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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526280/an-overview-of-medical-risk-factors-for-childhood-psychosis-implications-for-research-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Marianna Giannitelli, Angèle Consoli, Marie Raffin, Renaud Jardri, Douglas F Levinson, David Cohen, Claudine Laurent-Levinson
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic disorders in childhood and early adolescence often progress to chronic schizophrenia, but in many cases there are diagnosable medical and genetic causes or risk factors. We reviewed our clinical experience and the relevant literature to identify these factors and to define their clinical features, appropriate work-up and treatment. METHOD: We reviewed the results of comprehensive medical evaluations of 160 psychotic children and adolescents in our center...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526134/molecular-biology-digest-of-cell-mitophagy
#2
I Matic, D Strobbe, F Di Guglielmo, M Campanella
The homeostasis of eukaryotic cells relies on efficient mitochondrial function. The control of mitochondrial quality is framed by the combination of distinct but interdependent mechanisms spanning biogenesis, regulation of dynamic network, and finely tuned degradation either through ubiquitin-proteasome system or autophagy (mitophagy). There is continuous evolution on the pathways orchestrating the mitochondrial response to stress signals and the organelle adaptation to quality control during acute and subtle dysfunctions...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525403/genetic-diseases-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-skin-cancer-development-in-childhood
#3
Alexander L Fogel, Kavita Y Sarin, Joyce M C Teng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood skin cancers are relatively rare and may indicate an underlying genetic disorder. The increasing elucidation of genetic pathways is changing the diagnosis and management of genetic skin cancer susceptibility syndromes. In this review, we provide an overview of genetic conditions that predispose to skin cancer development in childhood and signs that providers should assess when evaluating affected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: In basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), the patched2 (PTCH2) and suppressor of fused (SUFU) genes have been implicated in disease pathogenesis...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525398/likely-impact-of-the-un-convention-on-disability-on-mental-health-services
#4
Ina Jahn, Thomas Becker, Katarina Stengler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After a large majority of UN member states ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), this article aims to provide an overview of its implementation and possible effects in the area of mental health services in individual contract states. RECENT FINDINGS: This article looks at the implementation processes of the UNCRPD in individual industrialized, emerging and developing countries. In addition to changes in national legislation, potential influences on the supply and support systems for persons with mental illness are considered...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525301/mood-the-circadian-system-and-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells
#5
Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri, Glen Prusky, Samer Hattar
The discovery of a third type of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has had a revolutionary impact on chronobiology. We can now properly account for numerous nonvision-related functions of light, including its effect on the circadian system. Here, we give an overview of ipRGCs and their function as it relates specifically to mood and biological rhythms. Although circadian disruptions have been traditionally hypothesized to be the mediators of light's effects on mood, here we present an alternative model that dispenses with assumptions of causality between the two phenomena and explains mood regulation by light via another ipRGC-dependent mechanism...
May 17, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524641/nursing-philosophy-2016-response-to-peter-allmark-s-article-aristotle-for-nursing
#6
Beverly J B Whelton
Preparing to lecture on Aristotle's contribution to Nursing at the International Philosophy of Nursing Conference August 22, 2016, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, I came upon the recently published article by my IPONS colleague, Allmark (2016), "Aristotle for Nursing." Allmark (2016) provides a comprehensive and understandable overview of Aristotle's philosophical system including the substantial nature of being and the four causes of change. Nurses using Aristotle to support practice and theoretical research will benefit from a careful reading of Allmark to enrich their use of the realist understanding of knowledge of nature (epistemology) and the matter-form causal relationships within natural being (ontology and teleology)...
May 19, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523976/the-application-of-tdcs-for-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-diseases
#7
Min-Fang Kuo, Po-See Chen, Michael A Nitsche
Neuroplasticity represents the dynamic structural and functional reorganization of the central nervous system, including its connectivity, due to environmental and internal demands. It is recognized as a major physiological basis for adaption of cognition and behaviour, and, thus, of utmost importance for normal brain function. Cognitive dysfunctions are major symptoms in psychiatric disorders, which are often associated with pathological alteration of neuroplasticity. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a recently developed non-invasive brain stimulation technique, is able to induce and modulate cortical plasticity in humans via the application of relatively weak current through the scalp of the head...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523588/advances-in-the-development-of-janus-kinase-inhibitors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-future-prospects
#8
Mathurin Flamant, Josselin Rigaill, Stephane Paul, Xavier Roblin
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by a dysregulation of the immune system, inducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. A better understanding of the mucosal immune response in IBD has led to the development of new drugs directed at inflammatory cytokines and leukocyte-trafficking molecules. Beyond tumor necrosis factor antagonists and anti-integrin molecules, which act by blocking the interaction between gut-specific lymphocytes and their receptor on vascular endothelium, the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway represents a new target in IBD...
