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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913852/differential-effect-of-early-antibiotic-intervention-on-bacterial-fermentation-patterns-and-mucosal-gene-expression-in-the-colon-of-pigs-under-diets-with-different-protein-levels
#1
Chuanjian Zhang, Miao Yu, Yuxiang Yang, Chunlong Mu, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on bacterial fermentation patterns and mucosal immune markers in the colon of pigs with different protein level diets. Eighteen litters of piglets at day (d) 7 were fed creep feed without or with growth promoting antibiotics until d 42. At d 42, pigs within each group were further randomly assigned to a normal- or low-crude protein (CP) diet. At d 77 and d 120, five pigs per group were slaughtered for analyzing colonic bacteria, metabolites, and mucosal gene expressions...
December 3, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902667/managing-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-emergency-department-observation-unit
#2
Shabana Yusuf, Joseph L Hagan, Aderonke O Adenkule-Ojo
BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common reason for presentation to the emergency department (ED) and account for 3% of ED visits. Patients with a diagnosis of cellulitis requiring intravenous (IV) antibiotics have traditionally been admitted to the hospital. In our institution, these patients are placed in the ED Observation Unit (EDOU) for IV antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to determine if 3 doses of IV antibiotics are adequate to document clinical improvement in children with uncomplicated SSTI...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895635/molecular-characteristic-and-virulence-gene-profiles-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-pediatric-patients-in-shanghai-china
#3
Xing Wang, Xia Li, Wei Liu, Weichun Huang, Qihua Fu, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is a globally important human pathogen, especially among children and immunocompromised patients. The emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, molecular characteristics and virulence profiles of CA-MRSA infections from pediatric patients in a university hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 80 CA-MRSA isolates were collected from July 2012 to December 2013 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and spa typing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878110/discontinuation-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-ap-in-children-with-spina-bifida-a-case-series-analysis
#4
Kevin G Couloures, Michael Anderson, Michael Machiorlatti, Olivera Marsenic, Lawrence Opas
BACKGROUND: Spina bifida increases the risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) reduces symptomatic UTI's but selects resistant organisms. Measures to ensure regular and complete emptying of the bladder combined with treatment of constipation reduce the risk for UTI. OBJECTIVES: Demonstrate that close adherence to a catheterization regimen in children with spina bifida (Selective Treatment - ST) reduces the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis...
September 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875419/new-treatment-options-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-predominant-diarrhea
#5
H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder with negative impact on quality of life and it represents a substantial economic burden on healthcare cost. The medical management of IBS remains largely symptomatic. This review provides an update related to the most recently published diagnostic Rome IV criteria for IBS and clinical trial data for novel treatment modalities in IBS targeting the peripheral opioid receptors of the enteric nervous system and the gut microbiota...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870674/impact-of-hospital-employed-physician-assistants-on-a-level-ii-community-based-orthopaedic-trauma-system
#6
Peter L Althausen, Steven Shannon, Brianne Owens, Daniel Coll, Michael Cvitash, Minggen Lu, Timothy J O'Mara, Timothy J Bray
OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons and the Orthopedic Trauma Association have released guidelines for the provision of orthopedic trauma services such as adequate stipends, designated operating rooms, ancillary staff, and guaranteed reimbursement for indigent care. One recommendation included a provision for hospital-based physician assistants (PAs). Given current reimbursement arrangements, PA collections for billable services may not meet their salary and benefit expenses...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852504/bilateral-rib-based-distraction-to-the-pelvis-for-the-management-of-congenital-gibbus-deformity-in-the-growing-child-with-myelodysplasia
#7
John T Smith
BACKGROUND: Congenital gibbus deformity of the spine associated with myelodysplasia is a challenging problem in the growing child and is commonly associated with skin breakdown and chronic infection. Surgical solutions including kyphectomy, flap closure of the skin, and early spinal fusion are associated with a high rate of complications and, ultimately, a short trunk due to stoppage of spinal growth. The purpose of this article is to describe our early results in using a rib-based distraction to the pelvis without vertebral resection and fusion to manage this deformity...
