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Instrumental learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937281/tracking-by-detection-of-surgical-instruments-in-minimally-invasive-surgery-via-the-convolutional-neural-network-deep-learning-based-method
#1
Zijian Zhao, Sandrine Voros, Ying Weng, Faliang Chang, Ruijian Li
BACKGROUND: Worldwide propagation of minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) is hindered by their drawback of indirect observation and manipulation, while monitoring of surgical instruments moving in the operated body required by surgeons is a challenging problem. Tracking of surgical instruments by vision-based methods is quite lucrative, due to its flexible implementation via software-based control with no need to modify instruments or surgical workflow. METHODS: A MIS instrument is conventionally split into a shaft and end-effector portions, while a 2D/3D tracking-by-detection framework is proposed, which performs the shaft tracking followed by the end-effector one...
September 22, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931487/nursing-students-perception-of-academic-support-in-the-practicum-development-of-a-reliable-and-valid-measurement-instrument
#2
Juan Arribas-Marín, Vicente Hernández-Franco, Calixto Plumed-Moreno
BACKGROUND: The importance of practicum training in health sciences disciplines places prominence on the academic support received by students in this learning environment, both due to its leverage over their perceived level of satisfaction of academic proficiency as well as its impact on their academic performance. AIM: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale which facilitates the evaluation of academic support perceived by nursing students during their practicum...
September 2017: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931258/simulation-based-education-for-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-a-comparison-between-virtual-and-physical-training-models
#3
Gerben E Breimer, Faizal A Haji, Vivek Bodani, Melissa S Cunningham, Adriana-Lucia Lopez-Rios, Allan Okrainec, James M Drake
BACKGROUND: The relative educational benefits of virtual reality (VR) and physical simulation models for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) have not been evaluated "head to head." OBJECTIVE: To compare and identify the relative utility of a physical and VR ETV simulation model for use in neurosurgical training. METHODS: Twenty-three neurosurgical residents and 3 fellows performed an ETV on both a physical and VR simulation model. Trainees rated the models using 5-point Likert scales evaluating the domains of anatomy, instrument handling, procedural content, and the overall fidelity of the simulation...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924524/retrospective-review-on-accuracy-a-pilot-study-of-robotically-guided-thoracolumbar-sacral-pedicle-screws-versus-fluoroscopy-guided-and-computerized-tomography-stealth-guided-screws
#4
Brian Fiani, Syed A Quadri, Vivek Ramakrishnan, Blake Berman, Yasir Khan, Javed Siddiqi
Introduction Pedicle screw insertion is the mainstay of thora-cic and lumbosacral posterior spinal instrumentation. However, it may be associated with complications such as screw mal-positioning. The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot study to compare the accuracy of robot-guided screw insertion versus hand-guided screw placement for spinal instrumentation. The hand-guided screws were placed with assistance from computerized tomography (CT) stealth guidance or fluoroscopy. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis of medical records was done for all patients that had pedicle screw insertion for instrumentation between the dates of December 2013 and January 2016 with post-screw placement CT imaging...
July 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920521/implementing-evidence-based-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-psychosocial-care-units-caps-in-brazil
#5
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Nilson R da Silva, Marta Rd Campos, Helena F Moura, Gustavo Zabert, Beatriz M Champagne, Katherine E Kemper, J Taylor Hays
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among mental health and addiction (MHA) patients is 3 times higher than it is in the general population, yet this patient population has received little help to combat smoking. Considering this, psychosocial care centers (CAPS - Centros de Atenção Psicossocial) are strategic locations for integrating tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) into existing treatment activities. METHODS: Our team provided an 8-hour training package to the staff of CAPS that have not been providing specialized TDT for smokers...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915871/virtual-patients-in-the-acquisition-of-clinical-reasoning-skills-does-presentation-mode-matter-a-quasi-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Fabian Schubach, Matthias Goos, Götz Fabry, Werner Vach, Martin Boeker
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to compare two different instructional methods in the curricular use of computerized virtual patients in undergraduate medical education. We aim to investigate whether using many short and focused cases - the key feature principle - is more effective for the learning of clinical reasoning skills than using few long and systematic cases. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-randomized, non-blinded, controlled parallel-group intervention trial in a large medical school in Southwestern Germany...
