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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785667/cerebral-autoregulation-in-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Pedro Castro, Elsa Azevedo, Farzaneh Sorond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is a mechanism that maintains cerebral blood flow constant despite fluctuations in systemic arterial blood pressure. This review will focus on recent studies that measured CA non-invasively in acute cerebrovascular events, a feature unique to the transcranial Doppler ultrasound. We will summarize the rationale for CA assessment in acute cerebrovascular disorders and specifically evaluate the existing data on the value of CA measures in relation to clinical severity, guiding management decisions, and prognostication...
May 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784243/management-of-severe-and-or-refractory-epistaxis
#2
Patricia García-Cabo, Laura Fernández-Vañes, Daniel Pedregal, Marta Menéndez Del Castro, Eduardo Murias, Pedro Vega, José Luis Llorente, Juan Pablo Rodrigo, Fernando López
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the results of the treatment of severe and/or refractory epistaxis requiring hospital admission. In addition, the results of arterial ligation versus embolization were compared. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Sixty-three patients with severe and/or refractory epistaxis requiring hospital admission between August 2014 and December 2016 were included prospectively. RESULTS: Eleven patients (17%) underwent embolization, 5 (8%) endoscopy ligation and the remaining 47 (75%) underwent conservative treatment with tamponade...
May 18, 2018: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782329/longitudinal-fmri-study-of-language-recovery-after-a-left-hemispheric-ischemic-stroke
#3
Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Amber M Martin, Christi Banks, Jennifer Vannest, Scott K Holland, Kimberly W Hart, Christopher J Lindsell, Jerzy P Szaflarski
BACKGROUND: Recovery from stroke-induced aphasia is typically protracted and involves complex functional reorganization. The relative contributions of the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres to this process have been examined in several cross-sectional studies but longitudinal studies involving several time-points and large numbers of subjects are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to address the gaps in the literature by longitudinally studying the evolution of post-stroke lateralization and localization of language-related fMRI activation in the first year after single left hemispheric ischemic stroke...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778441/hypoxic-postconditioning-enhances-functional-recovery-following-endothelin-1-induced-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-conscious-rats
#4
Hong L Nguyen, Alexander M Ruhoff, Thomas Fath, Nicole M Jones
Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major contributor to neurological disability in adults. Tissue plasminogen activator is the only approved treatment. However, due to its narrow therapeutic window, <5% of patients receive treatment. Recently, hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) was shown to reduce stroke induced-injury in mice, but the mechanisms and functional outcomes are still unknown. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to endothelin-1 induced stroke. HPC (8% O2 , 1 h/d for 5d) or normoxia treatments were started 24 h after stroke...
May 17, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777360/crossed-aphasia-following-cerebral-infarction-in-a-right-handed-patient-with-atypical-cerebral-language-dominance
#5
Xiaoping Tan, Yang Guo, Saihong Dun, Hongzan Sun
OBJECTIVE: Crossed aphasia (CA), usually referred to as an acquired language disturbance, is caused by a lesion in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand, and the exact mechanism is not clear. The development of handedness is influenced by education and training and the impact of habitualization, while language is more susceptible to the impact of speech habits, and it is not absolutely accurate to judge cerebral language dominance by the degree of hand preference. METHODS: We describe a case of CA after right hemispheric stroke in a right-handed patient with atypical language dominance and attempt to analyze the mechanism of CA based on functional imaging methods, including arterial spin labeling (ASL) and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769288/targeted-complement-inhibition-salvages-stressed-neurons-and-inhibits-neuroinflammation-after-stroke-in-mice
#6
Ali Alawieh, E Farris Langley, Stephen Tomlinson
Ischemic stroke results from the interruption of blood flow to the brain resulting in long-term motor and cognitive neurological deficits, and it is a leading cause of death and disability. Current interventions focus on the restoration of blood flow to limit neuronal death, but these treatments have a therapeutic window of only a few hours and do not address post-stroke cerebral inflammation. The complement system, a component of the innate immune system, is activated by natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies that recognize neoepitopes expressed in the brain after ischemic stroke...
May 16, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766653/organic-psychosis-the-pathobiology-and-treatment-of-delusions
#7
REVIEW
Eileen Maria Joyce
Organic or secondary psychosis can be seen in diverse conditions such as toxic/metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and stroke. Poststroke psychosis is a rare phenomenon, but its study has significantly contributed to the understanding of delusion formation. The evidence from case studies of patients with focal strokes shows that delusions develop following unilateral damage of the right hemisphere. The majority of patients with right hemisphere stroke do not develop delusions however, and advanced neuroimaging analysis has elucidated why this symptom develops in only a small proportion...
