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Instrumental learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791647/active-methodologies-for-graduation-in-nursing-focus-on-the-health-care-of-older-adults
#1
Elaine Fernanda Dornelas de Souza, Amanda Gaspar Silva, Ariana Ieda Lima Ferreira da Silva
OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience of the use of simulation as active teaching methodology in the Developmental Psychology discipline and share its impacts on the students' learning process. METHOD: Based on Active Methodologies, the students in Nursing of Universidade do Oeste Paulista - Presidente Prudente-SP developed simulated visits to older users of the Family Health Strategies. RESULTS: In accordance with the 2014 National Curriculum Guidelines and the Brazilian Unified Health System, particularities of the needs of older adults at their homes were problematized...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791430/ex-vivos-models-to-teaching-therapeutic-endoscopic-ultrasound-t-eus
#2
Everson L A Artifon, Spencer Cheng, Thaisa Nakadomari, Leandro Kashiwagi, Jose Celso Ardengh, Emilio Belmonte, Jose P Otoch
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound training has a learning curve greater than the other endoscopic therapeutic techniques. One of the preclinical teaching methods is the use of ex vivo porcine models. AIM: To describe five ex vivo porcine models for training in therapeutic echoendoscopic procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using porcine digestive tract containing esophagus, stomach, duodenum, spleen, liver and gallbladder, five models for therapeutic echoendoscopy training were described...
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791051/from-learning-to-action-the-integration-of-dorsal-striatal-input-and-output-pathways-in-instrumental-conditioning
#3
James Peak, Genevra Hart, Bernard W Balleine
Considerable evidence suggests that the learning and performance of instrumental actions depends on activity in basal ganglia circuitry; however, these two functions have generally been considered independently. Whereas research investigating the associative mechanisms underlying instrumental conditioning has identified critical cortical and limbic input pathways to the dorsal striatum, the performance of instrumental actions has largely been attributed to activity in the dorsal striatal output pathways, with direct and indirect pathway projection neurons mediating action initiation, perseveration and cessation...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790432/transoral-endoscopic-thyroidectomy-vestibular-approach-a-preliminary-framework-for-assessment-and-safety
#4
Jonathon Russell, Angkoon Anuwong, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, William B Inabnet, Hoon Yub Kim, Gregory W Randolph, Jeremy D Richmon, Ralph P Tufano
Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) is a new approach to the central neck that avoids an anterior cervical incision. This approach can be performed with endoscopic or robotic assistance and offers access to the bilateral central neck. It has been completed safely in both North American and, even more extensively, international populations. With any new technology or approach, complications during the learning curve, expense, instrument limitations, and overall safety may affect its ultimate adoption and utility...
May 23, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790394/speech-and-language-pathologists-perceptions-and-practises-of-communication-partner-training-to-support-children-s-communication-with-high-tech-speech-generating-devices
#5
Helena Tegler, Mia Pless, Monica Blom Johansson, Karin Sonnander
PURPOSE: This study examined speech and language pathologists' (SLPs') perceptions and practices of communication partner training with high-tech speech generating devices (SGDs). METHOD: Fifteen SLPs were recruited throughout Sweden. The SLPs answered a study-specific questionnaire on communication partner training in relation to communication partners to children with severe cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. The results were analysed with descriptive statistics (closed-ended questions, responses on Likert scales) and content analysis (open-ended question) using ICF-CY...
May 23, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787620/intact-goal-directed-control-in-treatment-seeking-drug-users-indexed-by-outcome-devaluation-and-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-critique-of-habit-theory
#6
Lee Hogarth, Christa Lam-Cassettari, Helena Pacitti, Tara Currah, Justin Mahlberg, Lucie Hartley, Ahmed Moustafa
Animal studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse impairs goal-directed control over action selection indexed by the outcome-devaluation and specific Pavlovian to instrumental transfer procedures, suggesting this impairment might underpin addiction. However, there is currently only weak evidence for impaired goal-directed control in human drug users. Two experiments were undertaken in which treatment-seeking drug users and non-matched normative reference samples (controls) completed outcome-devaluation and specific Pavlovian to instrumental transfer procedures notionally translatable to animal procedures (Experiment 2 used a more challenging biconditional schedule)...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784634/evaluation-of-app-based-serious-gaming-as-a-training-method-in-teaching-chest-tube-insertion-to-medical-students-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Patrick Haubruck, Felix Nickel, Julian Ober, Tilman Walker, Christian Bergdolt, Mirco Friedrich, Beat Peter Müller-Stich, Franziska Forchheim, Christian Fischer, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Michael C Tanner
BACKGROUND: The insertion of a chest tube should be as quick and accurate as possible to maximize the benefit and minimize possible complications for the patient. Therefore, comprehensive training and assessment before an emergency situation are essential for proficiency in chest tube insertion. Serious games have become more prevalent in surgical training because they enable students to study and train a procedure independently, and errors made have no effect on patients. However, up-to-date evidence regarding the effect of serious games on performance in procedures in emergency medicine remains scarce...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783961/diabetes-management-training-for-female-community-health-volunteers-in-western-nepal-an-implementation-experience
#8
Bishal Gyawali, Shiva Raj Mishra, Dinesh Neupane, Abhinav Vaidya, Annelli Sandbæk, Per Kallestrup
BACKGROUND: In the backdroup of a rapidly increasing burden of diabetes in Nepal, a community-based diabetes management program is implemented involving female community health volunteers (FCHVs) under the government run FCHVs program. FCHVs received an intensive one-week training workshop on prevention, control and management of diabetes. The training program was implemented and evaluated to enhance diabetes knowledge of FCHVs and matched according to their literacy level. METHODS: A range of teaching methods were applied, including desk review, active participation, lectures, presentations, discussions, role plays, demonstration and field test...
