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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820724/neurologic-complications-in-persons-with-hiv-infection-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Dennis Kolson
Neurologic complications in persons with HIV infection are less severe in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy but remain highly prevalent. Prior to the use of antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and CNS malignancy were common. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), however, remains a diagnostic challenge in HIV-infected individuals, and no effective antiviral treatment for PML is currently available. Primary neurologic complications of acute HIV infection include aseptic meningitis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy...
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817745/association-of-vision-loss-with-cognition-in-older-adults
#2
Stephanie P Chen, Jay Bhattacharya, Suzann Pershing
Importance: Visual dysfunction and poor cognition are highly prevalent among older adults; however, the relationship is not well defined. Objective: To evaluate the association of measured and self-reported visual impairment (VI) with cognition in older US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of 2 national data sets: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, and the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), 2011-2015...
August 17, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817241/association-between-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-heart-failure-risk-in-the-elderly
#3
Catarina Magalhães Porto, Vanessa De Lima Silva, João Soares Brito da Luz, Brivaldo Markman Filho, Vera Magalhães da Silveira
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of heart failure in elderly patients of cardiology outpatient clinics. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study with an analytical approach was employed. Clinical data were collected from the elderly from August 2015 to February 2016. The dependent variable was the risk of heart failure; the independent variable was vitamin D deficiency; and intervening factors were age, gender, education, ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, renal failure, dementia, stroke, dyslipidaemia, depression, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, andropause, and cardiac arrhythmia...
August 17, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814330/novel-remote-electronic-medication-supply-model-for-opioid-dependent-outpatients-with-polypharmacy-first-long-term-case-study
#4
Samuel S Allemann, Kenneth M Dürsteler, Johannes Strasser, Marc Vogel, Marcel Stoeckle, Kurt E Hersberger, Isabelle Arnet
BACKGROUND: Patients with substance use disorders grow older thanks to effective treatments. Together with a high prevalence of comorbidities, psychological problems, and low social support, these patients are at high risk for medication non-adherence. Established treatment facilities face challenges to accommodate these complex patients within their setting. Electronic medication management aids (e-MMAs) might be appropriate to simultaneously monitor and improve adherence for these patients...
August 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813240/when-does-therapeutic-misconception-affect-surrogates-or-subjects-decision-making-about-whether-to-participate-in-dementia-research
#5
Laura B Dunn, Barton W Palmer
"Therapeutic misconception" (TM) refers to inappropriate assumptions and beliefs on the part of research participants regarding key distinctions between the purpose, methods, intended benefits, and potential disadvantages of research compared to those of clinical care. Despite an extensive literature describing TM across varied types of research and populations, minimal work has addressed TM in the context of dementia research. This is a serious gap, for several reasons: people with dementia are at significant risk of diminished capacity; surrogate decision makers are typically asked to provide consent on behalf of the person with dementia; and available treatments for dementia are quite limited...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811281/multimorbidity-dementia-and-health-care-in-older-people-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Marcello Tonelli, Natasha Wiebe, Sharon Straus, Martin Fortin, Bruce Guthrie, Matthew T James, Scott W Klarenbach, Helen Tam-Tham, Richard Lewanczuk, Braden J Manns, Hude Quan, Paul E Ronksley, Peter Sargious, Brenda Hemmelgarn
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how multimorbidity, dementia and increasing age combine to influence health outcomes or utilization. Our objective was to examine the joint associations between age, dementia and burden of morbidity with mortality and other clinical outcomes. METHODS: We did a retrospective population-based cohort study of all adults aged 65 years and older residing in Alberta, Canada, between 2002 and 2013. We used validated algorithms applied to administrative and laboratory data from the provincial health ministry to assess the presence/absence of dementia and 29 other morbidities, and their associations with mortality (our primary outcome), other clinical outcomes (emergency department visits, all-cause hospital admissions) and a proxy for loss of independent living (discharge to long-term care)...
