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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471360/adverse-consequences-of-unmet-needs-for-care-in-high-need-high-cost-older-adults
#1
Scott R Beach, Richard Schulz, Esther M Friedman, Juleen Rodakowski, Grant Martsolf, Alton Everette James
Objectives: We explore adverse consequences of unmet needs for care among high-need/high-cost (HNHC) older adults. Method: Interviews with 4,024 community-dwelling older adults with ADL/IADL/mobility disabilities from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS). Reports of socio-demographics, disability compensatory strategies, and adverse consequences of unmet needs in the past month were obtained from older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC), probable dementia (DEM), and/or near end-of-life (EOL) and compared older adults not meeting these criteria...
February 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467605/challenges-for-alzheimer-s-disease-therapy-insights-from-novel-mechanisms-beyond-memory-defects
#2
REVIEW
Rudimar L Frozza, Mychael V Lourenco, Fernanda G De Felice
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia in late life, will become even more prevalent by midcentury, constituting a major global health concern with huge implications for individuals and society. Despite scientific breakthroughs during the past decades that have expanded our knowledge on the cellular and molecular bases of AD, therapies that effectively halt disease progression are still lacking, and focused efforts are needed to address this public health challenge. Because AD is classically recognized as a disease of memory, studies have mainly focused on investigating memory-associated brain defects...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467069/determination-of-anticholinergic-medication-use-in-patients-prescribed-medications-for-the-treatment-of-dementia
#3
Brooke Ellard, John A Galdo
OBJECTIVE: The primary endpoint of the study is to determine the variations in the use of medications to treat dementia in patients concomitantly or not prescribed anticholinergics. DESIGN: The study is a case series of patients at a single community pharmacy over one year based on prescription claims data. SETTING: The setting is an independent community pharmacy in the South. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The main outcome is the variations associated in treatment plans for patients either receiving anticholinergics or not receiving medications with anticholinergic properties...
December 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464813/the-economic-burden-of-overactive-bladder-oab-and-its-effects-on-the-costs-associated-with-other-chronic-age-related-comorbidities-in-the-united-states
#4
Emily Durden, David Walker, Stephani Gray, Robert Fowler, Paul Juneau, Katherine Gooch
AIMS: The prevalence of OAB increases with age and is associated with several chronic comorbidities. However, the impact of OAB on the healthcare costs of patients with such comorbidities is not well-understood. This study aimed to quantify the impact of OAB on healthcare costs and assess the potential moderating effects of OAB on the costs of patients with chronic comorbidities. METHODS: Adults with evidence of OAB/OAB-related therapy between 1/1/2008-12/31/2013 were identified from two large, administrative claims databases...
February 21, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463292/effectiveness-of-interventions-aimed-at-improving-physical-and-psychological-outcomes-of-fall-related-injuries-in-people-with-dementia-a-narrative-systematic-review
#5
Shannon Robalino, Sarange B Nyakang'o, Fiona R Beyer, Chris Fox, Louise M Allan
BACKGROUND: The annual prevalence of falls in people with dementia ranges from 47 to 90%. Falls are a common reason for hospital admission in people with dementia, and there is limited research evidence regarding the care pathways experienced by this population. In addition to immediate management of an injury, prevention of further falls is likely to be an important part of any successful intervention. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of interventions for improving the physical and psychological wellbeing of people with dementia who have sustained a fall-related injury...