May 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765567/effects-of-multimodal-communication-program-on-patients-with-chronic-aphasia-a-single-subject-a-b-a-design-study
#8
Shohre Kaviani, Afshin Samaei, Masoomeh Salmani, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Farnaz Dehnavi, Ehsan Shahverdi
Background and aim: Aphasia as a common consequence of stroke, is an acquired neurologic communication disorder that can affect symbol language processing. Different types of intervention approaches have been introduced. Multimodal Communication Program (MCP) is a new augmentative alternative communication approach in chronic aphasia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MCP on communication skills of patients with chronic aphasia. Methods: This prospective, single subject, A-B-A design study was done during 2016 in Semnan, Iran...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765412/neural-stem-cell-conditioned-medium-ameliorated-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#9
HongNa Yang, Cuilan Wang, Hui Chen, Lan Li, Shuang Ma, Hao Wang, YaRu Fu, Tingyu Qu
Introduction: Our previous study suggested that NSC-CM (neural stem cell-conditioned medium) inhibited cell apoptosis in vitro . In addition, many studies have shown that neurotrophic factors and microparticles secreted into a conditioned medium by NSCs had neuroprotective effects. Thus, we hypothesized that NSC-CM had the capacity of protecting against cerebral I/R injury. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery as an animal model of cerebral I/R injury were randomly assigned to two groups: the control group and NSC-CM-treated group...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765301/the-additional-contribution-of-white-matter-hyperintensity-location-to-post-stroke-cognitive-impairment-insights-from-a-multiple-lesion-symptom-mapping-study
#10
Lei Zhao, Adrian Wong, Yishan Luo, Wenyan Liu, Winnie W C Chu, Jill M Abrigo, Ryan K L Lee, Vincent Mok, Lin Shi
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are common in acute ischemic stroke patients. Although WMH volume has been reported to influence post-stroke cognition, it is still not clear whether WMH location, independent of acute ischemic lesion (AIL) volume and location, contributes to cognitive impairment after stroke. Here, we proposed a multiple-lesion symptom mapping model that considers both the presence of WMH and AIL to measure the additional contribution of WMH locations to post-stroke cognitive impairment...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763676/effect-of-single-session-dual-tdcs-before-physical-therapy-on-lower-limb-performance-in-sub-acute-stroke-patients-a-randomized-sham-controlled-crossover-study
#11
Wanalee Klomjai, Benchaporn Aneksan, Anuchai Pheungphrarattanatrai, Thanwarat Chantanachai, Nattha Choowong, Soontaree Bunleukhet, Paradee Auervitchayapat, Yongchai Nilanon, Vimonwan Hiengkaew
Anodal stimulation increases cortical excitably, whereas cathodal stimulation decreases cortical excitability. Dual transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS; anodal over the lesioned hemisphere, cathodal over the non-lesioned hemisphere) was found to enhance motor learning. The corresponding tDCS-induced changes were reported to reduce the inhibition exerted by the unaffected hemisphere on the affected hemisphere and restore the normal balance of the interhemispheric inhibition. Most studies were devoted to the possible modification of upper-limb motor function after tDCS; however, almost no study has demonstrated its effects on lower-limb function and gait, which are also commonly disordered in stroke patients with motor deficits...
May 12, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761540/apixaban-decreases-brain-thrombin-activity-in-a-male-mouse-model-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#12
Doron Bushi, Joab Chapman, Anton Wohl, Efrat Shavit Stein, Ekaterina Feingold, David Tanne
Factor Xa (FXa) plays a critical role in the coagulation cascade by generation of thrombin. During focal ischemia thrombin levels increase in the brain tissue and cause neural damage. This study examined the hypothesis that administration of the FXa inhibitor, apixaban, following focal ischemic stroke may have therapeutic potential by decreasing brain thrombin activity and infarct volume. Male mice were divided into a treated groups that received different doses of apixaban (2, 20, 100 mg/kg administered I...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758228/differences-in-swallow-physiology-in-patients-with-left-and-right-hemispheric-strokes
#13
Janina Wilmskoetter, Bonnie Martin-Harris, William G Pearson, Leonardo Bonilha, Jordan J Elm, Janet Horn, Heather S Bonilha
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the impact of lesion lateralization and lesion volume on swallow impairment on group-level by comparing patients with left and right hemisphere strokes and on patient-level by analyzing patients individually. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of 46 patients with unilateral (22 left, 24 right), acute, first-ever, ischemic strokes who received a diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and modified barium swallow study (MBSS) during their acute hospital stay...
