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Instrumental learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222542/ecologically-relevant-outcome-measure-for-post-inpatient-rehabilitation
#1
Carlos Marquez de la Plata, Devin Qualls, Patrick Plenger, James F Malec, Mary Ellen Hayden
BACKGROUND: Transfer of skills learned within the clinic environment to patients' home or community is important in post-inpatient brain injury rehabilitation (PBIR). Outcome measures used in PBIR assess level of independence during functional tasks; however, available functional instruments do not quantitate the environment in which the behaviors occur. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and validity of an instrument used to assess patients' functional abilities while quantifying the amount of structure and distractions in the environment...
January 31, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214462/the-arthroscopic-latarjet-a-bony-solution-for-a-bony-injury
#2
David Ding, Robert Meislin
Treatment of shoulder instability has greatly evolved over the past century. Open capsulolabral repairs and bony augmentation procedures have slowly been replaced with arthroscopy. As arthroscopy and arthroscopic instruments have improved, surgeons have gravitated toward more minimally invasive procedures. The open Latarjet procedure has been historically very successful in preventing recurrent shoulder dislocation. While there is a steep learning curve, the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure as developed by Lafosse in 2007 can be effective in preventing shoulder instability in patients with significant bone loss of up to 30%...
January 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209161/what-support-is-needed-to-self-manage-a-rheumatic-disorder-a-qualitative-study
#3
Janet M J Been-Dahmen, Margot J Walter, Jolanda Dwarswaard, Johanna M W Hazes, AnneLoes van Staa, Erwin Ista
BACKGROUND: Today, patients are expected to take an active role in the form of self-management. Given the burden of a rheumatic disorder, the patients cannot be expected to self-manage on their own. In order to develop self-management interventions that fit patients' needs and preferences, it is essential to examine patients' perspective on how support can be optimized. This study aimed to identify support needs of outpatients with rheumatic disorders and preferences for who should provide self-management support...
February 16, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196473/2-7-million-samples-genotyped-for-hla-by-next-generation-sequencing-lessons-learned
#4
Gerhard Schöfl, Kathrin Lang, Philipp Quenzel, Irina Böhme, Jürgen Sauter, Jan A Hofmann, Julia Pingel, Alexander H Schmidt, Vinzenz Lange
BACKGROUND: At the DKMS Life Science Lab, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been used for ultra-high-volume high-resolution genotyping of HLA loci for the last three and a half years. Here, we report on our experiences in genotyping the HLA, CCR5, ABO, RHD and KIR genes using a direct amplicon sequencing approach on Illumina MiSeq and HiSeq 2500 instruments. RESULTS: Between January 2013 and June 2016, 2,714,110 samples largely from German, Polish and UK-based potential stem cell donors have been processed...
February 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195962/ebus-stat-subscore-analysis-to-predict-the-efficacy-and-assess-the-validity-of-virtual-reality-simulation-for-ebus-tbna-training-among-experienced-bronchoscopists
#5
Simone Scarlata, Patrizio Palermo, Piero Candoli, Ariela Tofani, Tommasangelo Petitti, Lorenzo Corbetta
BACKGROUND: Linear endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) represents a pivotal innovation in interventional pulmonology; determining the best approach to guarantee systematic and efficient training is expected to become a main issue in the forthcoming years. Virtual reality simulators have been proposed as potential EBUS-TBNA training instruments, to avoid unskilled beginners practicing directly in real-life settings. A validated and perfected simulation program could be used before allowing beginners to practice on patients...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193875/spontaneous-expression-of-mirror-self-recognition-in-monkeys-after-learning-precise-visual-proprioceptive-association-for-mirror-images
#6
Liangtang Chang, Shikun Zhang, Mu-Ming Poo, Neng Gong
Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is generally considered to be an intrinsic cognitive ability found only in humans and a few species of great apes. Rhesus monkeys do not spontaneously show MSR, but they have the ability to use a mirror as an instrument to find hidden objects. The mechanism underlying the transition from simple mirror use to MSR remains unclear. Here we show that rhesus monkeys could show MSR after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images. We trained head-fixed monkeys on a chair in front of a mirror to touch with spatiotemporal precision a laser pointer light spot on an adjacent board that could only be seen in the mirror...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181268/developing-an-instrument-to-measure-emotional-behaviour-abilities-of-meaningful-learning-through-the-delphi-technique
#7
Lucia Cadorin, Annamaria Bagnasco, Angela Tolotti, Nicola Pagnucci, Loredana Sasso
AIM: To identify items for a new instrument that measures emotional behaviour abilities of Meaningful Learning, according to Fink's Taxonomy. BACKGROUND: Meaningful Learning is an active process that promotes a wider and deeper understanding of concepts. It is the result of an interaction between new and prior knowledge and produces a long-term change of knowledge and skills. To measure Meaningful Learning capability, it is very important in the education of health professionals to identify problems or special learning needs...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179893/professionalism-and-occupational-well-being-similarities-and-differences-among-latin-american-health-professionals
