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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#1
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077740/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-antibiotic-treatment-of-spirochetal-infections-a-review-of-recent-cases-and-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071799/seroepidemiological-and-phylogenetic-characterisation-of-neurotropic-enteroviruses-in-ireland-2005-2014
#3
Jorge Abboud Guerra, Allison Waters, Alison Kelly, Ursula Morley, Paul O'Reilly, Edwin O'Kelly, Jonathan Dean, Robert Cunney, Piaras O'Lorcain, Suzanne Cotter, Jeff Connell, Joanne O'Gorman, William W Hall, Michael Carr, Cillian F De Gascun
Enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, including aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis, hand, foot and mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis and acute flaccid myelitis. Epidemics occur sporadically and are associated with increased cases of AM in children. The present study describes the seroepidemiological analysis of circulating EVs in Ireland from 2005-2014 and phylogenetic characterisation of echovirus 30 (E-30), enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059631/acute-necrotizing-encephalopathy-causing-human-bocavirus
#4
Ayse Betul Ergul, Umit Altug, Kursad Aydin, Ahmet Sami Guven, Yasemin Altuner Torun
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is characterized by multiple, symmetrical lesions involving the thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and white matter and develops secondarily to viral infections. Influenza viruses are the most common etiological agents. Here, we present the first case of acute necrotizing encephalopathy to develop secondarily to human bocavirus. A 3-year-old girl presented with fever and altered mental status. She had had a fever, cough, and rhinorrhea for five days. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with an initial diagnosis of encephalitis when vomiting, convulsions, and loss of consciousness developed...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056277/-direct-medical-costs-and-influencing-factors-in-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-children-aged-between-six-months-and-five-years-old
#5
Y M Zheng, J Yang, Q H Liao
Objective: To estimate the direct medical cost of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in patients aged less than five years. Methods: A stratified sampling method was used to collect data on severe HFMD cases reported in the National HFMD surveillance database between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2013. The sampling was referenced with the national aetiologic distribution of Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and other Enteroviruses (OEV) for severe HFMD cases and the included cases were distributed among seven geographic regions (Northeast, North China, Northwest, Central China, Southwest, East China and South China)...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045630/outcomes-of-vestibular-schwannoma-surgery-among-the-elderly
#6
Michael J Sylvester, Darshan N Shastri, Viral M Patel, Milap D Raikundalia, Jean Anderson Eloy, Soly Baredes, Yu-Lan Mary Ying
Objective To compare comorbidities and in-hospital complications between elderly and nonelderly patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery. To examine average length of stay (LOS) and hospital charges among elderly patients. Study Design Population-based inpatient registry analysis. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample for patients undergoing VS surgery from 2002 to 2010: 4137 patients met inclusion criteria, with 519 (12.5%) in the elderly cohort (≥65 years)...
January 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041546/-epidural-abscess-secondary-to-sinusitis
#7
Pernille Henriksen, Noushin Yazdanyar, Lisbeth Samsø Schmidt, Marianne Sjølin Frederiksen
Approximately 0.5-2% of upper viral infections are com-licated by secondary acute bacterial sinusitis and may in rare cases evolve into more serious complications such as meningitis and intracranial abscess. Symptoms are often subtle and nonspecific as fever, headache, scalp tenderness, nausea and altered mental status. In this case report of a 12-year-old boy with an epidural abscess secondary to sinusitis we intend to increase the knowledge to these rare, but potentially life-threatening complications to ensure the optimal and timely treatment...
December 26, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027282/role-of-rifampin-in-reducing-inflammation-and-neuronal-damage-in-childhood-bacterial-meningitis-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Lipi Uppal, Sunit Singhi, Pratibha Singhi, Ritu Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute bacterial meningitis in children with bactericidal antibiotics causes cell wall lysis and a surge in inflammatory cascade, which in turn contributes to neuronal damage and morbidity. Pretreament with a non-bacteriolytic antibiotic, such as rifampin, has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory response in experimental models of bacterial meningitis. In a pilot study in children with bacterial meningitis we have studied markers of inflammatory response and neuronal damage in two groups of children with bacterial meningitis, one group received rifampin pretreatment with ceftriaxone, other group received ceftriaxone alone...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024134/-acute-mastoiditis-with-retroauricular-abscess-a-report-of-two-cases
#9
Andrzej Misiak
Otogenic complications may occur as a result of both acute and chronic otitis media. The purpose of the diagnostic process and treatment of patients with otogenic complications is to identify and eliminate focal points of the infection. Due to general application of antibiotics, these complications are rarely observed. Retroauricular abscess may be the first symptom associated with the development of acute mastoiditis in patients with communication disturbances. Intravenous antibiotics and surgery have been successfully used for treatment in the two described cases...
