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Instrumental learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737670/motor-control-training-for-the-shoulder-with-smart-garments
#1
Qi Wang, Liesbet De Baets, Annick Timmermans, Wei Chen, Luca Giacolini, Thomas Matheve, Panos Markopoulos
Wearable technologies for posture monitoring and posture correction are emerging as a way to support and enhance physical therapy treatment, e.g., for motor control training in neurological disorders or for treating musculoskeletal disorders, such as shoulder, neck, or lower back pain. Among the various technological options for posture monitoring, wearable systems offer potential advantages regarding mobility, use in different contexts and sustained tracking in daily life. We describe the design of a smart garment named Zishi to monitor compensatory movements and evaluate its applicability for shoulder motor control training in a clinical setting...
July 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734232/the-impact-of-a-faculty-training-program-on-inclusive-education-and-disability
#2
Anabel Moriña, Rafael Carballo
This paper describes the knowledge gained by 20 faculty members following their participation in a training program on inclusive education and disability. The study, which was conducted at an university in Spain, aimed to design, implement and evaluate a program for training faculty members to respond in an inclusive manner to the needs of students with disabilities. An initial, formative and summative qualitative evaluation was carried out and four instruments were used for collecting the data: group and individual interviews, written open-ended questionnaires and observations...
June 23, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733838/don-t-let-it-distract-you-how-information-about-the-availability-of-reward-affects-attentional-selection
#3
Michel Failing, Jan Theeuwes
Previous research has shown that attentional selection is affected by reward contingencies: previously selected and rewarded stimuli continue to capture attention even if the reward contingencies are no longer in place. In the current study, we investigated whether attentional selection also is affected by stimuli that merely signal the magnitude of reward available on a given trial but, crucially, have never had instrumental value. In a series of experiments, we show that a stimulus signaling high reward availability captures attention even when that stimulus is and was never physically salient or part of the task set, and selecting it is harmful for obtaining reward...
July 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730664/exploring-approaches-to-dietetic-assessment-of-a-common-task-across-different-universities-through-assessment-moderation
#4
C Palermo, E Volders, S Gibson, M Kennedy, A Wray, J Thomas, M Hannan-Jones, D Gallegos, E Beck
BACKGROUND: Assessment presents one of the greatest challenges to evaluating health professional trainee performance, as a result of the subjectivity of judgements and variability in assessor standards. The present study aimed to test a moderation procedure for assessment across four independent universities and explore approaches to assessment and the factors that influence assessment decisions. METHODS: Assessment tasks designed independently by each of the four universities to assess student readiness for placement were chosen for the present study...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729647/neural-determinants-of-human-goal-directed-vs-habitual-action-control-and-their-relation-to-trait-motivation
#5
Hamdi Eryilmaz, Anais Rodriguez-Thompson, Alexandra S Tanner, Madeline Giegold, Franklin C Huntington, Joshua L Roffman
Instrumental learning is mediated by goal-directed and habit systems in the brain. While rodent studies implicate distinct prefrontal/striatal regions in goal-directed and habit learning, neural systems underpinning these two processes in humans remain poorly understood. Here, using a validated discrimination learning task that distinguishes goal-directed learning from habit learning in 72 subjects in fMRI, we investigated the corticostriatal correlates of goal-directed learning and tested whether brain activation during learning is associated with trait motivation and behavioral performance in the post-learning test phase...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729439/striatal-gpr88-modulates-foraging-efficiency
#6
Aundrea Rainwater, Elisenda Sanz, Richard D Palmiter, Albert Quintana
The striatum is anatomically and behaviorally implicated in behaviors that promote efficient foraging. To investigate this function, we studied instrumental choice behavior in mice lacking GPR88, a striatum-enriched orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that modulates striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) excitability. Our results reveal that hungry mice lacking GPR88 (KO mice) were slow to acquire food-reinforced lever-press, but could lever press similar to controls on a progressive-ratio schedule. Both WT and KO mice discriminated between reward and no-reward levers; however, KO mice failed to discriminate based on relative quantity- reward (1 versus 3 food pellets) or effort (3 versus 9 lever presses)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727316/primary-inguinal-hernia-the-open-repair-today-pros-and-cons
#7
REVIEW
Giampiero Campanelli, Piero Giovanni Bruni, Andrea Morlacchi, Francesca Lombardo, Marta Cavalli
Open anterior repair for inguinal hernia offers several distinct advantages over endoscopic repair, especially when real-world effectiveness is taken into account. The learning curve for endoscopic techniques is long, whereas the Lichtenstein and other open tension-free techniques are easier to teach and replicate at all levels. The outcomes of Lichtenstein repairs for primary inguinal hernia as performed by non-experts and supervised residents are comparable to those of experts. Moreover, open tension-free repair does not require expensive instruments or dedicated equipment, other than the prosthetic mesh...