#8
Montserrat San-Martín, Roberto Delgado-Bolton, Luis Vivanco
Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179722/student-perceptions-of-learning-through-an-international-comparison
#9
Phillip Woods, Jason Perepelkin, Amary Mey, Rodney Gapp, Michelle King
Objective. To broaden pharmacy students' international perspectives through a teaching and learning method involving international comparison. Design. Four topics within a pharmacy law and practice course were taught in-person by collaborating faculty members representing two international perspectives (Australian and Canadian). The assessed learning objective was for students to be able to synthesize an international comparative analysis that reflected an international perspective. Assessment. Approximately 70% (n=44) of the class completed an online survey instrument that explored students' perceptions of their own learning...
December 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179715/integration-of-basic-and-clinical-science-courses-in-us-pharmd-programs
#10
Mohammed A Islam, Rahmat M Talukder, Reza Taheri, Nicholas Blanchard
Objective. To determine the current status of and faculty perceptions regarding integration of basic and clinical science courses in US pharmacy programs. Methods. A 25-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to 132 doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs. Survey data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis test. Thematic analysis of text-based comments was performed using the constant comparison method. Results. One hundred twelve programs responded for a response rate of 85%. Seventy-eight (70%) offered integrated basic and clinical science courses...
December 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178915/the-relationship-between-the-monitored-performance-of-tutors-and-students-at-pbl-tutorials-and-the-marked-hypotheses-generated-by-students-in-a-hybrid-curriculum
#11
Jonas I Addae, Pradeep Sahu, Bidyadhar Sa
INTRODUCTION: There have been a number of published studies examining the link between the effectiveness of the problem-based learning (PBL) process and students' performance in examinations. In a hybrid PBL/lectures curriculum, the results of such studies are of limited use because of the difficulty in dissociating the knowledge gained at lectures from that gained through PBL-related activities. Hence, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop an instrument to measure the performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials, and (2) to explore the contribution of such performances to the marks attained by students from the hypotheses generated at PBL tutorials...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177957/proposing-a-model-of-co-regulated-learning-for-graduate-medical-education
#12
Jessica V Rich
Primarily grounded in Zimmerman's social cognitive model of self-regulation, graduate medical education is guided by principles that self-regulated learning takes place within social context and influence, and that the social context and physical environment reciprocally influence persons and their cognition, behavior, and development. However, contemporary perspectives on self-regulation are moving beyond Zimmerman's triadic reciprocal orientation to models that consider social transactions as the central core of regulated learning...
February 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176860/massively-parallel-digital-high-resolution-melt-for-rapid-and-absolutely-quantitative-sequence-profiling
#13
Daniel Ortiz Velez, Hannah Mack, Julietta Jupe, Sinead Hawker, Ninad Kulkarni, Behnam Hedayatnia, Yang Zhang, Shelley Lawrence, Stephanie I Fraley
In clinical diagnostics and pathogen detection, profiling of complex samples for low-level genotypes represents a significant challenge. Advances in speed, sensitivity, and extent of multiplexing of molecular pathogen detection assays are needed to improve patient care. We report the development of an integrated platform enabling the identification of bacterial pathogen DNA sequences in complex samples in less than four hours. The system incorporates a microfluidic chip and instrumentation to accomplish universal PCR amplification, High Resolution Melting (HRM), and machine learning within 20,000 picoliter scale reactions, simultaneously...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173737/failure-of-a-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-response-index-developed-from-clinical-trial-data-lessons-examined-and-learned
#14
L J Forbess, C Bresee, D J Wallace, M H Weisman
Background Our primary goal was to create an outcome change score index similar to a standard rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model utilizing real-world data in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients that occurred during their phase 3 trials with a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug. Methods We utilized raw data from trials of belimumab for the treatment of SLE. Data were split 80/20 into training/validation sets. Index variables present in a majority of patients and with face validity were selected...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159121/mode-of-delivery-among-swedish-midwives-and-obstetricians-and-their-attitudes-towards-caesarean-section
#15
Maria Sahlin, Ellika Andolf, Gunnar Edman, Ingela Wiklund
BACKGROUND: A knowledge gap exists around midwives' and obstetricians' mode of delivery in comparison to the general population, and if their personal experience influences their attitudes towards different modes of delivery. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate midwives' and obstetricians' mode of delivery compared to the population at large. The second aim was to see if their mode of delivery had been influenced by the expanded indications for caesarean section as described in medical literature...
