One
Sunil H Adwani, Cai Yuan, Leen Alsaleh, Julie Pepe, Khalid Abusaada
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Several studies have looked at patient-related variables influencing hospital length of stay (LOS) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). However, there has been increasing recognition that physician-related factors also play a significant role. This study aims to evaluate differences in practice patterns between teaching and nonteaching services and their effect on LOS in a large community hospital. METHODS: A retrospective study of 354 patients admitted to Florida Hospital, Orlando, with AECOPD between January 2009 and December 2011...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Xiaoying Xie, Xinlu Dai, Lijia Ni, Baiji Chen, Zhaofan Luo, Yandan Yao, Xiquan Wu, Hongyu Li, Songyin Huang
BACKGROUND: Medical laboratory staff are a high-risk population for colonization of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) due to direct and dense contact with the pathogens; however, there is limited information about this colonization. This study sought to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of nasal colonization by S. aureus in medical laboratory staff in Guangzhou, southern China, and to compare the differences between microbiological laboratory (MLS) and non-microbiological laboratory (NMLS) staff...
March 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jun-Seob Kim, Ryota Yamasaki, Sooyeon Song, Weiwei Zhang, Thomas K Wood
Since persister cells survive antibiotic treatments through dormancy and resuscitate to reconstitute infections, it is imperative to determine the rate at which these cells revive. Using two sets of Escherichia coli persister cells, those arising after antibiotic treatment at low levels and those generated at high levels by ceasing transcription via rifampicin pretreatment (shown to be bona fide persisters through eight sets of experiments), we used microscopy of single cells to determine that the resuscitation of dormant persisters is heterogeneous and includes cells that grow immediately...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Shraddha Siwakoti, Rinku Sah, Rupa Singh Rajbhandari, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Pantoea agglomerans, primarily an environmental and agricultural organism has been reported as both commensal and pathogen of humans. We present two case reports of P. agglomerans infections in children that involved the meninges and bloodstream. Case Presentations: A 6-month-old female baby, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct stenosis with ventriculoperitoneal shunt in situ, operated 14 days back was brought to the pediatric emergency with a two-day history of high fever associated with vomiting, irritability, excessive crying, and decreased feeding...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Mary K Phillips-Jones, Stephen E Harding
In this review, we discuss mechanisms of resistance identified in bacterial agents Staphylococcus aureus and the enterococci towards two priority classes of antibiotics-the fluoroquinolones and the glycopeptides. Members of both classes interact with a number of components in the cells of these bacteria, so the cellular targets are also considered. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms include efflux pumps (MepA, NorA, NorB, NorC, MdeA, LmrS or SdrM in S. aureus and EfmA or EfrAB in the enterococci) for removal of fluoroquinolone from the intracellular environment of bacterial cells and/or protection of the gyrase and topoisomerase IV target sites in Enterococcus faecalis by Qnr-like proteins...
March 10, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Whittney A Warren, Domingo Franco-Palacios, Christopher S King, Oksana A Shlobin, Steven D Nathan, Shalika B Katugaha, Haresh Mani, A Whitney Brown
A 24-year-old woman with ΔF508/Y1092X cystic fibrosis (CF) complicated by severe obstructive lung disease (FEV1 of 30% predicted) was admitted for IV antibiotics for planned sinus surgery resulting from severe chronic sinusitis causing frequent exacerbations and declining lung function. She had persistent airway infection with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and growth of a fungus presumed to be an airway colonizer, identified as Stephanoascus ciferrii 1 year before presentation...