May 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781570/effect-of-motor-based-speech-intervention-on-articulatory-placement-in-the-treatment-of-a-posterior-nasal-fricative-a-preliminary-mri-study-on-a-single-subject
#9
Kazlin N Mason, Eshan Pua, Jamie L Perry
BACKGROUND: Posterior nasal fricatives are a learned compensatory articulation error and commonly substituted for oral fricatives. Treatment of such articulation errors requires the modification or teaching of skilled movements. A motor-based approach is designed to teach the complex motor skill movement sequences required in the production of sounds. Although motor learning research is well established, little has been done to determine how the approach changes the underlying physiology of articulatory movements...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780731/the-resident-s-point-of-view-in-the-learning-curve-of-thymic-mis-why-should-i-learn-it
#10
REVIEW
Anna E Frick, Hans Van Veer, Herbert Decaluwé, Willy Coosemans, Dirk Van Raemdonck
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in thoracic surgery became quite popular during the last years. The aim of introducing and performing more MIS is to reduce surgical trauma, pain and complications in patients. Training in MIS increases operative time and thus cost in theatre but thus improves with experience. For a resident, the cases should be well selected with experienced supervision in a suitable setting with supporting staff and optimal instruments. Understanding the anatomy of the lung, using simulators, and attending workshops makes the learning curve shorter...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779494/not-so-sweet-refrain-sugar-sweetened-beverage-taxes-industry-opposition-and-harnessing-the-lessons-learned-from-tobacco-control-legal-challenges
#11
Anita George
As a growing number of countries implement, or announce plans to introduce, a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax, this paper explores the public health rationale for such a tax and provides an overview of the international normative and policy instruments supporting the introduction of fiscal measures on sugary drinks. After examining parallels between the legal arguments raised by the food and beverage industry in opposition to SSB taxes and those raised by the tobacco industry in response to tobacco control measures, this paper draws four key lessons that will assist countries to design effective and robust SSB tax measures and counter food and beverage industry opposition: regulatory distinctions in tax coverage should be based on bona fide, evidence-based reasoning; evidence-based measures need to be tailored to a country's public health objectives as part of a comprehensive strategy to address unhealthy diet consumption; procedural requirements and due process should be observed in the drafting and implementation of the measure; and regulatory space exists within domestic constitutions, laws and international trade and investment agreements recognising the sovereign right of states to regulate in the interests of public health...
May 21, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777609/evaluation-of-the-clinical-learning-experience-of-nursing-students-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study
#12
Elena Gurková, Katarína Žiaková
The purpose of the cross-sectional descriptive study was to explore and compare the students' experiences of the clinical environment and supervision in Slovakia. Students' clinical learning experience were measured by the valid and reliable clinical learning instrument. A higher frequency of successful supervisory experience was found in the universities which provided accredited mentor preparation programmes or courses and individualised supervisory approaches. Frequency of supervision meetings, the occupational title of a supervisor and mainly the supervision model have an association with students 'perceptions of different domains of clinical learning environment...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777356/visuospatial-abilities-and-fine-motor-experiences-influence-acquisition-and-maintenance-of-fundamentals-of-laparoscopic-surgery-fls-task-performance
#13
Cuan M Harrington, Patrick Dicker, Oscar Traynor, Dara O Kavanagh
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgery poses a unique learning curve due to the requirement for non-intuitive psychomotor skills. The fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) program trains and certifies residents in such skills. However, innate predictors of FLS performance and maintenance remain to be described. This single-centre observational study aimed to assess for candidate factors influencing the acquisition and maintenance of FLS performance amongst a surgically naïve cohort...