September 15, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910466/surgical-instrument-sets-for-special-operations-expeditionary-surgical-teams
#7
Diane F Hale, Justin C Sexton, Linda C Benavides, Jerry M Benavides, Jonathan B Lundy
BACKGROUND: The deployment of surgical assets has been driven by mission demands throughout years of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The transition to the highly expeditious Golden Hour Offset Surgical Transport Team (GHOST- T) now offers highly mobile surgical assets in nontraditional operating rooms; the content of the surgical instrument sets has also transformed to accommodate this change. METHODS: The 102nd Forward Surgical Team (FST) was attached to Special Operations assigned to southern Afghanistan from June 2015 to March 2016...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905678/negative-emotional-appraisal-selectively-disrupts-retrieval-of-expected-outcome-values-required-for-goal-directed-instrumental-choice
#8
Tanya L Pritchard, Gabrielle Weidemann, Lee Hogarth
Stress induction reduces people's ability to modify their instrumental choices following changes in the value of outcomes, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect have not been specified because previous studies have lacked crucial control conditions. To address this, the current study had participants learn two instrumental responses for food and water, respectively, before water was devalued by specific satiety. Choice between these two responses was then measured in extinction, reacquisition and Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) tests...
September 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903723/domains-associated-with-successful-quality-improvement-in-healthcare-a-nationwide-case-study
#9
Aleidis Skard Brandrud, Bjørnar Nyen, Per Hjortdahl, Leiv Sandvik, Gro Sævil Helljesen Haldorsen, Maria Bergli, Eugene C Nelson, Michael Bretthauer
BACKGROUND: There is a distinct difference between what we know and what we do in healthcare: a gap that is impairing the quality of the care and increasing the costs. Quality improvement efforts have been made worldwide by learning collaboratives, based on recognized continual improvement theory with limited scientific evidence. The present study of 132 quality improvement projects in Norway explores the conditions for improvement from the perspectives of the frontline healthcare professionals, and evaluates the effectiveness of the continual improvement method...
September 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901709/exploring-subjectivity-in-competency-based-assessment-judgements-of-assessors
#10
Rachel Bacon, Kay Holmes, Claire Palermo
AIM: The aim of this research was to measure variations in assessors' judgements of a student dietitian's performance and to explore the influence of group discussion on their judgements. METHODS: The assessments of a student's performance, as observed from a video recording of an authentic nutrition consultation, were measured pre- and post-group discussion by 26 experienced assessors using a mixed-methods questionnaire. The instrument included a validated 7-point visual analogue scale (VAS) rating (1 = novice; 7 = competent), a qualitative global description of performance and an assessor's confidence rating (1 = not at all confident; 10 = extremely confident)...
September 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899524/adherence-to-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-improves-attention-psychomotor-function-and-sleepiness-a-bias-reduction-method-with-further-assessment-of-apples
#11
Tyson H Holmes, Clete A Kushida
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Variable adherence to prescribed therapies for sleep disorders is commonplace. This study was designed to integrate three available statistical technologies (instrumental variables, residual inclusion, and shrinkage) to allow sleep investigators to employ data on variable adherence in the estimation of the causal effect of treatment as received on clinical outcomes. PATIENTS/METHODS: Using data from the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES), regression adjustment for observed and unobserved confounders was applied to two primary neurocognitive outcomes, plus two measures of sleepiness...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895564/frontiers-in-robot-assisted-retroperitoneal-oncological-surgery
#12
REVIEW
Wesley W Ludwig, Michael A Gorin, Phillip M Pierorazio, Mohamad E Allaf
Robot assistance has been rapidly adopted by urological surgeons and has become particularly popular for oncological procedures involving the retroperitoneal space. The wide dissemination of robot assistance probably reflects the limited amount of operating space available within the retroperitoneum and the advantages provided by robot-assisted approaches, including 3D imaging, wristed instrumentation and the shorter learning curve compared with that associated with the equivalent laparoscopic techniques. Surgical procedures that have traditionally been performed using an open or laparoscopic approach, such as partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, nephroureterectomy and adrenalectomy, are now often being performed using robot assistance...
September 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893670/acute-psychophysiological-stress-impairs-human-associative-learning
#13
M R Ehlers, R M Todd
Addiction is increasingly discussed asa disorder of associative learning processes, with both operant and classical conditioning contributing to the development of maladaptive habits. Stress has long been known to promote drug taking and relapse and has further been shown to shift behavior from goal-directed actions towards more habitual ones. However, it remains to be investigated how acute stress may influence simple associative learning processes that occur before a habit can be established. In the present study, healthy young adults were exposed to either acute stress or a control condition half an hour before performing simple classical and operant conditioning tasks...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893341/validation-of-a-survey-to-examine-drinking-water-access-practices-and-policies-in-schools
#14
Amelie A Hecht, Jacob M Grumbach, Karla E Hampton, Kenneth Hecht, Ellen Braff-Guajardo, Claire D Brindis, Charles E McCulloch, Anisha I Patel
OBJECTIVE: Ensuring ready access to free drinking-water in schools is an important strategy for prevention of obesity and dental caries, and for improving student learning. Yet to date, there are no validated instruments to examine water access in schools. The present study aimed to develop and validate a survey of school administrators to examine school access to beverages, including water and sports drinks, and school and district-level water-related policies and practices. DESIGN: Survey validity was measured by comparing results of telephone surveys of school administrators with on-site observations of beverage access and reviews of school policy documents for any references to beverages...