December 22, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011278/molecular-characterization-of-echovirus-13-uncovering-high-genetic-diversity-and-identification-of-new-genotypes-in-pakistan
#10
Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Salmaan Sharif, Adnan Khurshid, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Echovirus 13 (E-13) is reported worldwide and is mostly related to aseptic meningitis but it is also isolated from cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Unfortunately, all studies conducted on non polio enterovirus in Pakistan only confirm E-13 isolation based on microneutralization assay but there is lack of molecular epidemiological data on this serotype. In this study, 113 stool samples were collected from AFP patients during 2008-2010. An enterovirus primer mediated real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, a standard microneutralization assay and sequencing of viral protein 1 gene (VP1) identified the predominant serotype E-13...
December 20, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011082/-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-review-of-the-current-guidelines
#11
E Saliba, T Debillon, S Auvin, O Baud, V Biran, J-L Chabernaud, S Chabrier, F Cneude, A-G Cordier, V Darmency-Stamboul, J-F Diependaele, T Debillon, M Dinomais, C Durand, A Ego, G Favrais, Y Gruel, L Hertz-Pannier, B Husson, S Marret, S N'Guyen The Tich, T Perez, E Saliba, J-B Valentin, C Vuillerot
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) is a rare event that occurs in approximately one in 5000 term or close-to-term infants. Most affected infants will present with seizures. Although a well-recognized clinical entity, many questions remain regarding diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and follow-up modalities. In the absence of a known pathophysiological mechanism and lack of evidence-based guidelines, only supportive care is currently provided. To address these issues, a French national committee set up by the French Neonatal Society (Société française de néonatologie) and the national referral center (Centre national de référence) for arterial ischemic stroke in children drew up guidelines based on an HAS (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]; French national authority for health) methodology...
December 20, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994015/newly-formed-endothelial-cells-regulate-myeloid-cell-activity-following-spinal-cord-injury-via-expression-of-cd200-ligand
#12
Merav Cohen, Hila Ben-Yehuda, Ziv Porat, Catarina Raposo, Siamon Gordon, Michal Schwartz
: The central nervous system (CNS) is endowed with several immune-related mechanisms that contribute to its protection and maintenance in homeostasis and under pathology. Here, we discovered an additional mechanism that controls inflammatory responses within the CNS milieu under injurious conditions, involving CD200 ligand (CD200L) expressed by newly-formed endothelial cells. We observed that CD200L is constitutively expressed in the mouse healthy CNS by endothelial cells of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and of the spinal cord meninges, but not by the endothelium of the blood-spinal cord barrier...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979685/nervous-system-abnormalities-and-legionnaire-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
John J Halperin
Although patients with Legionnaire's disease frequently develop alterations of consciousness, this is no more frequent than in patients hospitalized with other, equally severe forms of bacterial pneumonia. Legionella meningitis occurs rarely, if ever. Patients with Legionnaire's are susceptible to critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy, as are other critically ill patients. Legionnaire's patients may develop MRI hyperdensities in the splenium of the corpus callosum, as may other patients with severe infections...
December 12, 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978460/clinical-characteristics-of-headache-or-facial-pain-prior-to-the-development-of-acute-herpes-zoster-of-the-head
#14
Hye Lim Lee, Minju Yeo, Gi Hwa Choi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Ji Seon Kim, Dong-Ick Shin, Sang-Soo Lee, Sung-Hyun Lee
OBJECTIVES: When physicians encounter patients with headache or facial pain (preeruptive pain) associated with acute herpes zoster of the head, especially before the appearance of characteristic skin eruptions (preeruptive phase), they typically find it difficult to make clinical impressions and apply appropriate diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics of headache or facial pain associated with acute herpes zoster of the head and to elucidate the association between the manifestation of these symptoms in the preeruptive phase and incoming herpes zoster...
