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Treatment inflammation

Nicola Gaetano Gatta, Gaetano Cammarota, Martina Iannaccone, Enrica Serretiello, Vittorio Gentile
OBJECTIVES: Curcumin, a naturally occurring compound derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa) has long been suggested to have strong therapeutic or preventive potential against human diseases because of its antioxidative, anticancerous, and anti-inflammatory effects. Curcumin is known to exert anti-inflammatory effects by interrupting NF-κB signaling at multiple levels. Many observations indicate that curcumin shows its valuable potential by inhibiting the activity of I-κB kinase. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) expression is increased in inflammatory diseases...
October 26, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Wencheng Zheng, Xiaoming Shang, Chunlai Zhang, Xiang Gao, Barry Robinson, Jing Liu
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by cardiac dysfunction, myocardial inflammation, interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocytes apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of carvedilol on cardiac function and the AKT/XIAP signaling pathway in DCM rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group, diabetic mellitus (DM) group and DM with carvedilol treatment group. DM rats were induced by streptozotocin accompanied by high energy intake...
October 26, 2016: Cardiology
Jong Phil Bak, Young Mi Cho, Inhye Kim, Dae Won Park, Jung Eun Kwon, Yong Joon Jeong, Jong Hwan Kwak, Se Chan Kang
Anemarrhena asphodeloides is known to suppress inflammation and lower various fevers. To determine the active component of A. asphodeloides, ethanol (EtOH) extract of A. asphodeloides rhizomes was fractionized. The compounds isolated from the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) soluble fraction were identified as 4'-O-methylnyasol (1), nyasol (2), 3″-methoxynyasol (3), 3″-hydroxy-4″-methoxy-4″-dehydroxynyasol (4), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (5), and 4-hydroxyacetophenone (6). The four norlignans (1-4) potently inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase from immunoglobulin E (IgE)/dinitrophenol-conjugated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-treated rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 and A23187 plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate co-treated isolated rat primary mast cells, as markers of degranulation and histamine release...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kristin Politi, Serge Przedborski
A recent study reports that microglia and oligodendrocytes promote motor neuron degeneration by inducing inflammation and necroptosis in a manner dependent on receptor-interacting kinase 1 (RIPK1). These findings could be significant for our understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Marcelo Dib Bechara, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Karina Quesada, Rodrigo Galhardi Gasparini, Antonely de Cássio Alves de Carvalho, Adriana Maria Ragassi Fiorini
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are two major forms of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Vitamin A (VA) and vitamin D (VD) may be associated with reduction in inflammation in these disorders. The aim of this review was to show the current evidence that may associate VA and VD with IBDs. Data linking VA, VD, and IBDs were studied. Both VA and VD may be related to the immune system in different manners. The active form of VA, retinoic acid, may be related to the growth factor-β and release of interleukin-10 (IL-10), thus involved with the resolution of the inflammation...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
L Hepburn, D J Hijnen, B R Sellman, T Mustelin, M A Sleeman, R D May, I Strickland
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting more than 10% of UK children and is a major cause of occupation-related disability. A subset of patients, particularly those with severe AD, are persistently colonised with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and exacerbation of disease is commonly associated with this bacterium by virtue of increased inflammation and allergic sensitisation, aggravated by skin barrier defects. Understanding the complex biology of S. aureus is an important factor when developing new drugs to combat infection...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Na-Shun Mengke, Bei Hu, Qian-Peng Han, Yi-Yu Deng, Ming Fang, Di Xie, Ang Li, Hong-Ke Zeng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and is responsible for the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Inflammation occurs in the brains of patients with AD, and is critical for disease progression. In the present study, the effects of rapamycin (RAPA) on neuroinflammation lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced were investigated. SH‑SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with 20 µg/ml LPS and 0.1, 1 or 10 nmol/l RAPA, and were analyzed at various time points (6, 12 and 24 h)...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Haixia Hu, Xiaoqin Zhu, Ruhui Lin, Zuanfang Li, Lidian Chen
The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects, and underlying mechanisms, of Gua Lou Gui Zhi decoction (GLGZD) in a rat model of neuroinflammation. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with GLGZD following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neurological function and infarct volume were evaluated to confirm successful generation of the rat model. Subsequently, brain tissues and blood samples were collected for further analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated in peripheral blood samples using the Griess reagent assay and an ELISA, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Matthew C Choy, Kumar Visvanathan, Peter De Cruz
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are thought to develop as a result of complex interactions between host genetics, the immune system and the environment including the gut microbiome. Although an improved knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of IBDs has led to great advances in therapy such as the highly effective anti-tumor necrosis factor class of medications, a significant proportion of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis do not respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies. Further understanding of the different immune pathways involved in the genesis of chronic intestinal inflammation is required to help find effective treatments for IBDs...
