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Acute meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448936/chitinase-3-like-1-is-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-paediatric-severe-malaria
#1
Andrea L Conroy, Michael T Hawkes, Robyn Elphinstone, Robert O Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Christopher Miller, Chandy C John, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein elevated in paediatric severe malaria, and an emerging urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). Based on the hypothesis that elevated CHI3L1 levels in malaria are associated with disease severity, the relationship between plasma CHI3L1 levels, AKI and mortality was investigated in Ugandan children enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria. METHODS: Plasma CHI3L1 levels were measured daily for 4 days in children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and at day 14 follow up...
February 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440316/glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-antibody-positive-meningoencephalomyelitis
#2
Angeliki Zarkali, Oliver Cousins, Dilan Athauda, Samuel Moses, Nicholas Moran, Sreedharan Harikrishnan
Glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody-positive meningoencephalomyelitis is a newly described, possibly under-recognised, severe inflammatory condition of the nervous system. The clinical presentation is variable but most commonly is a combination of meningitis, encephalitis and myelitis; other manifestations may include seizures, psychiatric symptoms and tremor. There is a significant association with malignancies, often occult, and with other autoimmune conditions. Although the disease responds well to corticosteroids acutely, it typically relapses when these are tapered, and so patients need long-term immunosuppression...
February 9, 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434387/antimicrobial-utilization-pattern-in-pediatric-patients-in-tertiary-care-hospital-eastern-ethiopia-the-need-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#3
Samuel Girma, Mekonnen Sisay, Getnet Mengistu, Firehiwot Amare, Dumessa Edessa
Background: Antimicrobials are among the most frequently prescribed medications for pediatric patients. However, inappropriate use of them can increase morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and largely antimicrobial resistance. This study aims to assess the antimicrobial utilization pattern in the pediatric ward of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the antimicrobial utilization. In this study, 403 pediatric medical records selected by systematic random sampling were reviewed...
February 2018: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430561/the-cgrp-receptor-antagonist-bibn4096-inhibits-prolonged-meningeal-afferent-activation-evoked-by-brief-local-k-stimulation-but-not-cortical-spreading-depression-induced-afferent-sensitization
#4
Jun Zhao, Dan Levy
Introduction: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is believed to promote migraine headache by enhancing the activity and mechanosensitivity of trigeminal intracranial meningeal afferents. One putative mechanism underlying this afferent response involves an acute excitation of meningeal afferents by cortical efflux of K + and the ensuing antidromic release of proinflammatory sensory neuropeptides, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Objectives: We sought to investigate whether (1) a brief meningeal K + stimulus leads to CGRP-dependent enhancement of meningeal afferent responses and (2) CSD-induced meningeal afferent activation and sensitization involve CGRP receptor signaling...
January 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424413/-acute-polyradiculoneuropathy-associated-with-human-herpes-virus-7-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report
#5
Paula Jara, José Manuel Matamala, Renato Verdugo, Luis Thompson
Human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) is a cause of encephalitis, meningitis and myeloradiculoneuropathy in adults who are immunocompetent or with immunosuppression. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system is always associated with myelitis. We report a case of acute polyradiculoneuropathy due to HHV-7, without involvement of central nervous system, in an immunocompetent patient. A 35-years-old man complained of lumbar pain radiating to both buttocks. On examination muscle strength and tendon reflexes were normal...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421549/unique-electrophysiological-and-impedance-signatures-between-encapsulation-types-an-analysis-of-biological-utah-array-failure-and-benefit-of-a-biomimetic-coating-in-a-rat-model
#6
Patrick A Cody, James R Eles, Carl F Lagenaur, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Intracortical microelectrode arrays, especially the Utah array, remain the most common choice for obtaining high dimensional recordings of spiking neural activity for brain computer interface and basic neuroscience research. Despite the widespread use and established design, mechanical, material and biological challenges persist that contribute to a steady decline in recording performance (as evidenced by both diminished signal amplitude and recorded cell population over time) or outright array failure. Device implantation injury causes acute cell death and activation of inflammatory microglia and astrocytes that leads to a chronic neurodegeneration and inflammatory glial aggregation around the electrode shanks and often times fibrous tissue growth above the pia along the bed of the array within the meninges...