August 2017: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726544/evaluating-wais-iv-structure-through-a-different-psychometric-lens-structural-causal-model-discovery-as-an-alternative-to-confirmatory-factor-analysis
#8
Marjolein J A M van Dijk, Tom Claassen, Christiany Suwartono, William M van der Veld, Paul T van der Heijden, Marc P H Hendriks
OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the WAIS-IV in the U.S. in 2008, efforts have been made to explore the structural validity by applying factor analysis to various samples. This study aims to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the structure of the Dutch language version of the WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-NL) by applying an alternative analysis based on causal modeling in addition to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The Bayesian Constraint-based Causal Discovery (BCCD) algorithm learns underlying network structures directly from data and assesses more complex structures than is possible with factor analysis...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725643/crisis-team-management-in-a-scarce-resource-setting-angkor-hospital-for-children-in-siem-reap-cambodia
#9
Richard Alynn Henker, Hiroko Henker, Hor Eng, John O'Donnell, Tachawan Jirativanont
INTRODUCTION: A crisis team management (CTM) simulation course was developed by volunteers from Health Volunteers Overseas for physicians and nurses at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap, Cambodia. The framework for the course was adapted from crisis resource management (1, 2), crisis team training (3), and TeamSTEPPs© models (4). The CTM course focused on teaching physicians and nurses on the development of team performance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Challenges to providing this course at AHC included availability of simulation equipment, cultural differences in learning, and language barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714724/gambling-related-cognition-scale-grcs-are-skills-based-games-at-a-disadvantage
#10
David Lévesque, Serge Sévigny, Isabelle Giroux, Christian Jacques
The Gambling-Related Cognition Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004) was developed to evaluate gambling-related cognitive distortions for all types of gamblers, regardless of their gambling activities (poker, slot machine, etc.). It is therefore imperative to ascertain the validity of its interpretation across different types of gamblers; however, some skills-related items endorsed by players could be interpreted as a cognitive distortion despite the fact that they play skills-related games. Using an intergroup (168 poker players and 73 video lottery terminal [VLT] players) differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, this study examined the possible manifestation of item biases associated with the GRCS...
July 17, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714187/a-critique-of-utilitarian-and-instrumentalist-concepts-for-the-teaching-of-gross-anatomy-to-medical-and-dental-students-an-opinion-piece
#11
Bernard J Moxham, Diogo Pais
Medical and dental curricula, together with anatomical sciences courses, are increasingly having to change, mainly because there is a drive to being what is termed, without adequate definition, 'clinically relevant'. The concept of 'clinical anatomy' has accordingly been invented and it is expected that, at all times, the teaching of anatomy is directly focussed on clinical scenarios, meaning almost invariably the 'disease-based model of medicine and dentistry'. Furthermore, students are not expected to have a detailed knowledge of gross anatomy and the time devoted to teaching and learning the subject has decreased significantly...
July 16, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711454/common-vocal-effects-and-partial-glottal-vibration-in-professional-nonclassical-singers
#12
Philipp P Caffier, Ahmed Ibrahim Nasr, Maria Del Mar Ropero Rendon, Sascha Wienhausen, Eleanor Forbes, Wolfram Seidner, Tadeus Nawka
OBJECTIVE: To multidimensionally investigate common vocal effects in experienced professional nonclassical singers, to examine their mechanism of production and reproducibility, to demonstrate the existence of partial glottal vibration, and to assess the potential of damage to the voice from nonclassical singing. STUDY DESIGN: Individual cohort study. METHODS: Ten male singers aged between 25 and 46 years (34 ± 7 years [mean ± SD]) with different stylistic backgrounds were recruited (five pop/rock/metal, five musical theater)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707176/estimating-the-average-need-of-semantic-knowledge-from-distributional-semantic-models
#13
Geoff Hollis
Continuous bag of words (CBOW) and skip-gram are two recently developed models of lexical semantics (Mikolov, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 26, 3111-3119, 2013). Each has been demonstrated to perform markedly better at capturing human judgments about semantic relatedness than competing models (e.g., latent semantic analysis; Landauer & Dumais, Psychological Review, 104(2), 1997 211; hyperspace analogue to language; Lund & Burgess, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28(2), 203-208, 1996)...
