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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790842/reviewing-the-who-guidelines-for-antibiotic-use-for-sepsis-in-neonates-and-children
#1
Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Shrey Mathur, Mike Sharland, Johannes N Van Den Anker
Background Guidelines from 2005 for treating suspected sepsis in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) recommended hospitalisation and prophylactic intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) ampicillin and gentamicin. In 2015, recommendations when referral to hospital is not possible suggest the administration of IM gentamicin and oral amoxicillin. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, an updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for treating sepsis (taking into account susceptibility patterns, cost and risk of adverse events) in neonates and children is necessary...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783024/a-pooled-analysis-of-the-phase-3-revive-trials-randomized-double-blind-studies-to-evaluate-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-iclaprim-versus-vancomycin-for-treatment-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections
#2
David B Huang, G Ralph Corey, Thomas L Holland, Thomas Lodise, William O'Riordan, Mark H Wilcox, Thomas M File, Matthew Dryden, Barbara Balser, Eve Desplats, Antoni Torres
BACKGROUND: Iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine antibiotic, was compared with vancomycin for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in two studies (REVIVE-1 and REVIVE-2). OBJECTIVES: We explored the efficacy and tolerability of iclaprim in a pooled analysis of results from both studies. METHODS: REVIVE-1 and REVIVE-2 were Phase 3, double-blind, randomized (1:1), multicenter, active-controlled, non-inferiority (margin of 10%) trials, each designed to enroll 600 patients a piece with ABSSSI...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780423/acute-suppurative-thyroiditis-in-an-intravenous-drug-user-with-a-preexisting-goiter
#3
Nikhil Yegya-Raman, Tabitha Copeland, Payal Parikh
Acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST) is an uncommon, potentially life-threatening cause of a rapidly enlarging neck mass. It may present similarly to subacute thyroiditis, a relatively benign and self-limiting condition. We report a case of AST in an adult intravenous (IV) drug user with a preexisting goiter who presented with a left forearm abscess that grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus . In this particular case, clinical suspicion for AST was high. As a result, early IV antibiotic therapy was initiated, and this led to rapid clinical improvement furthermore preventing airway compromise...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778348/preoperative-antibiotics-in-wrist-arthroscopy
#4
Ryan J Hoel, Marcus J Mittelsteadt, S Andrew Samborski, Deborah C Bohn
PURPOSE: This study seeks to evaluate the need for preoperative antibiotics for wrist arthroscopy. METHODS: A retrospective review of 576 consecutive wrist arthroscopies was performed over a 10-year period at a single ambulatory surgery center. The chart of each included patient was reviewed for postoperative infections following the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance criteria for diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 576 wrist arthroscopies reviewed, 324 met the inclusion criteria...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776398/primary-bacterial-ventriculitis-in-adults-an-emergent-diagnosis-challenge-report-of-a-meningoccal-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Anaïs Lesourd, Nicolas Magne, Anaïs Soares, Caroline Lemaitre, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Isabelle Gueit, Michel Wolff, François Caron
BACKGROUND: Defined by an infection of the ventricular system of the brain, ventriculitis is usually known as a health-care associated infection. In contrast, primary pyogenic ventriculitis complicating community-acquired meningitis is uncommon, and mainly described in infants. Only seven cases that have occured in adults have been found in the international literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here a new case due to Neisseria meningitidis occurring in an 85 year-old-man...
May 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775684/virulence-determinants-biofilm-production-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-staphylococcus-aureus-causing-device-associated-infections-in-a-tunisian-hospital
#6
I Mesrati, M Saidani, M Jemili, S Ferjeni, A Slim, I Boutiba-Ben Boubaker
Staphylococcus aureus is clinically relevant pathogen that cause device-related infections driven by several virulence factors. In this study we characterize S. aureus isolates involved in medical device-related infections in Tunisian patients. Forty consecutive S. aureus strains causing device-related infections (DRI group) and 47 randomly selected S. aureus strains causing non-device-related infections (NDRI group) were collected. All strains were phenotypically screened for antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm forming ability...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770531/use-of-antibiotic-impregnated-resorbable-beads-reduces-pressure-ulcer-recurrence-a-retrospective-analysis
#7
Ibrahim Khansa, Jenny C Barker, Piya Das Ghatak, Chandan K Sen, Gayle M Gordillo
BACKGROUND: Recurrence of pressure ulcers remains common. We have employed resorbable antibiotic beads as a therapeutic strategy to deliver high local antibiotic concentrations to the debridement site. Our objective was to determine whether the use of resorbable antibiotic- beads would reduce pressure ulcer recurrence. METHODS: We reviewed all stage IV pressure ulcers treated with excision, partial ostectomy and flap coverage over 16 years. Baseline patient factors (location of ulcer, presence of osteomyelitis, preoperative prealbumin), surgical factors (type of flap, use of antibiotic beads, bone culture results) and postoperative outcomes (ulcer recurrence at 1 year, dehiscence, seroma, cellulitis) were collected...
