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Hemispheric stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937807/use-of-virtual-reality-in-improving-poststroke-neglect-promising-neuropsychological-and-neurophysiological-findings-from-a-case-study
#1
Rosaria De Luca, Viviana Lo Buono, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Bianca Aragona, Simona Leonardi, Antonio Buda, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
After experiencing a stroke in the right hemisphere, almost 50% of patients show unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Virtual Reality technologies offer impressive opportunities for both the rehabilitation and assessment of different cognitive deficits, including USN. A 57-year-old woman, affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage presented a severe left hemiparesis with severe cognitive and behavioral alterations, including temporal and spatial disorientation, reduction of attention and memory process, slowing ideation, USN, and depression of mood...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935424/temporal-remodeling-of-pial-collaterals-and-functional-deficits-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#2
Benjamin Okyere, Miranda Creasey, Yeonwoo Lebovitz, Michelle H Theus
BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal anastomoses play a critical role in regulating reperfusion following cerebrovascular obstruction; however, methods to evaluate their temporospatial remodeling remains under investigation. NEW METHOD: We combined arteriole-specific vessel painting with histological evaluation to assess the density and diameter of inter-collateral vessels between the middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery (MCA-ACA) or posterior cerebral artery (MCA-PCA) in a murine model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928649/changes-in-electroencephalography-complexity-using-a-brain-computer-interface-motor-observation-training-in-chronic-stroke-patients-a-fuzzy-approximate-entropy-analysis
#3
Rui Sun, Wan-Wa Wong, Jing Wang, Raymond Kai-Yu Tong
Entropy-based algorithms have been suggested as robust estimators of electroencephalography (EEG) predictability or regularity. This study aimed to examine possible disturbances in EEG complexity as a means to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic stroke, before and after a brain computer interface (BCI)-motor observation intervention. Eleven chronic stroke subjects and nine unimpaired subjects were recruited to examine the differences in their EEG complexity. The BCI-motor observation intervention was designed to promote functional recovery of the hand in stroke subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925083/selective-knockout-of-astrocytic-na-h-exchanger-isoform-1-reduces-astrogliosis-bbb-damage-infarction-and-improves-neurological-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#4
Gulnaz Begum, Shanshan Song, Shaoxia Wang, Hanshu Zhao, Mohammad Iqbal H Bhuiyan, Eric Li, Rachel Nepomuceno, Qing Ye, Ming Sun, Michael Joseph Calderon, Donna B Stolz, Claudette St Croix, Simon C Watkins, Yinhuai Chen, Pingnian He, Gary E Shull, Dandan Sun
Stimulation of Na(+) /H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) in astrocytes causes ionic dysregulation under ischemic conditions. In this study, we created a Nhe1(flox/flox) (Nhe1(f/f) ) mouse line with exon 5 of Nhe1 flanked with two loxP sites and selective ablation of Nhe1 in astrocytes was achieved by crossing Nhe1(f/f) mice with Gfap-Cre(ERT2) Cre-recombinase mice. Gfap-Cre(ERT2+/-) ;Nhe1(f/f) mice at postnatal day 60-90 were treated with either corn oil or tamoxifen (Tam, 75 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 5 days. After 30 days post-injection, mice underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) to induce ischemic stroke...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924010/microrna-1906-a-novel-regulator-of-toll-like-receptor-4-ameliorates-ischemic-injury-after-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#5
Xiaomeng Xu, Zhuoyu Wen, Nan Zhao, Xiaohui Xu, Fang Wang, Jie Gao, Yongjun Jiang, Xinfeng Liu
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pro-inflammatory cascade initiator in post-stroke inflammation. In this study, miR-1906, a novel regulator of TLR4, was identified via in silico analysis and microRNA profiling in male adult mice, and its expression was then quantitated in the ischemic hemisphere. We found miR-1906 to be significantly brain-enriched in the ischemic hemisphere and even more drastically enriched in the peri-infarct regions. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), miR-1906 expression was increased in glial cells but decreased in neurons...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917165/cerebellar-induced-differential-polyglot-aphasia-a-neurolinguistic-and-fmri-study
#6
Peter Mariën, Kim van Dun, Johanna Van Dormael, Dorien Vandenborre, Stefanie Keulen, Mario Manto, Jo Verhoeven, Jubin Abutalebi
Research has shown that linguistic functions in the bilingual brain are subserved by similar neural circuits as in monolinguals, but with extra-activity associated with cognitive and attentional control. Although a role for the right cerebellum in multilingual language processing has recently been acknowledged, a potential role of the left cerebellum remains largely unexplored. This paper reports the clinical and fMRI findings in a strongly right-handed (late) multilingual patient who developed differential polyglot aphasia, ataxic dysarthria and a selective decrease in executive function due to an ischemic stroke in the left cerebellum...