May 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753575/quantitative-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-mapping-may-predict-seizure-onset-in-children-with-sturge-weber-syndrome
#14
Anna L R Pinto, Yangming Ou, Mustafa Sahin, P Ellen Grant
BACKGROUND: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is often accompanied by seizures, stroke-like episodes, hemiparesis, and visual field deficits. This study aimed to identify early pathophysiologic changes that exist before the development of clinical symptoms and to evaluate if the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map is a candidate early biomarker of seizure risk in patients with SWS. METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study using quantitative ADC analysis to predict onset of epilepsy...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746644/relationships-between-selective-neuronal-loss-and-microglial-activation-after-ischaemic-stroke-in-man
#15
Rhiannon S Morris, P Simon Jones, Josef A Alawneh, Young T Hong, Tim D Fryer, Franklin I Aigbirhio, Elizabeth A Warburton, Jean-Claude Baron
Modern ischaemic stroke management involves intravenous thrombolysis followed by mechanical thrombectomy, which allows markedly higher rates of recanalization and penumbral salvage than thrombolysis alone. However, <50% of treated patients eventually enjoy independent life. It is therefore important to identify complementary therapeutic targets. In rodent models, the salvaged penumbra is consistently affected by selective neuronal loss, which may hinder recovery by interfering with plastic processes, as well as by microglial activation, which may exacerbate neuronal death...
May 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744999/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-fine-motor-improvement-after-stroke-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
A T O'Brien, F Bertolucci, G Torrealba-Acosta, R Huerta, F Fregni, A Thibaut
The aim of this study was to determine whether non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques improve fine motor performance in stroke. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SciELO and OpenGrey for randomized clinical trials on NIBS for fine motor performance in stroke patients and healthy participants. We computed Hedges' g for active and sham groups, pooled data as random-effects models and performed sensitivity analysis on chronicity, montage, frequency of stimulation and risk of bias. Twenty-nine studies (351 patients and 152 healthy subjects) were reviewed...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737956/connection-disruption-underlying-attention-deficit-in-subcortical-stroke
#17
Jingchun Liu, Caihong Wang, Qingqing Diao, Wen Qin, Jingliang Cheng, Chunshui Yu
Purpose To investigate neural substrates underlying attention deficit in patients with chronic subcortical stroke by combining voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and diffusion-tensor (DT) tractography. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data were prospectively acquired from August 1, 2014, to March 30, 2015, in 49 patients (32 men, 17 women; mean age, 55.7 years ± 8.0; age range, 40-71 years) with subcortical infarctions in the basal ganglia and neighboring regions and 52 control subjects (30 men, 22 women; mean age, 54...
May 8, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736223/the-effect-of-swallowing-rehabilitation-on-quality-of-life-of-the-dysphagic-patients-with-cortical-ischemic-stroke
#18
Kadir Bahcecı, Ebru Umay, Ibrahim Gundogdu, Eda Gurcay, Erhan Ozturk, Sibel Alıcura
Background: Swallowing and swallowing-related quality of life studies following stroke were almost always performed by including both patients with brainstem and cortical involvement. It was aimed in this study to show the presence of dysphagia in patients with only cortical ischemic stroke and to investigate the interaction between dysphagia and quality of life as well as to evaluate the effect of a rehabilitation program in the acute phase. Methods: Seventy-two patients with cortical stroke (between 0 and 30 days) and dysphagia were included...
October 7, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734235/effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-walking-and-balance-function-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Yi Li, Jingjing Fan, Jingyi Yang, Chengqi He, Shasha Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on walking and balance function in patients with stroke. DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database were comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials published through March 2017 that investigated the effects of rTMS on lower limb function. Main outcomes included walking speed, balance function, motor function, and cortical excitability...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730752/unilateral-wrist-extension-training-after-stroke-improves-strength-and-neural-plasticity-in-both-arms
#20
Yao Sun, Noah M H Ledwell, Lara A Boyd, E Paul Zehr
Stroke induces bilateral neurological impairment and muscle weakness yielding neurologically more (MA; paretic) and less affected (LA; non-paretic) sides. "Cross-education" refers to training one side of the body to increase strength in the same muscles on the untrained side. Past work showed dorsiflexion training of the LA side produced bilateral strength increases after stroke. The current study explored the presence and extent of cross-education after arm strength training in chronic stroke. Twenty-four chronic stroke participants completed 5 weeks of maximal wrist extension training using their LA arm...
May 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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