February 20, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460284/dementia-and-risk-of-30-day-readmission-in-older-adults-after-discharge-from-acute-care-hospitals
#6
Nobuo Sakata, Yasuyuki Okumura, Kiyohide Fushimi, Miharu Nakanishi, Asao Ogawa
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between dementia and risk of hospital readmission and to evaluate whether the effect of dementia on hospital readmission varies according to primary diagnosis. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide discharge database of acute care hospitals in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older diagnosed with one of the 30 most common diagnoses and discharged from 987 hospitals between April 2014 and September 2015 (N = 1,834,378)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459026/prevalence-and-risk-of-protein-energy-wasting-assessed-by-subjective-global-assessment-in-older-adults-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-results-from-the-equal-study
#7
Karin Windahl, Gerd Faxén Irving, Tora Almquist, Maarit Korkeila Lidén, Moniek van de Luijtgaarden, Nicholas C Chesnaye, Pauline Voskamp, Peter Stenvinkel, Marian Klinger, Maciej Szymczak, Claudia Torino, Maurizio Postorini, Christiane Drechsler, Fergus J Caskey, Christoph Wanner, Friedo W Dekker, Kitty J Jager, Marie Evans
OBJECTIVES: Prevalence and risk factors for protein-energy wasting (PEW) are poorly studied in the nondialysis, older population with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of PEW in advanced stage CKD patients aged greater than 65 years. Furthermore, we aimed to describe risk factors for PEW in the overall study population and among obese individuals. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. METHODS: The EQUAL study, a European Quality Study on treatment in advanced chronic kidney disease, is a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in six European countries...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458281/construction-of-a-potential-telephone-assessment-of-dementia-prevalence-and-severity
#8
Donald R Royall, Raymond F Palmer
The "δ" (for "dementia") is a latent dementia phenotype that can be constructed by a unique confirmatory bifactor model in a structural equation model framework. Because it is derived from Spearman's general intelligence factor, "g," δ can be constructed from any cognitive battery. This may allow for accurate dementia case-finding by telephone and in the absence of expert clinical evaluation or review. The authors constructed a new δ homolog in a large ethnically diverse convenience sample: the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium, comprising 2,016 participants (Alzheimer's disease [AD], N=920; mild cognitive impairment, N=277; normal controls, N=819)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454581/emerging-roles-of-microglial-cathepsins-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#9
REVIEW
Jessica R Lowry, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia, and its prevalence is expected to increase dramatically due to the aging global population. Microglia-driven neuroinflammation may contribute to the progression of AD. Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), become chronically activated by the pathological proteins of AD including amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Such adversely activated microglia secrete mediators that promote inflammation and damage neurons. Cathepsins are proteases that are expressed by all brain cell types, and most of them are found both intra- and extra-cellularly...
February 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453960/synaptic-dysfunction-and-altered-excitability-in-c9orf72-als-ftd
#10
Alexander Starr, Rita Sattler
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in fatal paralysis due to denervation of the muscle. Due to genetic, pathological and symptomatic overlap, ALS is now considered a spectrum disease together with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the second most common cause of dementia in individuals under the age of 65. Interestingly, in both diseases, there is a large prevalence of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are mutated and considered disease-causing, or whose dysfunction contribute to disease pathogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453245/early-vs-late-age-at-onset-frontotemporal-dementia-and-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#11
Sang Won Seo, Marie-Pierre Thibodeau, David C Perry, Alice Hua, Manu Sidhu, Isabel Sible, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Stephanie E Gaus, Gil D Rabinovici, Katherine D Rankin, Adam L Boxer, Joel H Kramer, Howard J Rosen, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Lea T Grinberg, Eric J Huang, Stephen J DeArmond, John Q Trojanowski, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
OBJECTIVE: To examine clinicopathologic correlations in early vs late age at onset frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). METHODS: All patients were clinically evaluated and prospectively diagnosed at the UCSF Memory and Aging Center. Two consecutive series were included: (1) patients with a clinically diagnosed FTD syndrome who underwent autopsy (cohort 1) and (2) patients with a primary pathologic diagnosis of FTLD, regardless of the clinical syndrome (cohort 2)...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453244/white-matter-change-with-apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#12
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter correlates of apathy and impulsivity in the major syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, using diffusion-weighted imaging and data from the PiPPIN (Pick's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Prevalence and Incidence) study. We included behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: Seventy patients and 30 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging at 3-tesla after detailed assessment of apathy and impulsivity...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451024/network-pharmacology-based-screening-of-the-active-ingredients-and-potential-targets-of-the-genus-of-pithecellobium-marthae-britton-killip-niezgoda-nevl-for-application-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Han Zhang, Zhi-Yang Yan, Yu-Xi Wang, Ming Bai, Xiao-Bo Wang, Xiao-Xiao Huang, Shao-Jiang Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with synaptic dysfunction, pathological accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), and neuronal loss. Given the prevalence of AD and the lack of effective long-term therapies, there is a pressing need to discover viable leads that can be developed into clinically approved drugs with disease-modifying effects. The analysis of current reported literatures confirms the importance of the plants of Pithecellobium genus as candidate against AD...
