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Microglia nanoparticles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336376/effect-of-anesthetics-on-microglial-activation-and-nanoparticle-uptake-implications-for-drug-delivery-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Gokul Kannan, Siva P Kambhampati, Sapna R Kudchadkar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem, often with devastating consequences for patients and their families. Affordable and timely therapies can have a substantial impact on outcomes in severe TBI. Despite the common use of sedatives and anesthetics in the acute phase of TBI management, their effect on glial cells is not well understood. We investigated the effect of a commonly used sedative, pentobarbital, on glial cells and their uptake of nanoparticles. First, we studied how pentobarbital affects BV2 mouse microglial cells in culture...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335600/redox-potential-sensitive-n-acetyl-cysteine-prodrug-nanoparticles-inhibit-the-activation-of-microglia-and-improve-neuronal-survival
#2
Eleni Markoutsa, Peisheng Xu
One hallmark of neuroinflammation is the activation of microglia, which triggers the production and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitrate, nitrite, and cytokines. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a free radical scavenger that is involved in the intracellular and extracellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species in the brain. However, the clinical application of NAC is limited by its low bioavailability and short half-life. Herein, NAC was conjugated to a polymer through a disulfide bond to form a NAC-prodrug nanoparticle (NAC-NP)...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280327/biocompatibility-of-very-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-murine-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures-and-the-role-of-microglia
#3
Martin Pohland, Robert Glumm, Frank Wiekhorst, Jürgen Kiwit, Jana Glumm
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are applied as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and treatment of neurologic diseases despite the fact that important information concerning their local interactions is still lacking. Due to their small size, SPIO have great potential for magnetically labeling different cell populations, facilitating their MRI tracking in vivo. Before SPIO are applied, however, their effect on cell viability and tissue homoeostasis should be studied thoroughly...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251989/silver-nanoparticles-reduce-brain-inflammation-and-related-neurotoxicity-through-induction-of-h2s-synthesizing-enzymes
#4
Daniel A Gonzalez-Carter, Bey Fen Leo, Pakatip Ruenraroengsak, Shu Chen, Angela E Goode, Ioannis G Theodorou, Kian Fan Chung, Raffaella Carzaniga, Milo S P Shaffer, David T Dexter, Mary P Ryan, Alexandra E Porter
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known to penetrate into the brain and cause neuronal death. However, there is a paucity in studies examining the effect of AgNP on the resident immune cells of the brain, microglia. Given microglia are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), it is important to examine how AgNPs affect microglial inflammation to fully assess AgNP neurotoxicity. In addition, understanding AgNP processing by microglia will allow better prediction of their long term bioreactivity...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188715/-multiple-sclerosis-current-immunological-aspects
#5
Carlos Cuevas-García
Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration...
January 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181394/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-the-interactions-of-neuron-and-glia-like-cells-toxicity-uptake-mechanisms-and-lysosomal-tracking
#6
I-Lun Hsiao, Yi-Kong Hsieh, Chun-Yu Chuang, Chu-Fang Wang, Yuh-Jeen Huang
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are commonly used nanomaterials in consumer products. Previous studies focused on its effects on neurons; however, little is known about their effects and uptake mechanisms on glial cells under normal or activated states. Here, ALT astrocyte-like, BV-2 microglia and differentiated N2a neuroblastoma cells were directly or indirectly exposed to 10 nm AgNPs using mono- and co-culture system. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was pretreated to activate glial cells before AgNP treatment for mimicking NP exposure under brain inflammation...
June 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150132/nanomedicines-for-the-treatment-of-cns-diseases
#7
Jessica L Reynolds, Ram I Mahato
Targeting and delivering macromolecular therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) has been a major challenge. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main obstacle that must be overcome to allow compounds to reach their targets in the brain. Therefore, much effort has been channelled into improving transport of therapeutics across the BBB and into the CNS including the use of nanoparticles. In this thematic issue, several reviews and original research are presented that address "Nanomedicines for CNS Diseases...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039004/localized-inhibition-of-p2x7r-at-the-spinal-cord-injury-site-improves-neurogenic-bladder-dysfunction-by-decreasing-urothelial-p2x3r-expression-in-rats
#8
Alvaro Munoz, Iman K Yazdi, Xiufeng Tang, Carolina Rivera, Nima Taghipour, Robert G Grossman, Timothy B Boone, Ennio Tasciotti
AIMS: Reestablishment of bladder function in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a clinical priority. Our objectives were to determine whether SCI-localized inhibition of purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) improve bladder function by decreasing afferent signals mediated by urothelial P2X3R. MAIN METHODS: Systemic inhibition of P2X7R may improve locomotion in rodent SCI models; however, beneficial effects on bladder function and its physiological mechanisms have not been evaluated...