May 18, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521694/bioresponsive-injectable-hydrogels-for-on-demand-drug-release-and-tissue-engineering
#9
Arti Vashist, Ajeet Kaushik, Kayla Alexis, Rahul Dev Jayant, Vidya Sagar, Atul Vashist, Madhavan Nair
The emergence of injectable hydrogels as biomaterials has been a revolutionary breakthrough in the field of on-demand drug delivery and tissue engineering. The promising features of these systems include their biodegradability, biocompatibility, permeability, ease of the surgical implantation, and most importantly exhibit minimally invasiveness. These hydrogels have been explored as sustained and on demand release carriers for the various bioactive agents, growth factors, live cells, various hydrophobic drugs and as extracellular matrices for tissue engineering...
May 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521379/-compatibility-of-work-and-family-life-of-employees-in-the-healthcare-sector-an-issue-in-health-services-research
#10
Matthias Lukasczik, Jutta Ahnert, Veronika Ströbl, Heiner Vogel, Carolin Donath, Ilka Enger, Elmar Gräßel, Lena Heyelmann, Heidemarie Lux, Jochen Maurer, Dominik Özbe, Stefanie Spieckenbaum, Elzbieta Voigtländer, Manfred Wildner, Andreas Zapf, Angela Zellner, Alfons Hollederer
Background Healthcare professionals are confronted with specific work-related demands that influence work-family relations and might indirectly affect the quality of healthcare. This paper seeks to provide an overview of the current state of research on this topic of relevance to health services research. The overview may serve as a starting point for modifying structures in the healthcare system (especially in rural regions) with the aim of improving work-family compatibility. Methods A systematic national and international literature search was conducted in terms of a scoping review...
May 18, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520572/maxillary-sinus-augmentation-for-dental-implant-rehabilitation-of-the-edentulous-ridge-a-comprehensive-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#11
Miriam Ting, Jeremy G Rice, Stanton M Braid, Cameron Y S Lee, Jon B Suzuki
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systemic review was to perform a comprehensive overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the maxillary sinus augmentation procedure for implant rehabilitation in humans. The following were evaluated in this overview: (1) anatomic variables affecting sinus augmentation, (2) histomorphometric analysis of the grafted sinus, (3) volumetric changes after sinus grafting, and (4) implant survival beyond 1 year. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of implant-related sinus augmentation published from 1976 to September 2015...
May 16, 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520449/-novelties-in-the-treatment-of-heart-failure
#12
Filip Souček, Jan Novak
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome which is manifested by characteristic symptoms and objective signs of cardiac insufficiency. The incidence of HF, particularly its chronic form, is estimated 0.4-2 % in the central and western Europe, with an increase in higher age groups, affecting 10-20 % of the population aged over 80. With respect to its growing incidence and prevalence, novel modalities of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment are being developed in order to improve quality of life and survival of the affected patients...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516976/salivary-duct-stenosis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#13
M Koch, H Iro
The management of stenoses of the major salivary glands had undergone a significant change during the last 15-20 years. Accurate diagnosis forms the basis of adapted minimal invasive therapy. Conventional sialography and MR-sialography are useful examination tools, and ultrasound seems to be a first-line investigational tool if salivary duct stenosis is suspected as cause of gland obstruction. Sialendoscopy is the best choice to establish final diagnosis and characterise the stenosis in order to plan accurate treatment...