March 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158199/personality-and-predisposition-to-form-habit-behaviours-during-instrumental-conditioning-in-horses-equus-caballus
#16
Léa Lansade, Alain R Marchand, Etienne Coutureau, Cyrielle Ballé, Floriane Polli, Ludovic Calandreau
The relationship between personality and learning abilities has become a growing field of interest. Studies have mainly focused on the relationship with performance, such as the speed of acquisition. In this study, we hypothesised that personality could in part also be related to a certain predisposition of an individual to switch more easily from a goal-directed process to a habit process during learning. To identify these processes, we conducted a contingency degradation protocol. This study investigated 1/ whether in general horses are able to adjust their response according to the contingency between their action and the reward, 2/ whether there are any relationships between certain personality profiles and a predisposition to switch more rapidly to habitual processes, and 3/ whether emotional states experienced during the learning procedure play a role in this switching...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157275/continuous-cardiotocography-ctg-as-a-form-of-electronic-fetal-monitoring-efm-for-fetal-assessment-during-labour
#17
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Declan Devane, Gillian Ml Gyte, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records changes in the fetal heart rate and their temporal relationship to uterine contractions. The aim is to identify babies who may be short of oxygen (hypoxic) to guide additional assessments of fetal wellbeing, or determine if the baby needs to be delivered by caesarean section or instrumental vaginal birth. This is an update of a review previously published in 2013, 2006 and 2001. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of continuous cardiotocography when used as a method to monitor fetal wellbeing during labour...
February 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156570/lessons-learned-from-a-clinical-research-partnership-in-outpatient-palliative-care
#18
Karla T Washington, Diane L Huenke
: 238 Background: Palliative care providers and investigators at the University of Missouri developed a clinical-research partnership to conduct a randomized clinical trial (R21CA191165; NCT02427490; PI: Washington) of a technologically-mediated intervention for family caregivers of cancer patients aimed at decreasing caregivers' distress and improving their quality of life. As the first year of the project drew to a close, the clinician-research team sought to systematically examine the challenges they had encountered conducting research in the outpatient palliative care clinic, which serves a 91-county catchment area that is highly rural and underserved, and to document the strategies they had employed to address them...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155004/stakeholder-perspectives-on-workplace-based-performance-assessment-towards-a-better-understanding-of-assessor-behaviour
#19
Laury P J W M de Jonge, Angelique A Timmerman, Marjan J B Govaerts, Jean W M Muris, Arno M M Muijtjens, Anneke W M Kramer, Cees P M van der Vleuten
Workplace-Based Assessment (WBA) plays a pivotal role in present-day competency-based medical curricula. Validity in WBA mainly depends on how stakeholders (e.g. clinical supervisors and learners) use the assessments-rather than on the intrinsic qualities of instruments and methods. Current research on assessment in clinical contexts seems to imply that variable behaviours during performance assessment of both assessors and learners may well reflect their respective beliefs and perspectives towards WBA. We therefore performed a Q methodological study to explore perspectives underlying stakeholders' behaviours in WBA in a postgraduate medical training program...
February 2, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154542/the-modified-abbreviated-math-anxiety-scale-a-valid-and-reliable-instrument-for-use-with-children
#20
Emma Carey, Francesca Hill, Amy Devine, Dénes Szűcs
Mathematics anxiety (MA) can be observed in children from primary school age into the teenage years and adulthood, but many MA rating scales are only suitable for use with adults or older adolescents. We have adapted one such rating scale, the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), to be used with British children aged 8-13. In this study, we assess the scale's reliability, factor structure, and divergent validity. The modified AMAS (mAMAS) was administered to a very large (n = 1746) cohort of British children and adolescents...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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