March 2018: Chest
Lingchen Kong, Jianzhong Li, Peng Wu, Jianhua Xu, Honglei Li, Haifei Long, Pan Liu, Fangfang Wei, Wenhong Peng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of lateral position ventilation combined with vibration sputum drainage on the patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. The patients with ARDS undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Linyi Central Hospital from January 2013 to June 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into simple ventilation group and combined treatment group according to random number table...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Pooja Agarwal, A R Anvikar, C R Pillai, Kumkum Srivastava
Background & objectives: : The in vitro assays for susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs are important tools for monitoring drug resistance. During the present study, efforts were made to establish long-term continuous in vitro culture of Indian field isolates of P. falciparum and to determine their sensitivity to standard antimalarial drugs and antibiotics. Methods: Four (MZR-I, -II, -III and -IV) P. falciparum isolates were obtained from four patients who showed artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) from Mizoram, a north-eastern State of India, and characterized for their in vitro susceptibility to chloroquine diphosphate (CQ), quinine hydrochloride dehydrate, mefloquine, piperaquine, artemether, arteether, dihydro-artemisinin (DHA), lumefantrine and atovaquone and antibiotics, azithromycin and doxycycline...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Yong Zhang, Eva Zborníková, Dominik Rejman, Kenn Gerdes
The alarmone (p)ppGpp plays pivotal roles in basic bacterial stress responses by increasing tolerance of various nutritional limitations and chemical insults, including antibiotics. Despite intensive studies since (p)ppGpp was discovered over 4 decades ago, (p)ppGpp binding proteins have not been systematically identified in Escherichia coli We applied DRaCALA (<u>d</u>ifferential<u>ra</u>dial<u>c</u>apillary<u>a</u>ction of<u>l</u>igand<u>a</u>ssay) to identify (p)ppGpp-protein interactions...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Neil J Turco, Sandra L Kane-Gill, Inmaculada Hernandez, Louise-Marie Oleksiuk, Frank D'Amico, Aaron J Pickering
INTRODUCTION: Acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI) are common infectious diseases (ID) that often require intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Dalbavancin is a novel lipoglycopeptide antibiotic administered once that is FDA-approved for the treatment of ABSSSI. No literature is available for real-world cost-comparability relative to conventional therapy. METHODS: This retrospective chart review examined adults diagnosed with ABSSSI and treated with IV antibiotics at an outpatient ID clinic after hospital discharge from January 2015 to August 2016...
March 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Genia Dubrovsky, Nhan Huynh, Joshua D Rouch, John P Koulakis, David P Nicolau, Christina A Sutherland, Seth Putterman, James C Y Dunn
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) pose a significant health and financial burden. A key aspect of appropriate prophylaxis is the administration of antibiotics intravenously (IV). However, subcutaneous administration of antibiotics is not well described in the literature. During surgery, we hypothesize that subcutaneous injection may provide better protection against SSIs. To better understand the kinetics after subcutaneous injection, we describe the serum concentrations of cefazolin in a porcine model...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Abdo Bachoura, Eric J Yakish, John D Lubahn
PURPOSE: To evaluate the survival and long-term outcomes of thumb metacarpal extension osteotomy for early carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis. METHODS: Patients who underwent a thumb extension osteotomy between years 2000 and 2011 were identified. Patient demographics, complications, and reoperations were recorded. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used with subsequent CMC surgery defined as failure. Patients who had undergone surgery 10 years or more before the study date underwent radiographic assessment, grip and pinch strength testing, and completed the Patient Rated Wrist/Hand Evaluation (PRWHE) and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaires...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Ana Verónica Martínez-Vázquez, Gildardo Rivera-Sánchez, Krystal Lira Méndez, Miguel Ángel Reyes-López, Virgilio Bocanegra-García
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to determinate the prevalence of Escherichia coli and its resistance to antimicrobials and the presence of virulence genes in retail samples of beef and pork in several locations in Tamaulipas. METHODS: In this work, a total of 106 samples (beef and pork) collected from August 2013 to March 2014, were analyzed to detect Escherichia coli and then analyzed for virulence, antibiotic resistance gene detection, and tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Robert F Potter, Meghan A Wallace, Allison R McMullen, Jerome Prusa, Christina L Stallings, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Gautam Dantas
OBJECTIVES: A carbapenem resistant Providencia rettgeri (PR1) isolate was recovered from a wound infection in Missouri, USA. This isolate possessed an EDTA inhibitable carbapenemase that was unidentified using the Xpert CARBA-R assay. Our objective was to elucidate the molecular determinant of carbapenem resistance in this isolate. We then sought to test the transmissibility of blaIMP-27 loci in clinical P. rettgeri and Proteus mirabilis isolates. METHODS: In October 2016 the novel ambler Class B carbapenemase blaIMP-27 , was reported in two different Proteus mirablis (PM185 and PM187) isolates...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Glen T Hansen, Johanna Moore, Emily Herding, Tami Gooch, Diane Hirigoyen, Kevan Hanson, Marcia Deike
BACKGROUND: Emergency Departments (ED) are challenged during influenza season by patients who present acutely during sporadic ED visits. ED management is largely empiric, often occurring without reliable diagnostics needed for targeted therapies, safe outpatient discharge, or hospital admissions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the influenza diagnosis on physician decision making during ED visits using the Cobas Liat® influenza A + B assay. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study assessing the impact of rapid (<30 min), reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) influenza testing on physician decision making in the ED...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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