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Asthma, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiectasis

Rajiv Dhand
Some recent salient publications related to inhaled drug therapy are discussed. Unexpectedly, a 2.5-μg once-daily dose of tiotropium (Respimat) had greater efficacy than the 5.0-μg daily dose. Occurrence of a reverse dose response serves to caution us that administering more drug is not always beneficial. Small-airway inflammation contributes to pathogenesis of asthma, especially severe asthma. However, there is no conclusive evidence that the use of small-particle aerosols to target small airways improves clinical outcomes in controlled clinical trials...
July 2017: Respiratory Care
Matthieu Buscot, Héloïse Pottier, Charles-Hugo Marquette, Sylvie Leroy
BACKGROUND: Data concerning phenotypes in bronchiectasis are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical, functional and microbiological phenotypes of patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: A monocentric retrospective study in a university hospital in France was conducted over 10 years (2002-2012). Non-cystic fibrosis patients with tomographic confirmation of bronchiectasis were included. The clinical, functional and microbiological data of patients were analyzed relying on the underlying etiology...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
I S Sehgal, S Dhooria, D Behera, R Agarwal
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder that results from immune responses mounted against antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus, resulting in non-specific respiratory symptoms and structural lung damage. Classically defined in individuals suffering from bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis, ABPA has recently been described in other lung diseases including COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, idiopathic bronchiectasis and others. Herein, we report the first case of ABPA complicating Swyer-James-Macleod's syndrome that was successfully treated with oral antifungal therapy...
May 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sara Lonni, James D Chalmers, Pieter C Goeminne, Melissa J McDonnell, Katerina Dimakou, Anthony De Soyza, Eva Polverino, Charlotte Van de Kerkhove, Robert Rutherford, John Davison, Edmundo Rosales, Alberto Pesci, Marcos I Restrepo, Antoni Torres, Stefano Aliberti
RATIONALE: Testing for underlying etiology is a key part of bronchiectasis management, but it is unclear whether the same extent of testing is required across the spectrum of disease severity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify the etiology of bronchiectasis across European cohorts and according to different levels of disease severity. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of seven databases of adult outpatients with bronchiectasis prospectively enrolled at the bronchiectasis clinics of university teaching hospitals in Monza, Italy; Dundee and Newcastle, United Kingdom; Leuven, Belgium; Barcelona, Spain; Athens, Greece; and Galway, Ireland...
December 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Amanjit Bal, Ritesh Agarwal
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder resulting from immune responses directed against inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. It manifests with poorly controlled asthma, fleeting pulmonary opacities and structural lung damage in the form of bronchiectasis. Initially defined in individuals suffering from bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis, it has also been described in patients with other structural lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, idiopathic bronchiectasis and others...
August 6, 2015: BMJ Case Reports
G Gex, N Petitpierre, F Charbonnier, T Rochat
This review reports on papers published in 2012 that will most likely impact on daily medical practice in four different areas of pulmonary medicine. How should treatment of asthma with inhaled corticosteroids be adjusted on the long run? Should idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis receive treatment with immunosuppressive drugs? Is a long-term treatment with azithromycine for bronchiectasis supported by evidence, apart from patients with cystic fibrosis? And finally, can treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive pressure (CPAP) prevent the occurrence of new, systemic hypertension?...
January 16, 2013: Revue Médicale Suisse
Kim Kristensen
Recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) reduces viscosity of sputum. Effect has been documented in cystic fibrosis and postoperatively in paediatric heart disease. Single dose treatment with rhDNase in paediatric asthma has no effect. In respiratory syncytial virus infection, treatment with rhDNase may be associated with increased need for supplemental oxygen. In adults with idiopathic bronchiectasis, treatment with rhDNase leads to more pulmonary exacerbations and a greater decline in pulmonary function tests. There are no controlled studies on rhDNase in primary ciliary dyskinesia or atelectasis...
February 22, 2010: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Nicola S P Ngiam, Samuel S Chong, Lynette P C Shek, Denise L M Goh, K C Ong, S Y Chng, G H Yeo, Daniel Y T Goh
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in Asian patients and severe asthma or idiopathic bronchiectasis. We investigated this potential relationship in the Singaporean Chinese. METHODS: Twenty patients with chronic pulmonary disease, 14 with severe asthma and 6 with idiopathic bronchiectasis, were screened for CFTR mutations by direct gene sequencing. The frequencies of identified putative mutations were compared against 40 unaffected controls and 96 unselected population samples...
August 2006: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
S K Field, T S Field, R L Cowie
BACKGROUND: Associations have been reported between gastroesophageal reflux and a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract conditions. Respiratory conditions and GER are common and would be expected to coexist in many patients. Whether there is a relationship between GER and these conditions and its nature remain controversial. The purpose of this paper is to review the relationship between GER and these conditions. METHODS: Searches of the 1966 to 2000 MEDLINE database were undertaken to identify appropriate studies...
September 2001: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Diane E Stover, Debra Mangino
Some macrolides have been found to exert anti-inflammatory effects. Lung diseases such as asthma, panbronchiolitis, cystic fibrosis, and bronchiectasis are thought to respond to the immunomodulatory properties of macrolides. We report three cases of idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, now called cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, and three cases of radiation-related bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia that responded to macrolide therapy. An explanation of why macrolides may have anti-inflammatory effects in patients with these syndromes is discussed...
November 2005: Chest
Maurizio Luisetti, Pier Franco Pignatti
Bronchiectasis is an abnormal dilation of bronchi, consequent to the destruction of their walls. It is included in the category of obstructive pulmonary diseases, along with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. In approximately 50% of cases, bronchiectasis is associated with underlying conditions; in the remainder, known causes are not ascertainable (idiopathic bronchiectasis). A search for genetic determinants of this phenotype, with the cystic fibrosis gene as a candidate, has been performed by three independent groups...
April 2003: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Irfan Rahman, Frank Kelly
Oxidative stress is associated with a range of inflammatory lung diseases including asthma, adult respiratory distress syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia, lung transplantation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and lung cancer. Increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the airways of such patients are reflected by elevated concentrations of oxidative stress markers in the breath, airways, lung tissue and blood. Traditionally, the measurement of these biomarkers has involved invasive procedures to procure the samples, or examine the compartments...
December 2003: Free Radical Research
L M Reid
Animal models are of two types those that occur spontaneously and those that the scientist produces by artefact. One value of spontaneously occurring models is that if pathogenetic mechanisms are identified, they give new leads for the study of human disease. There is a need for spontaneously occurring examples of so-called primary or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension (arterial or venous), and emphysema. Acquired or artefactual models of each of these conditions are available and have led to better understanding of the pathological changes, but they have not led to identification of the basic or primary abnormality...
December 1980: American Journal of Pathology
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