May 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769768/application-of-bioelectric-effect-to-reduce-the-antibiotic-resistance-of-subgingival-plaque-biofilm-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Padmini Hari, Kranthi Raja Kacharaju, Naveen Anumala, Krishnanjaneya Reddy Pathakota, Jayakumar Avula
Context: Biofilms are known for their antimicrobial resistance, and so is the subgingival plaque biofilm, the primary etiologic factor for periodontal infections. Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate if the subgingival plaque biofilm resistance can be reduced using doxycycline in the presence of low-intensity electric field (bioelectric effect). Settings and Design: The study was an in vitro microbiological study. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples from chronic periodontitis patients were collected to grow subgingival plaque biofilms on hydroxyapatite disks...
March 2018: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768920/enzymatic-synthesis-of-the-ribosylated-glycyl-uridine-disaccharide-core-of-peptidyl-nucleoside-antibiotics
#9
Zheng Cui, Xiaodong Liu, Jonathan Overbay, Wenlong Cai, Xiachang Wang, Anke Lemke, Daniel Wiegmann, Giuliana Niro, Jon S Thorson, Christian Ducho, Steven G Van Lanen
Muraymycins belong to a family of nucleoside antibiotics that have a distinctive disaccharide core consisting of 5-amino-5-deoxyribofuranose (ADR) attached to 6'-N-alkyl-5'- C-glycyluridine (GlyU). Here we functionally assign and characterize six enzymes from the muraymycin biosynthetic pathway involved in the core assembly that starts from UMP. The biosynthesis is initiated by Mur16, a non-heme Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, followed by four transferase enzymes-Mur17, a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaldolase; Mur20, an aminotransferase; Mur26, a pyrimidine phosphorylase; and Mur18, a nucleotidylyltransferase...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765239/the-clinical-significance-of-silent-mutations-with-respect-to-ciprofloxacin-resistance-in-mrsa
#10
Chih-Cheng Lai, Chi-Chung Chen, Ying-Chen Lu, Yin-Ching Chuang, Hung-Jen Tang
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic differences between different sequence type MRSA isolates, especially focusing on silent rpoB 474 mutations and the relationship between such mutations and ciprofloxacin resistance. Methods: Seventy-nine MRSA isolates were obtained for antibiotic susceptibility tests and molecular study. Results: Among these isolates, we found that the MIC50 , MIC90 , and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of ciprofloxacin were much higher for the isolates without the rpoB 474 mutation than for isolates with the rpoB 474 mutation...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763476/drug-induced-linear-iga-bullous-dermatosis-in-a-patient-with-a-vancomycin-impregnated-cement-spacer
#11
Kelsie Riemenschneider, Daren A Diiorio, John A Zic, Matthew R Livingood, Jo-David Fine, Jennifer G Powers, Jeffrey P Zwerner, Eric Tkaczyk
Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an autoimmune blistering rash caused by IgA autoantibodies against the epidermal basement membrane zone. It commonly is drug induced, often in association with systemic vancomycin. We report a case of a previously healthy 77-year-old man who developed a diffuse macular rash and hemorrhagic bullae on the left leg 10 days after placement of a vancomycin-impregnated cement spacer (VICS) during a revision knee arthroplasty and initiation of postoperative treatment with intravenous (IV) vancomycin...
April 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760140/evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-biofilm-and-planktonic-p-aeruginosa-populations-exposed-to-sub-inhibitory-levels-of-ciprofloxacin
#12
Marwa N Ahmed, Andreas Porse, Morten Otto Alexander Sommer, Niels Høiby, Oana Ciofu
The opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa , known for its intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance, has a notorious ability to form biofilms, which often facilitate chronic infections. The evolutionary paths to antibiotic resistance have mainly been investigated in planktonic cultures and are less studied in biofilms. We experimentally evolved P. aeruginosa PAO1 colony-biofilms and stationary-phase planktonic cultures for seven passages in the presence of sub-inhibitory levels (0.1 mg/L) of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and performed a genotypic (whole bacterial population sequencing) and phenotypic assessment of the populations...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757367/successful-total-endovascular-repair-of-a-giant-salmonella-infected-painful-thoraco-abdominal-aortic-pseudoaneurysm
#13
Nellie Della Schiava, Matthieu Arsicot, Mathias Montveneur, Antoine Millon
Endovascular approach is now a safe and effective technique for the elective treatment of a thoraco-abdominal aneurysm. This technique has significantly reduced the morbi-mortality for elective surgery. Moreover, it can permit to treat patients with a high surgical risk who are not eligible for open surgery. The permanent availability of endovascular material opens the door for treating a complex emergency thoraco-abdominal aneurysm. Here, we present the case of an 81-year-old man who had a rapidly evolving salmonella-infected aortic thoraco-abdominal Type IV pseudoaneurysm...
