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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651353/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-mediates-sleep-fragmentation-induced-insulin-resistance-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-mice
#1
David Gozal, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanghong Qiao, Mahzad Akbarpour, Rosanna Maccari, Rosaria Ottanà
Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is highly prevalent and has emerged as an important contributing factor to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that SF-induced increases in protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) expression and activity underlie increased food intake, inflammation, and leptin and insulin resistance. Methods: Wild type (WT) and ObR-PTP-1b-/- mice (Tg) were exposed to SF and control sleep (SC), and food intake was monitored...
June 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651236/tanshinone-i-alleviates-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-rats-through-irs-1-pathway
#2
Ying Wei, Jiaqi Gao, Lingling Qin, Yunling Xu, Dongchao Wang, Haoxia Shi, Tunhai Xu, Tonghua Liu
Tanshinone I from tanshen has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases. Given the link between inflammation and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we suspect that tanshinone I may have a beneficial effect on T2DM. This study was to investigate the potential effects of tanshinone I on T2DM and its underlying mechanism. T2DM was thus induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat diet. It was observed that T2DM rats had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), total triglyceride (TG) and total low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with normal, healthy SD rats...
June 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651186/circulating-malondialdehyde-modified-low-density-lipoprotein-mda-ldl-as-a-novel-predictor-of-clinical-outcome-after-endovascular-therapy-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease-pad
#3
Taka-Aki Takamura, Taketsugu Tsuchiya, Minako Oda, Makoto Watanabe, Ryuhei Saito, Ryoko Sato-Ishida, Hironobu Akao, Yasuyuki Kawai, Michihiko Kitayama, Kouji Kajinami
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite advances in the treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD), cardiovascular events and death rates remain high. This study aimed at identifying markers of outcome in patients with PAD undergoing endovascular therapy (EVT). METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing EVT were recruited. Markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein [MDA-LDL]), inflammation (IL-6; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and fibrinolysis (D-dimer) were measured pre-EVT and at post-EVT time-points to 36 h...
June 16, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651168/the-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-lycopene-in-mice-lungs-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke
#4
Keila Karine Duarte Campos, Glaucy Rodrigues Araújo, Thais Lourenço Martins, Ana Carla Balthar Bandeira, Guilherme de Paula Costa, André Talvani, Camila Carrião Machado Garcia, Laser Antônio Machado Oliveira, Daniela Caldeira Costa, Frank Silva Bezerra
Lycopene is a carotenoid with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of lycopene on reducing the redox imbalance and inflammation induced by cigarette smoke (CS). For the in vitro study, J774A.1 (macrophages) cells were incubated in the presence of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 10.0 and 25 μM of lycopene for 3, 6 and 24 h or in the presence of 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.25%, 5% and 10% cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 3, 6 and 24 h to assess cell viability and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651126/tnf-%C3%AE-exerts-cytotoxic-effects-on-multidrug-resistant-breast-cancer-mcf-7-mx-cells-via-a-non-apoptotic-death-pathway
#5
Morteza Ghandadi, Javad Behravan, Khalil Abnous, Melika Ehtesham Gharaee, Fatemeh Mosaffa
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cytokine involved in the various physiopathological processes such as autoimmune disorders and inflammation related diseases. Some multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines including MCF-7/MX are more vulnerable to cytotoxic effects of TNF-α than their parental lines. In this study, breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and its MDR derivative MCF-7/MX were exposed to TNF-α afterward various downstream signaling mediators of TNF-α were analyzed. Although, treatment of MCF-7 cells with TNF-α activated NF-kB and caused RIP1 ubiquitination, TNF-α exposure led to JNK and RIP1 phosphorylation in MCF-7/MX cells...