August 14, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807433/influences-on-decision-making-regarding-antipsychotic-prescribing-in-nursing-home-residents-with-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-synthesis-of-qualitative-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Kieran A Walsh, Rebecca Dennehy, Carol Sinnott, John Browne, Stephen Byrne, Jennifer McSharry, Eoin Coughlan, Suzanne Timmons
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic prescribing is prevalent in nursing homes for the management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), despite the known risks and limited effectiveness. Many studies have attempted to understand this continuing phenomenon, using qualitative research methods, and have generated varied and sometimes conflicting findings. To date, the totality of this qualitative evidence has not been systematically collated and synthesized. AIMS: To synthesize the findings from individual qualitative studies on decision-making and prescribing behaviors for antipsychotics in nursing home residents with dementia, with a view to informing intervention development and quality improvement in this field...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805188/managing-faecal-incontinence-in-people-with-advanced-dementia-resident-in-care-homes-finch-study-a-realist-synthesis-of-the-evidence
#8
Claire Goodman, Christine Norton, Marina Buswell, Bridget Russell, Danielle Harari, Rowan Harwood, Brenda Roe, Jo Rycroft-Malone, Vari M Drennan, Mandy Fader, Michelle Maden, Karen Cummings, Frances Bunn
BACKGROUND: Eighty per cent of care home residents in the UK are living with dementia. The prevalence of faecal incontinence (FI) in care homes is estimated to range from 30% to 50%. There is limited evidence of what is effective in the reduction and management of FI in care homes. OBJECTIVE: To provide a theory-driven explanation of the effectiveness of programmes that aim to improve FI in people with advanced dementia in care homes. DESIGN: A realist synthesis...
August 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803036/relationship-between-atrial-fibrillation-and-cognitive-decline-in-individuals-aged-80-and-older-a-narrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Marco Proietti, Angela Recchia, Emma Riva, Ugo Lucca, Mauro Tettamanti, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Alessandro Nobili
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and dementia are largely prevalent and incident in progressively older subjects, suggesting a link between the two conditions. While in the general population there are several findings supporting a causal relationship between AF and dementia, it is unclear whether or not this association is still present in individuals aged 80 and older. RESULTS: So far, the few studies that analysed this issue did not provide enough evidence supporting the causative role of AF in increasing the risk of cognitive decline or dementia in patients aged 80 and older...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802941/the-epidemiology-of-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-cohort-and-other-studies
#10
Elena Katunina, Nataliya Titova
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) were recognized by James Parkinson himself and are now considered to be an integral part of PD. While clinical assessment had focused on prevalence and severity of individual NMS such as dementia and depression, work in the last decade has concentrated on global or holistic assessment of NMS using validated tools such as the NMS questionnaire and NMS scale. These studies from cohorts of varying sizes have allowed comparison of NMS across different disease stages, duration, age, and ethnicity in PD...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802934/psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Dominic H Ffytche, Dag Aarsland
Although illusions, hallucinations and delusions did not play a prominent role in James Parkinson's original clinical descriptions, the longitudinal view of disease progression he advocated has important lessons for the study of such symptoms today. A focus on longitudinal progression rather than individual symptoms led to the concept of PD psychosis-a spectrum of positive symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The publication of criteria for PD psychosis in 2007 helped unify the disparate set of symptoms, raising their profile and resulting in a rapid expansion of literature focussing on clinical aspects, mechanisms, and treatment...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802926/nonmotor-symptoms-and-natural-history-of-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-from-cognitive-dysfunction-and-role-of-noninvasive-interventions
#12
Roberta Biundo, Eleonora Fiorenzato, Angelo Antonini
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS). Several subsequent studies substantiate the great functional burden related to NMS, their progression, and negative effect on quality of life in PD. Additional evidence indicates interesting relationships between striatal dopaminergic function and NMS. The basal ganglia are implicated in the modulation and integration of sensory information and pain, bladder function is under control of both inhibitory (D1) and facilitatory (D2) dopaminergic inputs, finally reduced dopaminergic activity in the mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways is involved in the development of several NMS including mood, motivational, and cognitive alterations...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802919/nonmotor-signs-in-genetic-forms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Meike Kasten, Connie Marras, Christine Klein
Although only a minority (i.e., ~5%) of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases is due to well-defined genetic causes, important clues about the common, "idiopathic" PD (iPD) can be garnered from monogenic model diseases. Nonmotor signs (NMS) are also present in monogenic PD and reviewed in this chapter for the confirmed PD genes SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35, Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, and the risk factor gene GBA. Within the context of the MDSGene database (www.mdsgene.org), we performed a systematic literature search and extracted information on cognitive decline, depression, psychotic signs and symptoms, autonomic signs and symptoms, anxiety, sleep disorder, and olfactory impairment...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801438/associations-between-polypharmacy-and-treatment-intensity-for-hypertension-and-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-study-of-nursing-home-patients-in-british-columbia-canada