May 10, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756429/bacterial-osteomyelitis-microbiological-clinical-therapeutic-and-evolutive-characteristics-of-344-episodes
#14
E García Del Pozo, J Collazos, J A Cartón, D Camporro, V Asensi
OBJECTIVE: Osteomyelitis is a difficult-to-cure infection, with high relapse rate despite adequate therapy. Large published osteomyelitis series in adults are rare. METHODS: A total of 344 adult osteomyelitis patients were studied and followed > 12 months after hospital discharge. Demographic, microbiological, clinical, therapeutic and outcome data were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age was 52.5 ± 18.3 years and 233 (67.7%) were male. Main osteomyelitis types were post-surgical (31...
May 11, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756400/ph-changes-in-radicular-dentine-associated-with-calcium-hydroxide-and-corticosteroid-antibiotic-pastes
#15
Michael Cai, Paul Abbott, Jacqueline Castro Salgado
The aim was to compare hydroxyl ion diffusion through dentine following placement of calcium hydroxide and Ledermix paste. Thirty-six teeth were divided into one control (n = 6) and three experimental (n = 10) groups - (i) Pulpdent paste; (ii) Pulpdent/Ledermix pastes; (iii) Ledermix paste and (iv) Saline. pH was measured in inner and outer dentine cavities over 12 months. Inner dentine time to maximum pH (Tmax ) was 1 week for Pulpdent and 2 weeks for Pulpdent/Ledermix. Pulpdent's outer dentine Tmax was 4 weeks and Pulpdent/Ledermix was 10 weeks...
May 13, 2018: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751233/new-developments-in-non-quinolone-based-antibiotics-for-the-inhibiton-of-bacterial-gyrase-and-topoisomerase-iv
#16
REVIEW
Syed Lal Badshah, Asad Ullah
The inhibition of pathogenic bacteria at the replication stage is important to halt their further reproduction and spread. The replication enzymes include the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV that are recognized targets for the infection control. Novel antibiotic compounds are always in demand for targeting different active sites of these enzymes. Although quinolones are the current drug of choice for targeting these enzymes, emerging resistance is a global concern. Wide-scale efforts are needed to overcome the emerging resistance by designing more potent drugs...
May 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750801/streptococcus-agalactiae-carriage-among-pregnant-women-living-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-over-a-period-of-eight-years
#17
Ana Caroline N Botelho, Juliana G Oliveira, Andreia P Damasco, Késia T B Santos, Ana Flávia M Ferreira, Gabriel T Rocha, Penélope S Marinho, Rita B G Bornia, Tatiana C A Pinto, Marco A Américo, Sergio E L Fracalanzza, Lúcia M Teixeira
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) carriage by pregnant women is the primary risk factor for early-onset GBS neonatal sepsis. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) can prevent this transmission route, and two main approaches are recommended to base the selection of pregnant women to be submitted to IAP: the risk-based and the culture-based strategies. In Brazil, compliance to such recommendations is poor, and not much is known about GBS carriage. In the present study, 3,647 pregnant women living in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were screened for GBS anogenital colonization, over a period of 8 years (2008-2015)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733379/oritfinder-a-web-based-tool-for-the-identification-of-origin-of-transfers-in-dna-sequences-of-bacterial-mobile-genetic-elements
#18
Xiaobin Li, Yingzhou Xie, Meng Liu, Cui Tai, Jingyong Sun, Zixin Deng, Hong-Yu Ou
oriTfinder is a web server that facilitates the rapid identification of the origin of transfer site (oriT) of a conjugative plasmid or chromosome-borne integrative and conjugative element. The utilized back-end database oriTDB was built upon more than one thousand known oriT regions of bacterial mobile genetic elements (MGEs) as well as the known MGE-encoding relaxases and type IV coupling proteins (T4CP). With a combination of similarity searches for the oriTDB-archived oriT nucleotide sequences and the co-localization of the flanking relaxase homologous genes, the oriTfinder can predict the oriT region with high accuracy in the DNA sequence of a bacterial plasmid or chromosome in minutes...
May 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732990/ozenoxacin-a-novel-drug-discovery-for-the-treatment-of-impetigo
#19
Jagdish K Sahu, Arun K Mishra
OBJECTIVE: Ozenoxacin is one of the potent quinolone antibiotics, recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) with reported pharmacology to treat the impetigo. The demand for better acting topical formulation is increasing day by day. The present review is an attempt to summarize the facts behind the chemistry and biological applications of Ozenoxacin. Mechanism of action: This novel drug being a quinolone antibiotic compound, acts by inhibiting DNA gyrase A and topoisomerase IV and affects supercoiling, supercoil relaxation, chromosomal condensation, chromosomal decatenation and many others...
May 2, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732138/a-rare-presentation-of-acute-appendicitis-in-right-upper-quadrant-caused-by-renal-agenesis
#20
Han N Beh, Yuni F Ongso
Diagnosing acute abdominal pain will always be a challenging task, patients frequently present with atypical symptoms. It is crucial for a clinician to have good differential diagnosis to avoid delay in diagnosis and treatment. We present 37-year-old male who presented to emergency department with 2 days of abdominal pain. The pain started centrally around his umbilicus and localized to his right upper quadrant (RUQ). Clinical examination showed he has localized peritonitism on the RUQ hence he was further investigated with CT abdomen...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
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