February 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450809/model-diagnostics-for-the-proportional-hazards-model-with-length-biased-data
#14
Chi Hyun Lee, Jing Ning, Yu Shen
Length-biased data are frequently encountered in prevalent cohort studies. Many statistical methods have been developed to estimate the covariate effects on the survival outcomes arising from such data while properly adjusting for length-biased sampling. Among them, regression methods based on the proportional hazards model have been widely adopted. However, little work has focused on checking the proportional hazards model assumptions with length-biased data, which is essential to ensure the validity of inference...
February 16, 2018: Lifetime Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448953/clinical-prevalence-of-lewy-body-dementia
#15
Joseph P M Kane, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Allison Bentley, Sally A H Barker, John-Paul Taylor, Alan J Thomas, Louise M Allan, Richard J McNally, Peter W James, Ian G McKeith, David J Burn, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and dementia in Parkinson's disease (PDD) in routine clinical practice is unclear. Prevalence rates observed in clinical and population-based cohorts and neuropathological studies vary greatly. Small sample sizes and methodological factors in these studies limit generalisability to clinical practice. METHODS: We investigated prevalence in a case series across nine secondary care services over an 18-month period, to determine how commonly DLB and PDD cases are diagnosed and reviewed within two regions of the UK...
February 15, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444559/concurrent-alzheimer-s-pathology-in-patients-with-clinical-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#16
I Jonathan Pomeraniec, Davis G Taylor, Aaron E Bond, M Beatriz Lopes
BACKGROUND: Patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) can often present with similar symptoms. NPH remains a clinical diagnosis and there are reported shared underlying dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and histopathology with patients with biopsy-proven AD. METHODS: This is a review on the histopathology and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics of both NPH and AD. In a prior study at the University of Virginia, the authors reviewed patients over a 15 year period who were shunted for a preoperative diagnosis of NPH...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444280/prevalence-of-dementia-in-mainland-china-hong-kong-and-taiwan-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Yu-Tzu Wu, Gemma-Claire Ali, Maëlenn Guerchet, A Matthew Prina, Kit Yee Chan, Martin Prince, Carol Brayne
Background: There are several existing systematic reviews of prevalence of dementia for mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, but several studies have been newly reported. The aim of this study is to update prevalence data in this region and test for variation across geographical areas and time periods using the new dataset. Methods: Twenty prevalence studies identified from World Alzheimer Report 2015 (January 2011-March 2015) and an updated search (March 2015-February 2017) were added to the original dataset (N = 76)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439339/plasma-antioxidant-status-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-cognitively-intact-elderly-a-meta-analysis-of-case-control-studies
#18
Kathryn Mullan, Chris R Cardwell, Bernadette McGuinness, Jayne V Woodside, Gareth J McKay
Serum antioxidants may afford neuroprotection against Alzheimer's disease (AD) via correction of the pro-oxidative imbalance but findings reported have been inconsistent. We compared the pooled mean difference in serum levels of ten dietary antioxidants between patients with AD and cognitively intact controls from 52 studies in meta-analyses using random-effects models. Patients with AD had significantly lower plasma levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, vitamin A, C, and E, and uric acid. No significant difference was observed for plasma levels of β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439337/utility-of-the-libra-index-in-relation-to-cognitive-functioning-in-a-clinical-health-seeking-sample
#19
Anke Pons, Haley M LaMonica, Loren Mowszowski, Sebastian Köhler, Kay Deckers, Sharon L Naismith
BACKGROUND: Dementia prevalence is expected to increase substantially over the next few decades. Since there is currently no cure for dementia available, there is an urgent need for the early identification of individuals at high risk for dementia, so that primary and secondary prevention strategies can be implemented. Recently, the LIfestyle for BRAin health (LIBRA) index was developed as a new dementia risk algorithm. It specifically focuses on modifiable risk and protective factors that can be targeted in midlife...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437184/real-time-observation-of-apathy-in-long-term-care-residents-with-dementia-reliability-of-the-person-environment-apathy-rating-scale
#20
Ying-Ling Jao, Jacqueline Mogle, Kristine Williams, Caroline McDermott, Liza Behrens
Apathy is prevalent in individuals with dementia. Lack of responsiveness to environmental stimulation is a key characteristic of apathy. The Person-Environment Apathy Rating (PEAR) scale consists of environment and apathy subscales, which allow for examination of environmental impact on apathy. The interrater reliability of the PEAR scale was examined via real-time observation. The current study included 45 observations of 15 long-term care residents with dementia. Each participant was observed at three time points for 10 minutes each...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
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