June 23, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650927/dexamethasone-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-rat-ileum
#6
Aline Barbosa Ribeiro, Humberto Giusti, Ana Paula Trevelin Souza, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Rafael Simone Saia
Inflammatory mediators have been postulated as elementary inducing factors to the disruption of the intestinal tight junctions (TJ) and consequently, gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Corticosteroids are considered the mainstay in the treatment of septic shock; however the impact of this therapy on the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. Our aims were to demonstrate the role of low dexamethasone (DEX) doses in modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the expression and the arrangement of TJ proteins in endotoxemic rats...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650865/effect-of-obesity-on-bladder-cancer-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-incidence-and-survival
#7
Philipp Gild, Behfar Ehdaie, Luis A Kluth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically in the general population and among cancer survivors in the last three decades. In this review, we highlight the impact of obesity on carcinogenesis and survival with a focus on bladder cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity presents an established risk factor for an up to 1.8-fold relative risk of RCC. Data with regard to bladder cancer are less abundant but support this association as well...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650848/ser-thr-protein-kinase-b2-nadph-oxidase-2-signaling-in-thromboinflammation
#8
Jing Li, Jaehyung Cho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interactions between neutrophils and platelets contribute to the progression of thromboinflammatory disease. However, the regulatory mechanism governing these interactions is poorly understood. The present review focuses on the crucial role of Ser/Thr protein kinase B (AKT)2-NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) signaling in regulating neutrophil and platelet activation and their heterotypic interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Growing evidence has shown that platelets, leukocytes, and blood coagulation need to be considered to treat thromboinflammatory disease in which inflammation and thrombosis occur concurrently...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650720/nonclinical-development-of-env905-difluprednate-ophthalmic-implant-for-the-treatment-of-inflammation-and-pain-associated-with-ocular-surgery
#9
Rozemarijn S Verhoeven, Andres Garcia, RiLee Robeson, Brian C Gilger, David Culp, Craig Struble, Lee Hamm, Tomas Navratil, Benjamin Yerxa
PURPOSE: Topical corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of inflammation and pain after ocular surgery, but they possess several shortcomings, including frequent dosing and low patient adherence. We evaluated the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of ENV905 (difluprednate or DFBA) Ophthalmic Implant, a single-dose drug delivery system, compared with 0.05% Durezol. METHODS: PRINT(®) technology was used to fabricate ENV905 implants for either intracameral (IC) or subconjunctival (SCJ) delivery of extended-release DFBA...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650705/current-and-emerging-treatments-for-postsurgical-cleft-lip-scarring-effectiveness-and-mechanisms
#10
E Papathanasiou, C A Trotman, A R Scott, T E Van Dyke
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most common congenital malformation of the head and the third-most common birth defect. Surgical repair of the lip is the only treatment and is usually performed during the first year of life. Hypertrophic scar (HTS) formation is a frequent postoperative complication that impairs soft tissue form, function, or movement. Multiple lip revision operations are often required throughout childhood, attempting to optimize aesthetics and function. The mechanisms guiding HTS formation are multifactorial and complex...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650427/roflumilast-reverses-polymicrobial-sepsis-induced-liver-damage-by-inhibiting-inflammation-in-mice
#11
Hongfang Feng, Jiajia Chen, Haitao Wang, Yufang Cheng, Zhengqiang Zou, Qiuping Zhong, Jiangping Xu
Sepsis is a life-threatening syndrome accompanied by an overwhelming inflammatory response and organ dysfunction. Selective targeting of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is currently being investigated as an effective therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated diseases. Roflumilast is a selective PDE4 inhibitor, used for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in clinic. However, its role in the treatment of sepsis-induced liver damage remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of roflumilast in mice with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis, and investigated the underlying mechanism...
June 26, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650401/progressive-brain-atrophy-despite-persistent-viral-suppression-in-hiv-over-age-60
#12
Katherine M Clifford, Vishal Samboju, Yann Cobigo, Benedetta Milanini, Gabriel A Marx, Joanna M Hellmuth, Howard J Rosen, Joel H Kramer, Isabel E Allen, Victor G Valcour
BACKGROUND: Current HIV treatments are successful at suppressing plasma HIV RNA to undetectable levels for most adherent patients. Yet, emerging evidence suggests viral suppression will inadequately control inflammation and mitigate risk for progressive brain injury. We sought to quantify differences in longitudinal brain atrophy rates among older virally suppressed HIV-infected participants compared to that of healthy aging. METHODS: We examined longitudinal structural brain MRI atrophy rates employing region of interest assessments and voxel-wise tensor-based morphometry in HIV-infected participants over age 60 years (n=38) compared to age-matched HIV-uninfected healthy and cognitively normal controls (n=24)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650104/alzheimer-s-disease-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-link-from-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-to-neurodegeneration
#13
REVIEW
Eduardo Rojas-Gutierrez, Guadalupe Muñoz-Arenas, Samuel Treviño, Blanca Espinosa, Raúl Chavez, Karla Rojas, Gonzalo Flores, Alfonso Díaz, Jorge Guevara
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among the aging population. AD diagnosis is made post-mortem, and the two pathologic hallmarks, particularly evident in the end stages of the illness, are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Currently, there is no curative treatment for AD. Additionally, there is a strong relation between oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and AD. The high levels of circulating lipids and glucose imbalances amplify lipid peroxidation that gradually diminishes the antioxidant systems, causing high levels of oxidative metabolism that affects cell structure, leading to neuronal damage...
June 26, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649913/faecal-calprotectin-detects-subclinical-bowel-inflammation-and-may-predict-treatment-response-in-spondyloarthritis
#14
R D Østgård, B W Deleuran, M Y Dam, I T Hansen, A G Jurik, H Glerup
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal inflammation is frequent in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Here, we test the validity of faecal calprotectin as a marker of intestinal inflammation in SpA patients and evaluate the response of adalimumab in patients with and without intestinal lesions. METHOD: Patients were included on the basis of active SpA with a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index ≥ 4. After a 4 week non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug washout period, patients were divided into two groups based on faecal calprotectin level (> 100 mg/kg, n = 15, and < 50 mg/kg, n = 15)...
