keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Instrumental learning

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523568/role-of-dopamine-projections-from-ventral-tegmental-area-to-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-reinforcement-behaviors-assessed-using-optogenetic-manipulation
#1
Xiao Han, Man-Yi Jing, Tai-Yun Zhao, Ning Wu, Rui Song, Jin Li
Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are predicted to play important roles in reward. In pharmacological studies, the rewarding effects of methamphetamine are mediated by DA neurons localized in the VTA. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC) are the main projections from the VTA. However, the role of these projections remains unclear, particularly the mPFC projections. In the present study, DAT-Cre transgenic mice received an injection of adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) or control vector into the VTA resulting in the selective expression of these opsins in DA neurons...
May 19, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521542/the-association-between-singing-and-or-playing-a-musical-instrument-and-cognitive-functions-in-older-adults
#2
D Mansens, D J H Deeg, H C Comijs
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive decline happens to everyone when aging, but to some more than others. Studies with children, adults, and professional musicians suggest that making music could be associated with better cognitive functioning. In older adults however, this association is less well investigated, which is therefore the aim of this study. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study data from 1101 participants aged 64 and older from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used...
May 19, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512437/behavioral-patterns-in-special-education-good-teaching-practices
#3
Manuela Rodríguez-Dorta, África Borges
Providing quality education means to respond to the diversity in the classroom. The teacher is a key figure in responding to the various educational needs presented by students. Specifically, special education professionals are of great importance as they are the ones who lend their support to regular classroom teachers and offer specialized educational assistance to students who require it. Therefore, special education is different from what takes place in the regular classroom, demanding greater commitment by the teacher...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506475/a-novel-perfused-porcine-simulator-for-teaching-aortic-anastomosis-increases-resident-interest-in-vascular-surgery
#4
Peter B Bartline, Jennie O'Shea, James M McGreevy, Michelle T Mueller
OBJECTIVE: This report describes a novel simulator, euthanized pigs on cardiopulmonary bypass, and validates this simulator with a controlled trial in general surgery residents learning aortic anastomosis. We evaluated this novel simulator with the following hypothesis: our porcine perfused simulator is as good as or better than the standard rubber tubing, low-fidelity models used for vascular anastomotic training. METHODS: Euthanized pigs were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass, creating a perfused, ex vivo model on which to perform surgical procedures...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504638/catecholaminergic-challenge-uncovers-distinct-pavlovian-and-instrumental-mechanisms-of-motivated-in-action
#5
Jennifer C Swart, Monja I Froböse, Jennifer L Cook, Dirk Em Geurts, Michael J Frank, Roshan Cools, Hanneke Em den Ouden
Catecholamines modulate the impact of motivational cues on action. Such motivational biases have been proposed to reflect cue-based, 'Pavlovian' effects. Here, we assess whether motivational biases may also arise from asymmetrical instrumental learning of active and passive responses following reward and punishment outcomes. We present a novel paradigm, allowing us to disentangle the impact of reward and punishment on instrumental learning from Pavlovian response biasing. Computational analyses showed that motivational biases reflect both Pavlovian and instrumental effects: reward and punishment cues promoted generalized (in)action in a Pavlovian manner, whereas outcomes enhanced instrumental (un)learning of chosen actions...
May 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503157/a-review-of-self-regulated-learning-six-models-and-four-directions-for-research
#6
REVIEW
Ernesto Panadero
Self-regulated learning (SRL) includes the cognitive, metacognitive, behavioral, motivational, and emotional/affective aspects of learning. It is, therefore, an extraordinary umbrella under which a considerable number of variables that influence learning (e.g., self-efficacy, volition, cognitive strategies) are studied within a comprehensive and holistic approach. For that reason, SRL has become one of the most important areas of research within educational psychology. In this paper, six models of SRL are analyzed and compared; that is, Zimmerman; Boekaerts; Winne and Hadwin; Pintrich; Efklides; and Hadwin, Järvelä and Miller...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502691/long-term-seizure-quality-of-life-depression-and-verbal-memory-outcomes-in-a-controlled-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgical-series-using-portuguese-validated-instruments
#7
Luis Dias, Geisa Angelis, Wagner Teixeira, Luiz Casulari
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate long-term surgical outcomes in patients treated for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) compared to a similar group of patients that underwent a preoperative evaluation. METHODS: Patient interviews were conducted by an independent neuropsychologist and included a socio-demographic questionnaire and validated versions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Adverse Events Profile (AEP), Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 (QOLIE-31), and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)...