January 31, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408878/the-endocannabinoid-system-in-canine-steroid-responsive-meningitis-arteritis-and-intraspinal-spirocercosis
#7
Jessica Freundt-Revilla, Franciska Heinrich, Alexander Zoerner, Felix Gesell, Martin Beyerbach, Merav Shamir, Anna Oevermann, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Andrea Tipold
Endocannabinoids (ECs) are involved in immunomodulation, neuroprotection and control of inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Activation of cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2) is known to diminish the release of pro-inflammatory factors and enhance the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) has been proved to induce the migration of eosinophils in a CB2 receptor-dependent manner in peripheral blood and activate neutrophils independent of CB activation in humans...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405037/osmotic-therapies-added-to-antibiotics-for-acute-bacterial-meningitis
#8
REVIEW
Emma Cb Wall, Katherine Mb Ajdukiewicz, Hanna Bergman, Robert S Heyderman, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: Every day children and adults die from acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis, particularly in low-income countries, and survivors risk deafness, epilepsy and neurological disabilities. Osmotic therapies may attract extra-vascular fluid and reduce cerebral oedema, and thus reduce death and improve neurological outcomes.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of osmotic therapies added to antibiotics for acute bacterial meningitis in children and adults on mortality, deafness and neurological disability...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404826/neurological-complications-of-acute-and-chronic-sinusitis
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Ziegler, Monica Patadia, James Stankiewicz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute and chronic sinusitis can give rise to a wide array of intracranial and orbital complications. These complications include brain abscess, subdural empyema, epidural abscess, meningitis, venous sinus thrombosis, frontal bone osteomyelitis, and orbital cellulitis and abscess. Despite numerous medical advances, these complications carry a risk of mortality and significant morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown improvement in both the mortality and the morbidity associated with the neurologic complications of acute and chronic sinusitis...
February 5, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402867/focal-encephalitis-meningitis-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-associated-with-influenza-a-infection
#10
Chih-Yu Liang, Chih-Hui Yang, Jiun-Nong Lin
OBJECTIVE: To present a case of influenza A infection complicated with focal encephalitis, meningitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 35-year-old woman presented with fever, headache, cough, and body aches. Seizures, altered consciousness, and dyspnea occurred later. The nasopharyngeal swab revealed a positive reaction for influenza A antigen. The magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a T2 prolongation at left frontoparietal subcortical white matter, which was consistent with focal encephalitis...
February 5, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402263/effect-of-the-2015-earthquake-on-pediatric-inpatient-pattern-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-nepal
#11
Bishnu Rath Giri, Ram Hari Chapagain, Samana Sharma, Sandeep Shrestha, Sunita Ghimire, P Ravi Shankar
BACKGROUND: Earthquakes impact child health in many ways. Diseases occurring immediately following an earthquake have been studied in field based hospitals but studies on the inpatient disease pattern among children without trauma in a permanent hospital setup is lacking. METHODS: We examined the diagnoses of all children without trauma, admitted to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu for fifteen-week duration (from 4th week to end of the 18th week) following the 7...
February 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399597/getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter-a-20-year-old-man-with-fever-rash-and-chest-pain
#12
Michelle C Sabo, Jim Boonyaratanakornkit, Robert Cybulski, Noam E Kopmar, Rosario V Freeman, Ferric C Fang, Susan M Graham
Infection with Helicobacter cinaedi can encompass a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including fever, rash, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and meningitis. The present case demonstrates the ability of H cinaedi to masquerade as acute rheumatic fever and represents the first reported case of cardiac tamponade caused by H cinaedi.
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396933/comparison-of-scrub-typhus-meningitis-with-acute-bacterial-meningitis-and-tuberculous-meningitis
#13
Svas Raju Kakarlapudi, Anila Chacko, Prasanna Samuel, Valsan Philip Verghese, Winsley Rose
OBJECTIVE: To compare scrub typhus meningitis with bacterial and tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: Children aged <15 years admitted with meningitis were screened and those who fit criteria for diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis (n=48), bacterial meningitis (n=44) and tuberculous meningitis (n=31) were included for analysis. Clinical features, investigations and outcomes were compared between the three types of meningitis. RESULTS: Mean age, duration of fever at presentation, presence of headache and, altered sensorium and presence of hepatomegaly/splenomegaly were statistically significantly different between the groups...