September 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914232/combined-rtms-and-virtual-reality-brain-computer-interface-training-for-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#7
Nessa N Johnson, James Carey, Bradley Edelman, Alexander Doud, Andrew Grande, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Bin He
OBJECTIVE: Combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with brain-computer interface (BCI) training can address motor impairment after stroke by down-regulating exaggerated inhibition from the contralesional hemisphere and encouraging ipsilesional activation. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of combined rTMS+BCI, compared to sham rTMS+BCI, on motor recovery after stroke in subjects with lasting motor paresis. APPROACH: Three stroke subjects approximately one year post-stroke participated in three weeks of combined rTMS (real or sham) and BCI, followed by three weeks of BCI alone...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913350/neuronal-regeneration-after-electroacupuncture-treatment-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-cerebral-infarction-rats
#8
Shiang-Lin Liao, Yi-Wen Lin, Ching-Liang Hsieh
Adult neuronal cells which can regenerate have been reported. The present study investigated whether acupuncture enhances neuronal regeneration in ischemic stroke rats. We established an ischemic stroke rat model by occluding the cerebral blood flow of the right middle cerebral artery for 15 minutes and then allowing reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. The results indicated that, in these rats, 2 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) at both Zusanli (ST36) and Shangjuxu (ST37) acupoints reduced the infarction/hemisphere ratio 8 days after reperfusion and reduced the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and increased the rotarod test time 4 and 8 days after reperfusion, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911981/peripheral-immune-cells-infiltrate-into-sites-of-secondary-neurodegeneration-after-ischemic-stroke
#9
K A Jones, S Maltby, M W Plank, M Kluge, M Nilsson, P S Foster, F R Walker
Experimental stroke leads to microglia activation and progressive neuronal loss at sites of secondary neurodegeneration (SND). These lesions are remote from, but synaptically connected to, primary infarction sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that immune cells are present in sites of infarction in the first hours and days after stroke, and are associated with increased neurodegeneration in peri-infarct regions. However, it is not known whether immune cells are also present in more distal sites where SND occurs...
September 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893572/reduced-severity-of-outcome-of-recurrent-ipsilateral-transient-cerebral-ischemia-compared-with-contralateral-transient-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#10
Chenyu Fan, Li Zhang, Zhijie He, Peng Shao, Li Ding, Guili Wang, Wenxiu Niu, Jie Jia
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether prior transient ischemic attack (TIA) had a preconditioning effect on subsequent cerebral infarction in a rat model using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). METHODS: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: those with transient (5 minutes) left MCAO (left TIA) (n = 15), those with transient right MCAO (right TIA) (n = 15), and a sham operation group (n = 6). Seven days after the initial transient MCAO, rats in all groups underwent permanent left MCAO...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887332/the-cerebro-cardiovascular-response-to-periodic-squat-stand-maneuvers-in-healthy-subjects-a-time-domain-analysis
#11
Sam C Barnes, Naomi Ball, Victoria Joanna Haunton, Thompson G Robinson, Ronney B Panerai
BACKGROUND: Squat-stand maneuvers (SSMs) have been used to improve the coherence of transfer function analysis (TFA) estimates during the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). There is a need to understand the influence of peripheral changes resulting from SSMs on cerebral blood flow, which might confound estimates of dCA. METHODS: 29 healthy subjects underwent recordings at rest (5 min standing) and 15 SSMs (0.05Hz). Heart rate (3-lead ECG), end-tidal CO2 (capnography), blood pressure (Finometer), cerebral blood velocity (CBV, transcranial Doppler, MCA) and the angle of the thigh (tilt sensor) were measured continuously...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886009/tau-mediated-iron-export-prevents-ferroptotic-damage-after-ischemic-stroke
#12
Q-Z Tuo, P Lei, K A Jackman, X-L Li, H Xiong, X-L Li, Z-Y Liuyang, L Roisman, S-T Zhang, S Ayton, Q Wang, P J Crouch, K Ganio, X-C Wang, L Pei, P A Adlard, Y-M Lu, R Cappai, J-Z Wang, R Liu, A I Bush
Functional failure of tau contributes to age-dependent, iron-mediated neurotoxicity, and as iron accumulates in ischemic stroke tissue, we hypothesized that tau failure may exaggerate ischemia-reperfusion-related toxicity. Indeed, unilateral, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) suppressed hemispheric tau and increased iron levels in young (3-month-old) mice and rats. Wild-type mice were protected by iron-targeted interventions: ceruloplasmin and amyloid precursor protein ectodomain, as well as ferroptosis inhibitors...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872738/chronic-post-stroke-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-is-associated-with-impaired-cortical-activation-to-pharyngeal-sensory-inputs
#13
C Cabib, O Ortega, N Vilardell, L Mundet, P Clavé, L Rofes
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of afferent sensory pathways in the pathophysiology of post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia is not known. We hypothesized that patients with chronic post-stroke dysphagia (PSD) would show impaired sensory cortical activation in the ipsilesional hemisphere. METHODS: We studied 28 chronic unilateral post-stroke patients [17 PSD and 11 post-stroke non-dysphagic patients (PSnD)] and 11 age-matched healthy volunteers. Event-related sensory-evoked potentials to pharyngeal stimulation (pSEP) and sensory thresholds were assessed...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865993/genetic-neutrophil-deficiency-ameliorates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Ryan A Frieler, Yutein Chung, Carolyn G Ahlers, George Gheordunescu, Jianrui Song, Thomas M Vigil, Yatrik M Shah, Richard M Mortensen