#14
Rita McCracken, James McCormack, Margaret J McGregor, Sabrina T Wong, Scott Garrison
OBJECTIVES: Describe nursing home polypharmacy prevalence in the context of prescribing for diabetes and hypertension and determine possible associations between lower surrogate markers for treated hypertension and diabetes (overtreatment) and polypharmacy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 6 nursing homes in British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 214 patients residing in one of the selected facilities during data collection period...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800335/an-overview-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-associated-common-neurological-complications-does-aging-pose-a-challenge
#15
Anantha Ram Nookala, Joy Mitra, Nitish S Chaudhari, Muralidhar L Hegde, Anil Kumar
With increasing survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the manifestation of heterogeneous neurological complications is also increasing alarmingly in these patients. Currently, more than 30% of about 40 million HIV-1 infected people worldwide develop central nervous system (CNS)-associated dysfunction, including dementia, sensory, and motor neuropathy. Furthermore, the highly effective antiretroviral therapy has been shown to increase the prevalence of mild cognitive functions while reducing other HIV-1-associated neurological complications...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799487/dementia-etiologies-and-remedies-in-traditional-persian-medicine-a-review-of-medicinal-plants-and-phytochemistry
#16
Laila Shirbeigi, Behnam Dalfardi, Zohre Abolhasanzade, Fatemeh Nejatbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic neurodegenerative disease causing progressive and gradual impairment of different brain's cognitive functions. The prevalence of dementia is about 3 to 7% in different parts of the world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the etiologies of dementia according to the Traditional Persian Medicine scientists' viewpoint and introduce their recommended herbal remedies for this disease. METHOD: The authors explored six main Traditional Persian Medicine textbooks for the disease of dementia, its etiologies and related recommended herbal treatments...
August 10, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794896/prevalence-of-and-associations-with-agitation-in-residents-with-dementia-living-in-care-homes-marque-cross-sectional-study
#17
Gill Livingston, Julie Barber, Louise Marston, Penny Rapaport, Deborah Livingston, Sian Cousins, Sarah Robertson, Francesca La Frenais, Claudia Cooper
BACKGROUND: Agitation is reportedly the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in care home residents with dementia. AIMS: To report, in a large care home survey, prevalence and determinants of agitation in residents with dementia. METHOD: We interviewed staff from 86 care homes between 13 January 2014 and 12 November 2015 about residents with dementia with respect to agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI)), quality of life (DEMQOL-proxy) and dementia severity (Clinical Dementia Rating)...
July 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793380/non-pharmacological-approaches-for-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#18
REVIEW
Laura E Legere, Susan McNeill, Lori Schindel Martin, Michelle Acorn, Diana An
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence on non-pharmacological approaches to care for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in older adults. BACKGROUND: Dementia is increasing in worldwide prevalence and can have severe and life-altering impacts on older adults. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia can occur as a result of unmet needs and are distressing for family and caregivers. Many reviews have examined specific approaches to behaviours, but few have compared interventions for effectiveness and applicability across settings...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793370/prevalence-of-tdp-43-proteinopathy-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Camila Nascimento, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, Caroline Bazan Conceição Amaral, Renata Elane Paraizo Leite, Ricardo Nitrini, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Suvi Rosa Kastehelmi Hokkanen, Sally Hunter, Hannah Keage, Gabor G Kovacs, Lea Tenenholz Grinberg, Claudia Kimie Suemoto
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy in cognitively normal older adults. METHODS: We systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis on the prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy in older adults with normal cognition, evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination or the Clinical Dementia Rating. We estimated the overall prevalence of TDP-43 using random-effect models, and stratified by age, sex, sample size, study quality, antibody used to assess TDP-43 aggregates, analyzed brain regions, Braak stage, CERAD score, hippocampal sclerosis, and geographic location...
August 9, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781202/biomarkers-for-cognitive-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Lorraine V Kalia
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive dysfunction is among the most prevalent and debilitating non-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuropathological correlates of cognitive dysfunction in PD are being revealed by clinicopathological correlation studies. These findings are fostering the development of candidate biomarkers to facilitate diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia, and to predict cognitive decline and onset of dementia in PD. METHODS: A literature review of candidate biomarkers for cognitive dysfunction in PD was performed based on a PubMed search for peer-reviewed articles published from 1997 to June 2017 using the search terms "biomarker", "parkinson", and "dementia"...
July 24, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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