May 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496274/student-self-assessment-and-faculty-assessment-of-performance-in-an-interprofessional-error-disclosure-simulation-training-program
#8
Therese I Poirier, Junvie Pailden, Ray Jhala, Katie Ronald, Miranda Wilhelm, Jingyang Fan
Objectives. To conduct a prospective evaluation for effectiveness of an error disclosure assessment tool and video recordings to enhance student learning and metacognitive skills while assessing the IPEC competencies. Design. The instruments for assessing performance (planning, communication, process, and team dynamics) in interprofessional error disclosure were developed. Student self-assessment of performance before and after viewing the recordings of their encounters were obtained. Faculty used a similar instrument to conduct real-time assessments...
April 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495936/aspect-a-survey-to-assess-student-perspective-of-engagement-in-an-active-learning-classroom
#9
Benjamin L Wiggins, Sarah L Eddy, Leah Wener-Fligner, Karen Freisem, Daniel Z Grunspan, Elli J Theobald, Jerry Timbrook, Alison J Crowe
The primary measure used to determine relative effectiveness of in-class activities has been student performance on pre/posttests. However, in today's active-learning classrooms, learning is a social activity, requiring students to interact and learn from their peers. To develop effective active-learning exercises that engage students, it is important to gain a more holistic view of the student experience in an active-learning classroom. We have taken a mixed-methods approach to iteratively develop and validate a 16-item survey to measure multiple facets of the student experience during active-learning exercises...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494331/graduate-nurses-evaluation-of-mentorship-development-of-a-new-tool
#10
Lay Hwa Tiew, Catherine S L Koh, Debra K Creedy, W S W Tam
AIM: Develop and test an instrument to measure graduate-nurses' perceptions of a structured mentorship program. BACKGROUND: New graduate nurses may experience difficulties in the transition from student to practitioner. Mentoring is commonly used to support graduates. However, there is a lack of published tools measuring graduate nurses' perceptions of mentorship. As mentoring is resource intensive, development and testing of a validated tool are important to assist in determining program effectiveness...
April 29, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489422/mechanisms-of-automaticity-and-anticipatory-control-in-fluid-intelligence
#11
Arthur W Joyce
The constructs of fluid (Gf) and crystalized (Gc) intelligence represent an early attempt to describe the mechanisms of problem solving in the vertebrate brain. Modern neuroscience demonstrates that problem solving involves interplay between the mechanisms of automaticity and anticipatory control, enabling nature's elegant solution to the challenges animals face in their environment. Studies of neural functioning are making clear the primary role of cortical-subcortical interactions in the manifestation of intelligent behavior in humans and other vertebrates...
May 10, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486740/-a-multimedia-tutorial-to-train-ultrasonography-of-the-thyroid-for-medical-students
#12
Julia Ritter, Maximilian Wolfram, Stefan Schuler, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
Physicians in education often have poor experience in practice and assessment of ultrasonography on entering their profession, due to a deficiency of training offers during their study of medicine. Hence, a multimedia device for stepwise learning and training ultrasonography of the thyroid was developed. A software for a portable ultrasonography system was used to design a multimedia device for ultrasonography of the thyroid. It allows the user to illustrate texts and pictorial material simultaneously with ultrasound examination in order to compare own findings with examples from a database...