June 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649618/synergistic-effects-of-influenza-and-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-can-be-eliminated-by-the-use-of-influenza-therapeutics-experimental-evidence-for-the-multi-hit-hypothesis
#15
Shankar Sadasivan, Bridgett Sharp, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Richard Jay Smeyne
Central Nervous System inflammation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (Ransohoff, Science 353: 777-783, 2016; Kannarkat et al. J. Parkinsons Dis. 3: 493-514, 2013). Here, we examined if the H1N1 influenza virus (Studahl et al. Drugs 73: 131-158, 2013) could synergize with the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (Jackson-Lewis et al. in Mark LeDoux (ed) Movement Disorders: Genetics and Models: 287-306, Elsevier, 2015) to induce a greater microglial activation and loss of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons than either insult alone...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649222/highly-selective-cyclooxygenase-1-inhibitors-p6-and-mofezolac-counteract-inflammatory-state-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models-of-neuroinflammation
#16
Rosa Calvello, Dario Domenico Lofrumento, Maria Grazia Perrone, Antonia Cianciulli, Rosaria Salvatore, Paola Vitale, Francesco De Nuccio, Laura Giannotti, Giuseppe Nicolardi, Maria Antonietta Panaro, Antonio Scilimati
Activated microglia secrete an array of pro-inflammatory factors, such as prostaglandins, whose accumulation contributes to neuronal damages. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases or cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), which play a critical role in the inflammation, are the pharmacological targets of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, used to treat pain and inflammation. Since it was reported that COX-1 is the major player in mediating the brain inflammatory response, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of highly selective COX-1 inhibitors, such as P6 and mofezolac, in neuroinflammation models...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648978/the-thymus-and-activation-regulated-chemokine-tarc-level-in-serum-at-an-early-stage-of-a-drug-eruption-is-a-prognostic-biomarker-of-severity-of-systemic-inflammation
#17
Takayoshi Komatsu-Fujii, Yuko Chinuki, Hiroyuki Niihara, Kenji Hayashida, Masataka Ohta, Ryota Okazaki, Sakae Kaneko, Eishin Morita
BACKGROUND: In severe drug eruptions, precise evaluation of disease severity at an early stage is needed to start appropriate treatment. It is not always easy to diagnose these conditions at their early stage. In addition, there are no reported prognostic biomarkers of disease severity in drug eruptions. The aim of this study was to test whether the thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) level in serum at an early stage of a drug eruption can serve as a prognostic biomarker of systemic inflammation...
June 22, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648831/glucagon-like-peptide-1-a-potential-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-obesity-related-asthma
#18
REVIEW
Dan-Vinh Nguyen, Angela Linderholm, Angela Haczku, Nicholas Kenyon
Alterations in arginine metabolism and accelerated formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), crucial mechanisms in obesity-related asthma, can be modulated by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). L-arginine dysregulation in obesity promotes inflammation and bronchoconstriction. Prolonged hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress leads to production of AGEs, that bind to their receptor (RAGE) further potentiating inflammation. By binding to its widely distributed receptor, GLP-1 blunts the effects of RAGE activation and arginine dysregulation...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648795/povidone-iodine-in-wound-healing-a-review-of-current-concepts-and-practices
#19
REVIEW
Paul Lorenz Bigliardi, Syed Abdul Latiff Alsagoff, Hossam Yehia El-Kafrawi, Jai-Kyong Pyon, Chad Tse Cheuk Wa, Martin Anthony Villa
BACKGROUND: Of the many antimicrobial agents available, iodophore-based formulations such as povidone iodine have remained popular after decades of use for antisepsis and wound healing applications due to their favorable efficacy and tolerability. Povidone iodine's broad spectrum of activity, ability to penetrate biofilms, lack of associated resistance, anti-inflammatory properties, low cytotoxicity and good tolerability have been cited as important factors, and no negative effect on wound healing has been observed in clinical practice...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648690/tubulointerstitial-nephritis-and-uveitis-syndrome-tinu-treatment-with-immunosuppressive-therapy
#20
T Rueda-Rueda, J L Sánchez-Vicente, A Moruno-Rodríguez, M Castilla-Martino, F López-Herrero, M Contreras-Díaz, F Molina-Socola, L Sáez-Ortega, A Muñoz-Morales
CASE REPORT: Two cases of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis are presented. Immunosuppressive therapy was required to control the uveitis. Contrary to that usually described, uveitis became chronic, which made immunosuppressive therapy necessary. Nephritis was successfully treated with steroids. DISCUSSION: Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome is an under-diagnosed disorder and requires clinical suspicion due to there being no specific laboratory study available...
June 22, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
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