April 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516256/-skin-diseases-associated-with-environmental-factors
#14
REVIEW
Vera Mahler
BACKGROUND: Multiple environmental exposures may derange the regulatory and repair mechanisms of the skin and lead to dermatological disease. OBJECTIVES: Provide an overview of non-allergic skin diseases associated with environmental factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of current scientific evidence for associations of non-allergic skin diseases with environmental exposures: irritation, chemicals, infection, UV-radiation, temperature. RESULTS: Predisposition (constitution e...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516152/cdk4-6-inhibitors-in-cancer-therapy-a%C3%A2-novel-treatement-strategy-for-bladder-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Qi Pan, Anuja Sathe, Peter C Black, Peter J Goebell, Ashish M Kamat, Bernd Schmitz-Draeger, Roman Nawroth
Patients with metastatic bladder cancer (mBC) treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy have a limited median survival of only around 14 months [1]. Despite over 30 years of basic and clinical research, until recently no therapeutic options beyond cisplatin-based therapy had entered clinical routine and, at least in the US, none of the tested agents had been approved for second-line treatment. This has changed with the advent of immune checkpoint blockade, including especially PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. The high response rates of 24% over a 14...
April 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515688/insulin-resistance-as-a-link-between-amyloid-beta-and-tau-pathologies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Roger J Mullins, Thomas C Diehl, Chee W Chia, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
Current hypotheses and theories regarding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) heavily implicate brain insulin resistance (IR) as a key factor. Despite the many well-validated metrics for systemic IR, the absence of biomarkers for brain-specific IR represents a translational gap that has hindered its study in living humans. In our lab, we have been working to develop biomarkers that reflect the common mechanisms of brain IR and AD that may be used to follow their engagement by experimental treatments...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515625/overview-of-the-impact-of-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever-utility-of-ty21a-vaccine-vivotif%C3%A2
#17
REVIEW
D Amicizia, L Arata, F Zangrillo, D Panatto, R Gasparini
Cases of diarrhoeal disease number from 1.7 to 5 billion per year worldwide. One of the main causes of diarrhoeal disease is typhoid fever, which is a potentially life-threatening multi-systemic illness. According to the most recent estimates, a total of 26.9 million typhoid fever episodes occurred in 2010. The geographical distribution of the disease differs widely; in developed countries, the incidence rate per 100,000 per year varies from < 0.1 to 0.3, and the disease mainly affects people who travel to endemic areas located in low- and middle-income countries...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515170/respiratory-function-and-mechanics-in-pinnipeds-and-cetaceans
#18
REVIEW
Andreas Fahlman, Michael J Moore, Daniel Garcia-Parraga
In this Review, we focus on the functional properties of the respiratory system of pinnipeds and cetaceans, and briefly summarize the underlying anatomy; in doing so, we provide an overview of what is currently known about their respiratory physiology and mechanics. While exposure to high pressure is a common challenge among breath-hold divers, there is a large variation in respiratory anatomy, function and capacity between species - how are these traits adapted to allow the animals to withstand the physiological challenges faced during dives? The ultra-deep diving feats of some marine mammals defy our current understanding of respiratory physiology and lung mechanics...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514599/a-bioenergetics-systems-evaluation-of-ketogenic-diet-liver-effects
#19
Lewis J Hutfles, Heather M Wilkins, Scott J Koppel, Ian W Weidling, J Eva Selfridge, Eephie Tan, John P Thyfault, Chad Slawson, Aron W Fenton, Hao Zhu, Russell H Swerdlow
Ketogenic diets induce hepatocyte fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. To further evaluate how ketogenic diets affect hepatocyte bioenergetic infrastructure, we analyzed livers from C57Bl/6J male mice maintained for one month on a ketogenic or standard chow diet. Compared to the standard diet, the ketogenic diet increased cytosolic and mitochondrial protein acetylation and also altered protein succinylation patterns. SIRT3 protein decreased while SIRT5 protein increased, and gluconeogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis pathway proteins were variably and likely strategically altered...
May 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510082/biomedical-applications-of-nanotechnology
#20
REVIEW
Ana P Ramos, Marcos A E Cruz, Camila B Tovani, Pietro Ciancaglini
The ability to investigate substances at the molecular level has boosted the search for materials with outstanding properties for use in medicine. The application of these novel materials has generated the new research field of nanobiotechnology, which plays a central role in disease diagnosis, drug design and delivery, and implants. In this review, we provide an overview of the use of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-nanotubes, liposomes, and nanopatterned flat surfaces for specific biomedical applications...
April 2017: Biophysical Reviews
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