October 21, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
G Czechowska, K Celinski, A Korolczuk, G Wojcicka, J Dudka, A Bojarska, A Madro, T Brzozowski
It has been reported previously that the density of angiotensin II receptors is increased in the rat liver in experimentally-induced fibrosis. We hypothesized that pharmacological blockade of angiotensin receptors may produce beneficial effects in models of liver fibrosis. In this study, we used the widely used thioacetamide (TAA)-induced model of liver fibrosis (300 mg/L TAA ad libitum for 12 weeks). Rats received daily injections (i.p), lasting 4 weeks of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists, losartan 30 mg/kg (TAA + L) or telmisartan 10 mg/kg (TAA + T) and were compared to rat that received TAA alone...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Hideaki Kouzaki, Koji Matsumoto, Hirotaka Kikuoka, Tomohisa Kato, Ichiro Tojima, Shino Shimizu, Hirohito Kita, Takeshi Shimizu
RATIONALE: Cystatin A and SPINK5 are endogenous protease inhibitors (EPIs) that may play key roles in epithelial barrier function. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of EPIs in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODS: We examined the expression of cystatin A and SPINK5 in the nasal epithelial cells of patients with CRS. Additionally, the in vitro effects of recombinant EPIs on the secretion of the epithelial-derived cytokines, interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), in airway epithelial cells, and the in vivo effects of recombinant EPIs in the nasal epithelium of mice exposed to multiple airborne allergens (MAA) were examined...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Fang Zheng, Harris Perlman, Patrick Matthys, Yurong Wen, Tony Lahoutte, Serge Muyldermans, Shemin Lu, Patrick De Baetselier, Steve Schoonooghe, Nick Devoogdt, Geert Raes
Single-photon emission computed tomography combined with micro-CT (SPECT/μCT) imaging using Nanobodies against complement receptor of the Ig superfamily (CRIg), found on tissue macrophages such as synovial macrophages, has promising potential to visualize joint inflammation in experimental arthritis. Here, we further addressed the specificity and assessed the potential for arthritis monitoring. Signals obtained with (99m)Tc-labelled NbV4m119 Nanobody were compared in joints of wild type (WT) versus CRIg(-/-) mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) or K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis (STIA)...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nazanin Mohebali, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh Fazeli, Hossein Ghafoori, Zeinab Farahmand, Elham MohammadKhani, Faezeh Vakhshiteh, Abdolreza Ghamarian, Mansoureh Farhangniya, Mohammad Hossein Sanati
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of neurodegenerative diseases. Despite vast ongoing researches focusing on the area, little is known about novel treatments. In this study, we aimed to survey the effects of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) extract on amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-injected rat. METHODS: For this purpose, hydroalcoholic extracts of caper leaf and fruit were prepared. Total phenolic content, DPPH, and FRAP assay were accomplished to determine antioxidant activity of C...
October 25, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Ygal Rotenstreich, Adi Tzameret, Sapir E Kalish, Ettel Bubis, Michael Belkin, Iris Moroz, Mordechai Rosner, Itay Levy, Shlomo Margel, Ifat Sher
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility and safety of a novel minimally invasive adjustable-depth blunt injector for pharmaceuticals delivery into the posterior segment. METHODS: Indocyanine green (ICG), sodium fluorescein and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were injected using the new injector into the extravascular spaces of the choroid (EVSC) compartment of rabbits and cadaver pig eyes. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus imaging and histology analysis were performed for assessment of injection safety and efficacy...
October 25, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Aijia Cai, Anja M Boos, Andreas Arkudas, Raymund E Horch
The introduction of neoadjuvant radiotherapy has allowed limb-preserving surgical treatment in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma, and the overall prognosis of this approach is similar to that of limb amputation. The benefits of this treatment, however, are often accompanied with a higher risk of major complications and blood vessel damage because of radiation-induced inflammation and necrosis of the vessel wall. In particular, it is associated with the rupture of large vessels like the femoral artery and more severe complications of wounds located in the proximal lower extremity...
October 25, 2016: International Wound Journal
Bulent Ergin, Michal Heger, Asli Kandil, Cihan Demirci-Tansel, Can Ince
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is characterized by sterile inflammation and oxidative stress. Immune cell activation can provoke overproduction of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to perturbation of the microcirculation and tissue oxygenation associated with local and remote tissue injury. This study investigated whether the clinically employed immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was able to reduce I/R-induced renal oxygenation defects and oxidative stress by preventing sterile inflammation...
October 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Y Ilan
BACKGROUND: The systemic immune system plays a role in inflammation and fibrogenesis associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and has become a potential target for drug development. In particular, the gut immune system has been suggested as a means for generating signals that can target the systemic immune system. AIM: To describe seven novel methods being developed for the treatment of NASH that target the gut immune system for alleviation of the systemic inflammatory response, including oral administration of fatty-liver-derived proteins, anti-CD3 antibodies, tumour necrosis factor fusion protein, anti-lipopolysaccharide antibodies, glucosylceramide, delayed-release mercaptopurine, and soy-derived extracts...
October 24, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Aaron J Martin, Matthew Clark, Gregory Gojanovich, Fatima Manzoor, Keith Miller, Douglas E Kline, Y Maurice Morillon, Bo Wang, Roland Tisch
There continues to be a need for immunotherapies to treat type 1 diabetes in the clinic. We previously reported that nondepleting anti-CD4 and -CD8 Ab treatment effectively reverses diabetes in new-onset NOD mice. A key feature of the induction of remission is the egress of the majority of islet-resident T cells. How this occurs is undefined. Herein, the effects of coreceptor therapy on islet T cell retention were investigated. Bivalent Ab binding to CD4 and CD8 blocked TCR signaling and T cell cytokine production, while indirectly downregulating islet chemokine expression...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Habeeb Salameh, Muhannad Al Hanayneh, Maen Masadeh, Mohammed Naseemuddin, Tasnia Matin, Angelika Erwin, Ashwani K Singal
Background and Aims:Patatin-like phospholipase domain protein 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms (rs738409 C>G) are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association of PNPLA3 polymorphisms with the spectrum and severity of this disease. Methods: Studies evaluating the association between the PNPLA3 polymorphism spectrum (fatty liver, steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma) and NAFLD were included. Pooled data are reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Jacinta Nwamaka Nwogu, Qing Ma, Chinedum Peace Babalola, Waheed Adeola Adedeji, Gene D Morse, Babafemi Taiwo
Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
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