Neutrophils respond rapidly to cerebral ischemia and are thought to contribute to inflammation-mediated injury during stroke. Using myeloid Mcl1 knockout mice as a model of genetic neutrophil deficiency, we investigated the contribution of neutrophils to stroke pathophysiology. Myeloid Mcl1 knockout mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and infarct size was assessed by MRI after 24h reperfusion. Immune cell mobilization and infiltration was assessed by flow cytometry. We found that myeloid Mcl1 knockout mice had significantly reduced infarct size when compared to heterozygous and wild type control mice (MyMcl1(+/+): 78...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861036/contralesional-trunk-rotation-dissociates-real-vs-pseudo-visual-field-defects-due-to-visual-neglect-in-stroke-patients
#15
Thomas Nyffeler, Rebecca E Paladini, Simone Hopfner, Oliver Job, Tobias Nef, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Tim Vanbellingen, Stephan Bohlhalter, René M Müri, Georg Kerkhoff, Dario Cazzoli
In stroke patients, the clinical presentation of visual field defects (VFDs) is frequently accompanied by visual neglect, i.e., the inability to attend and respond to the contralesional space. However, the diagnostic discrimination between the lack of reactions to contralesional stimuli due to VFDs or visual neglect is challenging during clinical examination. This discrimination is particularly relevant, since both clinical pictures are associated with different therapeutic approaches and outcomes. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effectiveness of trunk rotation toward the contralesional side-a manipulation dissociating the coordinate system of the trunk from that of the head and eyes-in disentangling real VFDs from "pseudo-VFDs" that occur due to visual neglect...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860901/correlation-between-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-derived-metrics-and-serum-soluble-cd40-ligand-level-in-an-embolic-canine-stroke-model
#16
Xiao-Quan Xu, Chen-Jiang Wu, Shan-Shan Lu, Qian-Qian Gao, Qing-Quan Zu, Xing-Long Liu, Hai-Bin Shi, Sheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging derived quantitative metrics and serum soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) level in an embolic canine stroke model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A middle cerebral artery occlusion model was established in 24 beagle dogs. Experimental dogs were divided into low- and high-sCD40L group according to serum sCD40L level at 4.5 hours after establishing the model. IVIM imaging was scanned at 4...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856586/tio2-nanowired-delivery-of-dl-3-n-butylphthalide-dl-nbp-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-brain-edema-formation-and-neuronal-damages-following-concussive-head-injury
#17
Lianyuan Feng, Aruna Sharma, Feng Niu, Yin Huang, José Vicente Lafuente, Dafin Fior Muresanu, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z Ryan Tian, Hari Shanker Sharma
DL-3-n-butylphthalide (DL-NBP) is one of the constituents of Chinese celery extract that is used to treat stroke, dementia, and ischemic diseases. However, its role in traumatic brain injury is less well known. In this investigation, neuroprotective effects of DL-NBP in concussive head injury (CHI) on brain pathology were explored in a rat model. CHI was inflicted in anesthetized rats by dropping a weight of 114.6 g from a height of 20 cm through a guide tube on the exposed right parietal bone inducing an impact of 0...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856409/reperfusion-facilitates-reversible-disruption-of-the-human-blood-brain-barrier-following-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#18
Chang Liu, Sheng Zhang, Shenqiang Yan, Ruiting Zhang, Feina Shi, Xinfa Ding, Mark Parsons, Min Lou
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to detect early changes of the blood-brain barrier permeability (BBBP) in acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), with or without reperfusion, and find out whether BBBP can predict clinical outcomes. METHODS: Consecutive AIS patients imaged with computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) before and 24 h after treatment were included. The relative permeability-surface area product (rPS) was calculated within the hypoperfused region (rPShypo-i), non-hypoperfused region of ischaemic hemisphere (rPSnonhypo-i) and their contralateral mirror regions (rPShypo-c and rPSnonhypo-c)...
August 30, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854286/therapeutic-time-window-for-conivaptan-treatment-against-stroke-evoked-brain-edema-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-mice
#19
Emil Zeynalov, Susan M Jones, J Paul Elliott
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is often complicated by brain edema, disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), and uncontrolled release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). Conivaptan, a V1a and V2 receptor antagonist, reduces brain edema and minimizes damage to the blood-brain barrier after stroke. Most stroke patients do not receive treatment immediately after the onset of brain ischemia. Delays in therapy initiation may worsen stroke outcomes. Therefore, we designed a translational study to explore the therapeutic time window for conivaptan administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853521/-hemispherotomy-for-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy-in-children
#20
Jonathan Roth, Sari Nagar, Shlomi Constantini, Itzhak Fried
INTRODUCTION: Hemispherotomies are an extreme treatment for epilepsy. As opposed to focal resections, in hemispherotomies the entire hemisphere is disconnected from the remaining nervous system, including functional regions and fibers. Despite this, hemispherotomy is recommended for certain indications, with good epilepsy and functional outcomes. AIMS: To summarize the experience of hemispherotomy performed at a tertiary national center. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted including all patients operated on between 2001 and 2014...
August 2017: Harefuah
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