January 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851057/1421-prehospital-level-of-care-prehospital-iv-access-and-timing-of-antibiotics-in-sepsis
#8
Ithan Peltan, Kristina Mitchell, Kristina Rudd, Blake Mann, David Carlbom, Thomas Rea, Catherine Hough, Samuel Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842868/epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-italy-first-nationwide-survey-2012
#9
Floriana Campanile, Dafne Bongiorno, Marianna Perez, Gino Mongelli, Laura Sessa, Sabrina Benvenuto, Floriana Gona, Pietro E Varaldo, Stefania Stefani
A 3-month epidemiological study to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial infections was performed in 52 centres throughout Italy in 2012. A total of 21,873 pathogens were analysed. The prevalence of S. aureus among all nosocomial pathogens isolated in that period was 11.6% (n=2541), whilst the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among the S. aureus was 35.8% (n=910). All tested antimicrobials demonstrated ≥92.2% susceptibility against methicillin-susceptible S...
December 2015: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829328/use-of-oritavancin-novel-new-lipoglycopeptide-in-the-treatment-of-prosthetic-joint-infections-pji-a-possible-alternative-novel-approach-to-a-difficult-problem
#10
Suresh Jude Antony, Leigh G Cooper
Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) result in significant morbidity, mortality and cost to patients and the health system. Traditional treatment involves a two-staged revision and occasionally a single staged revision along with intravenous antibiotics (IV) and or oral antibiotics for several weeks to months. The use of a single staged revision along with an antibiotic which has a prolonged half life and is bactericidal would be ideal. We present 2 patients who were treated successfully with a single stage revision/antibiotic spacer and a new novel long acting lipoglycopeptide called oritavancin...
November 8, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825734/predominance-of-sccmec-types-iv-and-v-among-biofilm-producing-device-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-from-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-mysuru-india
#11
Pradeep Halebeedu Prakash, Vineeth Rajan, Shubha Gopal
INTRODUCTION: Device associated infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalised patients is a serious healthcare problem. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of biofilm-producing MRSA in device-associated infections. METHODS: Device-associated S. aureus strains (n=200) obtained from two tertiary care hospitals in Mysuru city, India were screened for biofilm production, antibiotic resistance, Panton-Valentine Leucocidin genes, SCCmec-types, spa-types, and intercellular adhesion (icaAD) dependent and independent genes...
November 5, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822701/aglh-a-thermophilic-udp-n-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-dolichyl-phosphate-glcnac-1-phosphotransferase-initiating-protein-n-glycosylation-pathway-in-sulfolobus-acidocaldarius-is-capable-of-complementing-the-eukaryal-alg7
#12
Benjamin H Meyer, Hosam Shams-Eldin, Sonja-Verena Albers
AglH, a predicted UDP-GlcNAc-1-phosphate:dolichyl phosphate GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, is initiating the protein N-glycosylation pathway in the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. AglH successfully replaced the endogenous GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase activity of Alg7 in a conditional lethal Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, in which the first step of the eukaryal protein N-glycosylation process was repressed. This study is one of the few examples of cross-domain complementation demonstrating a conserved polyprenyl phosphate transferase reaction within the eukaryal and archaeal domain like it was demonstrated for Methanococcus voltae (Shams-Eldin et al...
November 7, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821446/pharmacokinetics-distribution-metabolism-and-excretion-of-omadacycline-following-a-single-intravenous-or-oral-dose-of-14c-omadacycline-in-rats
#13
Wen Lin, Jimmy Flarakos, Yancy Du, Wenyu Hu, Handan He, James Mangold, S Ken Tanaka, Stephen Villano
The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of omadacycline, a first in class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria, were evaluated in rats. Tissue distribution was investigated by quantitative whole-body autoradiography in male Long Evans Hooded (LEH) rats. Following a 5 mg/kg intravenous (IV) dose, radioactivity widely and rapidly distributed into most tissues. The highest tissue-to-blood ratio was observed in bone mineral, thyroid gland, and harderian gland at 24 h post IV dose...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816724/effect-of-early-antibiotic-administration-on-cecal-bacterial-communities-and-their-metabolic-profiles-in-pigs-fed-diets-with-different-protein-levels
#14
Chuanjian Zhang, Miao Yu, Yuxiang Yang, Chunlong Mu, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
The study investigated the effects of early antibiotic administration (EAA) on cecal bacterial communities and their metabolic profiles in pigs fed diets with different protein levels. Eighteen litters (total 180) of piglets on day (d) 7 were fed either a commercial creep feed or commercial creep feed + antibiotic (Olaquindox, Oxytetracycline Calcium and Kitasamycin) until d 42. On d 42, pigs within each group were further randomly fed a normal crude protein (CP) diet (20% and 18% CP from d 42 to d 77 and d 77 to d 120, respectively) or a low-CP diet (16% and 14% CP from d 42 to d 77 and d 77 to d 120, respectively), generating 4 groups, Control-Low CP (Con-LP), Control-normal CP (Con-NP), Antibiotic-Low CP (Ant-LP) and Antibiotic-Normal CP (Ant-NP), respectively...