January 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396931/scrub-typhus-meningitis-versus-acute-bacterial-meningitis-and-tuberculous-meningitis
#14
Stalin Viswanathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387550/case-report-guillain-barre-syndrome-with-pneumococcus-a-new-association-in-pediatrics
#15
Hassan El Khatib, Amal Naous, Soha Ghanem, Ghassan Dbaibo, Mariam Rajab
Guillain-Barre Syndrome, an acute flaccid paralysis known to be caused by recent Gastro-intestinal infections mainly campylobacter, and Respiratory infections mainly mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza. One reported case of severe invasive pneumococcal disease in a 68 year old female, that presented with Austrian's triad of meningitis, pneumonia and endocarditis, and progressed to develop Guillain Barre syndrome, an association never been documented before. We present a case of 13 year old male, presented with hypoactivity and inability to bare his own weight, developed septic shock due to pneumococcus with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and was found to have neurological findings of Guillain-Barre Syndrome...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384559/neurobrucellosis-diagnostic-and-clinical-management-of-an-atypical-case
#16
Marco Rossi, Carlo Tascini, Novella Carannante, Giovanni Di Caprio, Sonia Sofia, Carmelo Iacobello
Brucellosis is the most common zoonosis in the world and it is caused by ingestion of foods contaminated by Brucella spp. that is able to avoid the immune system and can involve every organ system. The bacteria may affect the Central Nervous System (CNS) directly or using phagocytic cells with the way of the "Trojan Horse Model". Meningitis is the most common form of neuro-brucellosis (NB) but other neurological manifestation, with variable onset, such as severe encephalic involvement, neuropathy, vascular damage, radiculitis and hydrocephalus might happened...
January 31, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382609/role-of-proteoglycans-in-neuro-inflammation-and-central-nervous-system-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Femke Heindryckx, Jin-Ping Li
Fibrosis is defined as the thickening and scarring of connective tissue, usually as a consequence of tissue damage. The central nervous system (CNS) is special in the sense that fibrogenic cells are restricted to vascular and meningeal areas. Inflammation and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier can lead to the infiltration of fibroblasts and trigger fibrotic response. While the initial function of the fibrotic tissue is to restore the blood-brain barrier and to limit the site of injury, it also demolishes the structure of extracellular matrix and impedes the healing process by producing inhibitory molecules and forming a physical and biochemical barrier that prevents axon regeneration...
January 27, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382382/resolution-of-unilateral-sensorineural-hearing-loss-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-a-severe-phenotype-of-muckle-wells-syndrome-treated-with-anakinra-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Cinzia Marchica, Faisal Zawawi, Dania Basodan, Rosie Scuccimarri, Sam J Daniel
BACKGROUND: Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) is a rare auto-inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of recurrent urticaria, deafness and amyloidosis. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is reported to occur in up to 85% of patients occurring in the second and third decades and as early as the first decade in patients with a more severe phenotype, thus potentially having a significant impact on a child's development. IL-1 inhibitors, such as Anakinra, have been described to improve systemic inflammation, and stabilize or improve hearing status as well...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373305/first-detection-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-rna-in-clinical-specimens-of-acutely-ill-patients-in-hungary
#19
Anna Nagy, Orsolya Nagy, Katalin Tarcsai, Ágnes Farkas, Mária Takács
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the endemic flaviviruses in Hungary, which is responsible for human infections every year. Neurological involvement in the disease is characterized by meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis which can result in long-term neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae. Microbiological diagnosis of acute cases is predominantly based on serological tests due to the limited duration of viremia and long incubation period, however, the application of molecular methods can also supplement the serological diagnosis and provides epidemiological data...
January 10, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370243/inhibition-of-ev71-by-curcumin-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#20
Hsing-I Huang, Chi-Chong Chio, Jhao-Yin Lin
EV71 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family. EV71 infection may cause various symptoms ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to neurological pathological conditions such as aseptic meningitis, ataxia, and acute transverse myelitis. There is currently no effective treatment or vaccine available. Various compounds have been examined for their ability to restrict EV71 replication. However, most experiments have been performed in rhabdomyosarcoma or Vero cells...
2018: PloS One
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