January 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976565/different-clinical-spectrum-of-leptospirosis
#15
Fatma Deniz Aygün, Pınar Özge Avar-Aydın, Haluk Çokuğraş, Yıldız Camcıoğlu
Leptospirosis is a prevalent zoonotic disease. Human infection usually occurs through exposure to environmental sources. Clinical course of leptospirosis is variable. We presented five patients, aged between 4-14 years, having a history of contact with rodents and symptoms 7-10 days after contact. The first three cases were relatives and had contact with dead rats after applying insecticides to bakery across from their house. The first case diagnosed as isolated meningitis, others as flu-like illness. The fourth case had a contact history with a rat inundate in the canalization and diagnosed as acute hepatitis...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955629/cerebellar-ataxia-due-to-leptospirosis-a-case-report
#16
Rajveer Singh, Dheeraj Khurana, Sahil Mehta, Aditya Choudhary, Gayathri Petluri, Vivek Lal
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis involves nervous system in around 10-15% of the cases, the commonest presentation being aseptic meningitis. Most of the clinical features of neuroleptospirosis are due to capillary endothelial damage and vasculitis. Ataxia is an extremely uncommon manifestation of Leptospirosis occuring in <5% of cases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28 year old female from North India presented with a short febrile illness followed by an acute onset cerebellar ataxia, anemia, thrombocytopenia and transaminitis...
December 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940505/a-previously-healthy-adolescent-with-acute-encephalopathy-and-decorticate-posturing
#17
Yu Kawai, Andrea G DeMonbrun, Rebecca S Chambers, Danielle A Nolan, Bram A Dolcourt, Nasuh M Malas, Michael W Quasney
A 14-year-old previously healthy female was transferred from a local emergency department after being found unresponsive at home. Parental questioning revealed she had fever and pharyngitis 2 weeks before presentation. Past mental health history was negative, including concern for past or present suicidal ideation/attempts, suspected substance use, or toxic ingestion. In the emergency department, she was orotracheally intubated due to a Glasgow Coma Scale of 3. She was hemodynamically stable and euglycemic...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927860/prediction-of-outcome-from-adult-bacterial-meningitis-in-a-high-hiv-seroprevalence-resource-poor-setting-using-the-malawi-adult-meningitis-score-mams
#18
Emma C Wall, Mavuto Mukaka, Matthew Scarborough, Katherine Ma Ajdukiewicz, Katharine E Cartwright, Mulinda Nyirenda, Brigitte Denis, Theresa J Allain, Brian Faragher, David G Lalloo, Robert S Heyderman
: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in adults residing in resource-poor countries is associated with mortality rates in excess of 50%. To improve outcome, interventional trials and standardised clinical algorithms are urgently required. To optimise these processes we developed and validated an outcome prediction tool to identify ABM patients at greatest risk of death. METHODS: We derived a nomogram using mortality predictors derived from a logistic regression model of a discovery database of adult Malawian ABM patients (n=523, 65% CSF culture positive)...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925848/hospitalizations-for-pneumonia-invasive-diseases-and-otitis-in-tuscany-italy-2002-2014-which-was-the-impact-of-universal-pneumococcal-pediatric-vaccination
#19
Sara Boccalini, Ornella Varone, Martina Chellini, Luca Pieri, Antonino Sala, Cesare Berardi, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative organism of acute media otitis in children and meningitis and bacterial pneumonia in the community. Since 2008 in Tuscany, central Italy, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7-valent vaccine, switched to 13-valent vaccine in 2010) was actively offered free of charge to all newborns. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of pneumococcal pediatric vaccination in the Tuscan population on hospitalizations potentially caused by S. pneumoniae, during pre-vaccination (PVP, 2002-2007) and vaccination period (VP, 2009-2014)...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918382/conventional-versus-prolonged-infusion-of-meropenem-in-neonates-with-gram-negative-late-onset-sepsis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Abd Elazeez Shabaan, Islam Nour, Heba Elsayed Eldegla, Nehad Nasef, Basma Shouman, Hesham Abdel-Hady
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacteria are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm and term newborns. Meropenem has widespread efficacy and often allows for monotherapy in this group. Prolonged infusion instead of infusion over 30 minutes has been suggested to result in higher microbiologic efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy and safety of prolonged infusions versus conventional dosing of meropenem in neonates with Gram negative late onset sepsis (GN-LOS)...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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