November 2, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814677/a-single-center-observational-study-on-emergency-department-clinician-non-adherence-to-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-treatment-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections
#15
Catherine Zatorski, Mark Zocchi, Sara E Cosgrove, Cynthia Rand, Gillian Brooks, Larissa May
BACKGROUND: The Emergency Department (ED) is a frequent site of antibiotic use; poor adherence with evidence-based guidelines and broad-spectrum antibiotic overuse is common. Our objective was to determine rates and predictors of inappropriate antimicrobial use in patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) compared to the 2010 International Clinical Practice Guidelines (ICPG). METHODS: A single center, prospective, observational study of patients with uncomplicated UTI presenting to an urban ED between September 2012 and February 2014 that examined ED physician adherence to ICPG when treating uncomplicated UTIs...
November 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800133/staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-types-among-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-northern-iran
#16
Akram Taherirad, Roghayeh Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh Shakeri, Shaghayegh Anvary, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections around the world. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing methods are often used to study MRSA molecular epidemiology. OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to explore the distribution profiles of different SCCmec types among methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains isolated from hospitals in Gorgan, in northern Iran, and to correlate the types into observed bacterial virulence factors...
August 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798219/impact-of-antibiotic-de-escalation-on-clinical-outcomes-in-community-acquired-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#17
Diego Viasus, Antonella F Simonetti, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Jordi Niubó, Jordi Dorca, Jordi Carratalà
BACKGROUND: Although antibiotic de-escalation is regarded as a measure that reduces selection pressure, adverse drug effects and costs, evidence supporting this practice in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia (CAPP) is lacking. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of a cohort of hospitalized adults with CAPP. Pneumococcal aetiology was established in patients with one or more positive cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from blood, sterile fluids or sputum, and/or a positive urinary antigen test...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798210/solithromycin-a-novel-macrolide-does-not-prolong-cardiac-repolarization-a-randomized-three-way-crossover-study-in-healthy-subjects
#18
Borje Darpo, Philip T Sager, Prabhavathi Fernandes, Brian D Jamieson, Kara Keedy, Meijian Zhou, David Oldach
BACKGROUND: Macrolide antibiotics may cause QT prolongation. OBJECTIVES: To study the QT effect of a novel macrolide, solithromycin. METHODS: This was a thorough QT study with a three-way crossover design performed in healthy male and female subjects to evaluate the ECG effects of a novel macrolide, solithromycin. Forty-eight subjects were randomized to receive 800 mg of intravenous (iv) solithromycin, 400 mg of oral moxifloxacin and placebo in three separate treatment periods...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795831/impact-of-switching-from-intravenous-to-oral-linezolid-therapy-in-japanese-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Akihiro Tanaka, Akiko Yano, Shinichi Watanabe, Mamoru Tanaka, Hiroaki Araki
BACKGROUND: High oral bioavailability of antimicrobial agents can result in the replacement of intravenous (IV) therapy with oral therapy when a patient meets defined clinical criteria. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of switching antibiotic administration route in Japan, especially for linezolid. This study evaluated an IV-to-oral antibiotic switching program for linezolid treatment at a university hospital in Japan. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study of 73 patients, we assessed the efficacy and safety of IV-to-oral linezolid therapy (n = 21 patients) compared with IV therapy alone (n = 52 patients)...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792443/optimising-patient-safety-when-using-elastomeric-pumps-to-administer-outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy
#20
Gemma Oliver
Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) is a growing area of practice that has numerous benefits for both patients and the healthcare system. In order for OPAT services to be successful, strategies need to be in place to maximise efficiency while providing safe, high-quality care. The use of elastomeric pumps to deliver intravenous (IV) antibiotics can have many benefits for OPAT services; they are cost-effective, easy to use and allow the patient to be fully ambulant. However, plans need to be put in place to make sure their use is safe and effective...
October 27, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
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