September 12, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890925/on-the-road-to-becoming-a-responsible-leader-a-simulation-based-training-approach-for-final-year-medical-students
#15
Marion Schmidt-Huber, Janine Netzel, Jan Kiesewetter
Background and objective: There is a need for young physicians to take a responsible role in clinical teams, comparable to a leadership role. However, today's medical curricula barely consider the development of leadership competencies. Acquisition of leadership skills are currently a by-product of medical education, even though it seems to be a competency relevant for physicians' success. Therefore, an innovative leadership training program for young physicians was developed and validated. Training conceptualisation were based upon findings of critical incidents interviews (N=19) with relevant personnel (e...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887899/the-anterior-insula-bidirectionally-modulates-cost-benefit-decision-making-on-a-rodent-gambling-task
#16
M L Daniel, P J Cocker, J Lacoste, A C Mar, J L Houeto, A Belin-Rauscent, D Belin
Deficits in cost-benefit decision making, as assessed in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), are commonly observed in neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction. There is considerable variation in the maximisation of rewards on such tasks, both in the general population and in rodent models, suggesting individual differences in decision making may represent a key endophenotype for vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that the insular cortex, which is involved in interoception and emotional processes in humans, may be a key neural locus in the control of decision making processes...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887346/leveraging-electronic-medical-record-data-for-population-health-management-in-the-veterans-health-administration-successes-and-lessons-learned
#17
Jannet M Carmichael, Joy Meier, Amy Robinson, Janice Taylor, Diana T Higgins, Shardool Patel
PURPOSE: The process and operational elements to establish a population health program using electronic medical record data in a Veterans Health Administration region are described. SUMMARY: Pharmacists are uniquely qualified to assume important roles in population health through the use of their clinical knowledge, assisted by electronic tools that consolidate and report patient-specific data for clinical care. Veterans Integrated Services Network (VISN) 21 has developed 300 dashboards and reports to improve the quality, safety, and value of healthcare to veterans...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887182/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-underlying-habitual-and-compulsive-drug-seeking
#18
REVIEW
Rachel J Smith, Lillian S Laiks
Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug use despite negative consequences. Here we review studies that indicate that compulsive drug use, and in particular punishment resistance in animal models of addiction, is related to impaired cortical control over habitual behavior. In humans and animals, instrumental behavior is supported by goal-directed and habitual systems that rely on distinct corticostriatal networks. Chronic exposure to addictive drugs or stress has been shown to bias instrumental response strategies toward habit learning, and impair prefrontal cortical (PFC) control over responding...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883203/machine-learning-models-of-post-intubation-hypoxia-during-general-anesthesia
#19
Philipp Sippl, Thomas Ganslandt, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Tino Muenster, Dennis Toddenroth
Fine-meshed perioperative measurements are offering enormous potential for automatically investigating clinical complications during general anesthesia. In this study, we employed multiple machine learning methods to model perioperative hypoxia and compare their respective capabilities. After exporting and visualizing 620 series of perioperative vital signs, we had ten anesthesiologists annotate the subjective presence and severity of temporary post-intubation oxygen desaturation. We then applied specific clustering and prediction methods on the acquired annotations, and evaluated their performance in comparison to the inter-rater agreement between experts...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879861/integrating-exhaled-breath-diagnostics-by-disease-sniffing-dogs-with-instrumental-laboratory-analysis
#20
Joachim Pleil, Roger Giese
Dogs have been studied for many years as a medical diagnostic tool to detect a pre-clinical disease state by sniffing emissions directly from a human or an in vitro biological sample. Some of the studies report high sensitivity and specificity in blinded case-control studies. However, in these studies it is completely unknown as to which suites of chemicals the dogs detect and how they ultimately interpret this information amidst confounding background odors. Herein, we consider the advantages and challenges of canine olfaction for early (meaningful) detection of cancer, and propose an experimental concept to narrow the molecular signals used by the dog for sample classification to laboratory-based instrumental analysis...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
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