May 18, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776434/choice-of-outcomes-and-measurement-instruments-in-randomised-trials-on-elearning-in-medical-education-a-systematic-mapping-review-protocol
#14
Gloria C Law, Christian Apfelbacher, Pawel P Posadzki, Sandra Kemp, Lorainne Tudor Car
BACKGROUND: There will be a lack of 18 million healthcare workers by 2030. Multiplying the number of well-trained healthcare workers through innovative ways such as eLearning is highly recommended in solving this shortage. However, high heterogeneity of learning outcomes in eLearning systematic reviews reveals a lack of consistency and agreement on core learning outcomes in eLearning for medical education. In addition, there seems to be a lack of validity evidence for measurement instruments used in these trials...
May 17, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775969/the-scale-on-community-care-perceptions-scope-for-nursing-students-a-development-and-psychometric-validation-study
#15
Margriet van Iersel, Rien de Vos, Corine Latour, Paul A Kirschner, Wilma Scholte Op Reimer
The aim of this study was to develop a valid instrument to measure student nurses' perceptions of community care (SCOPE). DeVellis' staged model for instrument development and validation was used. Scale construction of SCOPE was based on existing literature. Evaluation of its psychometric properties included exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis. After pilot-testing, 1062 bachelor nursing students from six institutions in the Netherlands (response rate 81%) took part in the study. SCOPE is a 35-item scale containing: background variables, 11 measuring the affective component, 5 measuring community care perception as a placement, 17 as a future profession, and 2 on the reasons underlying student preference...
May 11, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769058/efficacy-of-standardized-training-on-a-virtual-reality-simulator-to-advance-knee-and-shoulder-arthroscopic-motor-skills
#16
Stefan Rahm, Karl Wieser, David E Bauer, Felix Wa Waibel, Dominik C Meyer, Christian Gerber, Sandro F Fucentese
BACKGROUND: Most studies demonstrated, that training on a virtual reality based arthroscopy simulator leads to an improvement of technical skills in orthopaedic surgery. However, how long and what kind of training is optimal for young residents is unknown. In this study we tested the efficacy of a standardized, competency based training protocol on a validated virtual reality based knee- and shoulder arthroscopy simulator. METHODS: Twenty residents and five experts in arthroscopy were included...
May 16, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768244/harmonization-activities-of-noklus-a-quality-improvement-organization-for-point-of-care-laboratory-examinations
#17
Anne Stavelin, Sverre Sandberg
Noklus is a non-profit quality improvement organization that focuses to improve all elements in the total testing process. The aim is to ensure that all medical laboratory examinations are ordered, performed and interpreted correctly and in accordance with the patients' needs for investigation, treatment and follow-up. For 25 years, Noklus has focused on point-of-care (POC) testing in primary healthcare laboratories and has more than 3100 voluntary participants. The Noklus quality system uses different tools to obtain harmonization and improvement: (1) external quality assessment for the pre-examination, examination and postexamination phase to monitor the harmonization process and to identify areas that need improvement and harmonization, (2) manufacturer-independent evaluations of the analytical quality and user-friendliness of POC instruments and (3) close interactions and follow-up of the participants through site visits, courses, training and guidance...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766621/prototyping-instruments-for-chemical-laboratory-using-inexpensive-electronic-modules
#18
Pawel L Urban
Open-source electronics and programming can augment chemical and biomedical research. Currently, chemists can choose from a broad range of low-cost universal electronic modules (microcontroller boards and single-board computers) and use them to assemble working prototypes of scientific tools to address specific experimental problems and to support daily research work. The learning time can be as short as a few hours, and the required budget is often as low as 50 USD. Prototyping instruments using low-cost electronic modules gives chemists enormous flexibility to design and construct customized instrumentation, which can reduce the delays caused by limited access to high-end commercial platforms...
May 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766308/robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-groin-hernia-repair-observational-case-control-study-on-the-operative-time-during-the-learning-curve
#19
Filip Muysoms, Stijn Van Cleven, Iris Kyle-Leinhase, Conrad Ballecer, Archana Ramaswamy
BACKGROUND: Robotic groin hernia repair (r-TAPP) is demonstrating rapid adoption in the US. Barriers in Europe include: low availability of robotic systems to general surgeons, cost of robotic instruments, and the perception of longer operative time. METHODS: Patients undergoing r-TAPP in our start-up period were prospectively entered in the EuraHS database and compared to laparoscopic TAPP (l-TAPP) performed by the same surgeon within the context of two other prospective studies...
May 15, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765635/poor-neuro-motor-tuning-of-the-human-larynx-a-comparison-of-sung-and-whistled-pitch-imitation
#20
Michel Belyk, Joseph F Johnson, Sonja A Kotz
Vocal imitation is a hallmark of human communication that underlies the capacity to learn to speak and sing. Even so, poor vocal imitation abilities are surprisingly common in the general population and even expert vocalists cannot match the precision of a musical instrument. Although humans have evolved a greater degree of control over the laryngeal muscles that govern voice production, this ability may be underdeveloped compared with control over the articulatory muscles, such as the tongue and lips, volitional control of which emerged earlier in primate evolution...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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