July 13, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703439/laparoendoscopic-single-site-surgery-in-inguinal-hernia-repair
#14
REVIEW
Alfred Allen E Buenafe, Alembert C Lee-Ong
Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (IHR) offers the potential for excellent cosmetic outcomes and maximization of the inherent advantages of minimally invasive surgery. LESS IHR is associated with a steep learning curve, which is attributable to both the IHR technique itself and the single-site technique. The technical obstacles in the single-site technique may be mitigated by employing certain maneuvers and strategies that minimize clashing between instruments and improve freedom of movement...
July 13, 2017: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702955/mentors-competence-in-mentoring-culturally-and-linguistically-diverse-nursing-students-during-clinical-placement
#15
Ashlee Oikarainen, Kristina Mikkonen, Anna-Maria Tuomikoski, Salla Pitkänen, Satu Elo, Heidi Ruotsalainen, Maria Kääriäinen
AIMS: To describe mentors' competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during clinical placement and identify the factors that affect mentoring. BACKGROUND: Healthcare education is confronted by several challenges in a time characterized by globalization and increasing international migration. Nursing students from diverse backgrounds continue to experience difficulties during clinical placement. Students can overcome these difficulties and assume responsibility for their learning when mentored by supportive and competent mentors...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698034/exploring-physicians-verbal-and-nonverbal-responses-to-cues-concerns-learning-from-incongruent-communication
#16
R Gorawara-Bhat, L Hafskjold, P Gulbrandsen, H Eide
OBJECTIVES: Explore physicians' verbal and nonverbal responses to cues/concerns in consultations with older-patients. METHODS: Two teams independently coded a sample of Norwegian consultations (n=24) on verbal and nonverbal dimensions of communication using VR-CoDES and NDEPT instruments. Consultations exploring older-patients' verbal emotional expressions were labeled 'Acknowledging of patients' emotional expressions', and 'Distancing from patients' emotional expressions...
June 27, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698016/the-timing-and-importance-of-motor-skills-course-in-knee-arthroscopy-training
#17
Engin Çetinkaya, Hakan Çift, Ahmet Aybar, Ersin Erçin, Gamze Babür Güler, Oğuz Poyanlı
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the impact of the simulation training program in learning duration of arthroscopic motor skills. Furthermore, we investigated the difference between junior and experienced residents in the improvement of arthroscopic motor skills duration. METHODS: We established 2 study groups according to participants' year of experience in orthopedic residency with junior group residents with three years or less than three years experience as group 1 and experienced group with over 3 years of experience as group 2...
July 8, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690567/the-construct-validity-of-the-german-academic-self-regulation-questionnaire-srq-a-within-primary-and-secondary-school-children
#18
Julia Kröner, Christina Goussios, Caroline Schaitz, Judith Streb, Zrinka Sosic-Vasic
The assessment of students' motivation can be a powerful tool in enhancing and understanding students' learning. One valid and often applied self-report measure is the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-A) which is grounded in the self-determination theory. However, to date, there is still no German equivalent to the English version of this questionnaire. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to adapt and validate the SRQ-A on a representative German student sample, consisting of 672 children (327 girls), ages 8-14 from one primary and two secondary German schools...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689471/the-scope-pc-instrument-for-assessing-patient-safety-culture-in-primary-care-a-psychometric-evaluation
#19
Melissa Desmedt, Jochen Bergs, Benjamin Willaert, Annemie Vlayen, Johan Hellings, Ward Schrooten, Neree Claes, Dominique Vandijck
INTRODUCTION: Primary healthcare differs from hospitals in terms of - inter alia - organisational structure. Therefore, patient safety culture could differ between these settings. Various instruments have been developed to measure collective attitudes of personnel within a primary healthcare organisation. However, the number of valid and reliable instruments is limited. OBJECTIVES: Psychometric properties of the SCOPE-Primary Care instrument were tested to examine the instrument's applicability in home care services in Belgium...
July 9, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684296/a-systematic-investigation-of-navigation-impairment-in-chronic-stroke-patients-evidence-for-three-distinct-types
#20
Michiel H G Claessen, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Tobias Meilinger, Albert Postma, Nicolien K de Rooij, Ineke J M van der Ham
OBJECTIVE: In a recent systematic review, Claessen and van der Ham (2017) have analyzed the types of navigation impairment in the single-case study literature. Three dissociable types related to landmarks, locations, and paths were identified. This recent model as well as previous models of navigation impairment have never been verified in a systematic manner. The aim of the current study was thus to investigate the prevalence of landmark-based, location-based, and path-based navigation impairment in a large sample of stroke patients...
July 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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