May 9, 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486716/pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-of-nicotine-and-food-cues-in-deprived-cigarette-smokers
#13
Heena R Manglani, Andrea H Lewis, Stephen J Wilson, Mauricio R Delgado
Introduction: Smoking-related cues can promote drug-seeking behavior and curtail attempts to quit. One way to understand the potential impact of such cues is to compare cue-elicited behaviors for smoking and other reinforcers (eg, food) using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer paradigm, which measures how much control cues can exert over reward-seeking responses. Methods: We tested the influence of appetitive cues on smokers' behavior following 12 hours of abstinence from smoking and eating...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484422/cortical-and-striatal-reward-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#14
Sara Garofalo, Azucena Justicia, Gonzalo Arrondo, Anna O Ermakova, Pranathi Ramachandra, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Trevor W Robbins, Roger A Barker, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Psychotic symptoms frequently occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. According to the National Institute of Health RDoc programme, the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be better understood in terms of dysfunction of underlying domains of neurocognition in a trans-diagnostic fashion. Abnormal cortico-striatal reward processing has been proposed as a key domain contributing to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This theory has received empirical support in the study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and preclinical models of psychosis, but has not been tested in the psychosis associated with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483047/follicular-unit-extraction-for-hair-transplantation-an-update
#15
F Jiménez-Acosta, I Ponce-Rodríguez
Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is a hair transplantation technique that uses small punches (0.8-1 mm in diameter) to extract the follicular units (FUs). Though initially the technique was not widely accepted because of the difficulty of extracting intact follicular units with such small punches, it has since gained in popularity due mainly to rising patient demand, the availability of better instrumentation and greater surgical skill acquired from experience. It is now a recognised alternative to follicular unit transplantation (FUT), a technique based on harvesting the FUs from a strip of tissue...
May 5, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481996/drivers-of-health-system-strengthening-learning-from-implementation-of-maternal-and-child-health-programmes-in-mozambique-nepal-and-rwanda
#16
Fiona Samuels, Ana B Amaya, Dina Balabanova
There is a growing understanding that strong health systems are crucial to sustain progress. Health systems, however, are complex and much of their success depends on factors operating at different levels and outside the health system, including broader governance and political commitment to health and social development priorities. Recognizing these complexities, this article offers a pragmatic approach to exploring the drivers of progress in maternal and child health in Mozambique, Nepal and Rwanda. To do this, the article builds on a semi-systematic literature review and case study findings, designed and analysed using a multi-level framework...
May 7, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481594/colin-d-elliott-1937-2016
#17
John O Willis, Ron Dumont
This article memorializes Colin D. Elliott (1937-2016). For 7 years, in his work as a school psychologist, Elliott studied the ability profiles of children with learning disabilities and the measurement of children's developmental stages. Subsequently, he trained school psychologists for over 20 years at the University of Manchester. In 1983, he made a major, enduring contribution to the field of psychometric assessment in both his home country and the wider field with the publication of the innovative British Ability Scales (BAS)...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480677/what-do-obstetricians-really-think-about-ultrasound-in-the-delivery-room
#18
Yinon Gilboa, Sharon Perlman, Hila Karp, Ron Rabinovitch, Reuven Achiron
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the role of intrapartum sonography has expanded in childbirth management, in subjective clinical situations such as arrested deliveries, or prior to instrumental deliveries. OBJECTIVES: To assess the current use of intrapartum ultrasound by obstetricians in Israel. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 79 obstetricians in second- and third level- hospitals in Israel. The results were analyzed according to main subspecialty (sonography, delivery), experience and gender...
April 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479787/indigenous-inexpensive-practice-models-for-skill-development-in-neuroendoscopy
#19
Jitin Bajaj, Yad Ram Yadav, Anurag Pateriya, Vijay Parihar, Shailendra Ratre, Amitesh Dubey
INTRODUCTION: Neurosurgery is a branch having a tough learning curve. Residents generally get very less hands-on exposure for advanced procedures like neuroendoscopy. With the limited number of cadavers available and ethical issues associated with animal models, practice models, and simulators are becoming the able alternative. Most of these simulators are very costly. We tried to build indigenous inexpensive practice models that can help in developing most of the skills of neuroendoscopy...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477345/fetoscopic-laser-coagulation-in-1020-pregnancies-with-twin-to-twin-transfusion-syndrome-demonstrates-improvement-of-double-survival-rates
#20
W Diehl, A Diemert, D Grasso, S Sehner, K Wegscheider, K Hecher
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the growing experience and learning curve of fetoscopic laser coagulation of the placental vascular anastomoses in severe mid trimester twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and its influence on perinatal outcome in a single center setting. METHODS: Between 01/1995 and 03/2013 we performed laser therapy in 1020 consecutive pregnancies with TTTS between 15.1 and 27.4 weeks of gestation. We compared perinatal outcome in blocks of five sequential groups...
May 6, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
keyword
keyword
9065
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"