February 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028734/galectin-1-reduces-neuroinflammation-via-modulation-of-nitric-oxide-arginase-signaling-in-hiv-1-transfected-microglia-a-gold-nanoparticle-galectin-1-nanoplex-a-possible-neurotherapeutic
#9
Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Courtney S Mangum, Eliane Abou-Jaoude, Jessica L Reynolds, Maixian Liu, Karin Sundquist, Neil U Parikh, Lee D Chaves, Manoj J Mammen, Stanley A Schwartz, Supriya D Mahajan
Galectins are a family of β-galactoside-binding lectins that are important modulators of homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Galectin-1 is a pivotal regulator of microglia activation that alters the immune balance from neurodegeneration to neuroprotection and could have therapeutic relevance in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We have previously shown that galectin-1 treatment decreased oxidative stress in microglia and hypothesize that the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is the cross regulatory interactions between Nitric oxide (NO) and Arginase I activity in microglia...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931227/epigenetics-of-amphetamine-induced-sensitization-hdac5-expression-and-microrna-in-neural-remodeling
#10
Philip K Liu, Christina H Liu
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities modify chromatin structure and play a role in learning and memory during developmental processes. Studies of adult mice suggest HDACs are involved in neural network remodeling in brain repair, but its function in drug addiction is less understood. We aimed to examine in vivo HDAC5 expression in a preclinical model of amphetamine-induced sensitization (AIS) of behavior. We generated specific contrast agents to measure HDAC5 levels by in vivo molecular contrast-enhanced (MCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in amphetamine-naïve mice as well as in mice with AIS...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885823/novel-functionalization-strategies-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-as-carriers-for-brain-medications
#11
Corinne Portioli, Michele Bovi, Donatella Benati, Marta Donini, Massimiliano Perduca, Alessandro Romeo, Stefano Dusi, Hugo L Monaco, Marina Bentivoglio
For targeted brain delivery, nanoparticles (NPs) should bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Novel functionalization strategies, based on low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) binding domain, have been here tested to increase the brain targeting efficacy of poly d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) NPs, biodegradable and suited for biomedical applications. Custom-made PLGA NPs were functionalized with an apolipoprotein E modified peptide (pep-apoE) responsible for LDLR binding, or with lipocalin-type prostaglandin-d-synthase (L-PGDS), highly expressed in the brain...
March 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875002/superparamagnetic-nanoparticle-enhanced-mri-of-alzheimer-s-disease-plaques-and-activated-microglia-in-3x-transgenic-mouse-brains-contrast-optimization
#12
Marissa A Tafoya, Saaussan Madi, Laurel O Sillerud
PURPOSE: To optimize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for detecting amyloid-β plaques and activated microglia in a 3X transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten 3X Tg mice were fed either chow or chow containing 100 ppm resveratrol. Four brains, selected from animals injected with either anti-amyloid targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, or anti-Iba-1-conjugated FePt-nanoparticles, were excised, fixed with formalin, and placed in Fomblin for ex vivo MRI (11...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864037/early-monitoring-and-quantitative-evaluation-of-macrophage-infiltration-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-flow-cytometric-analysis
#13
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, B S Hemanth Kumar, Subash Khushu, Ajay K Singh, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
The inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is regulated by phagocytic cells. These cells comprising resident microglia and infiltrating macrophages play a pivotal role in the interface between early detrimental and delayed beneficial effects of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to monitor the early effect of monocyte/phagocytic accumulation and further to explore its kinetics in TBI mice. Localized macrophage population was monitored using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle enhanced in vivo serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
January 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805611/microglia-as-a-surrogate-biosensor-to-determine-nanoparticle-neurotoxicity
#14
Cayla M Duffy, Shihab Ahmed, Ce Yuan, Vijayakumar Mavanji, Joshua P Nixon, Tammy Butterick
Nanoparticles found in air pollutants can alter neurotransmitter profiles, increase neuroinflammation, and alter brain function. Therefore, the assay described here will aid in elucidating the role of microglia in neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The use of microglia, resident immune cells of the brain, as a surrogate biosensor provides novel insight into how inflammatory responses mediate neuronal insults. Here, we utilize an immortalized murine microglial cell line, designated BV2, and describe a method for nanoparticle exposure using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a standard...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799546/in-vivo-nanoparticle-imaging-of-innate-immune-cells-can-serve-as-a-marker-of-disease-severity-in-a-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Klara Kirschbaum, Jana K Sonner, Matthias W Zeller, Katrin Deumelandt, Julia Bode, Rakesh Sharma, Thomas Krüwel, Manuel Fischer, Angelika Hoffmann, Milene Costa da Silva, Martina U Muckenthaler, Wolfgang Wick, Björn Tews, John W Chen, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Michael Platten, Michael O Breckwoldt
Innate immune cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Current clinical imaging is restricted to visualizing secondary effects of inflammation, such as gliosis and blood-brain barrier disruption. Advanced molecular imaging, such as iron oxide nanoparticle imaging, can allow direct imaging of cellular and molecular activity, but the exact cell types that phagocytose nanoparticles in vivo and how phagocytic activity relates to disease severity is not well understood...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736702/polymer-brain-nanotherapeutics-for-multipronged-inhibition-of-microglial-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-activation-and-neurotoxicity
#16
Neal K Bennett, Rebecca Chmielowski, Dalia S Abdelhamid, Jonathan J Faig, Nicola Francis, Jean Baum, Zhiping P Pang, Kathryn E Uhrich, Prabhas V Moghe
Neuroinflammation, a common neuropathologic feature of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease (PD), is frequently exacerbated by microglial activation. The extracellular protein α-synuclein (ASYN), whose aggregation is characteristic of PD, remains a key therapeutic target, but the control of synuclein trafficking and aggregation within microglia has been challenging. First, we established that microglial internalization of monomeric ASYN was mediated by scavenger receptors (SR), CD36 and SRA1, and was rapidly accompanied by the formation of ASYN oligomers...
December 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714634/zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-induces-microglial-death-by-nadph-oxidase-independent-reactive-oxygen-species-as-well-as-energy-depletion
#17
Anuj Kumar Sharma, Vikas Singh, Ruchi Gera, Mahaveer Prasad Purohit, Debabrata Ghosh
Zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) is one of the most widely used engineered nanoparticles. Upon exposure, nanoparticle can eventually reach the brain through various routes, interact with different brain cells, and alter their activity. Microglia is the fastest glial cell to respond to any toxic insult. Nanoparticle exposure can activate microglia and induce neuroinflammation. Simultaneous to activation, microglial death can exacerbate the scenario. Therefore, we focused on studying the effect of ZnO-NP on microglia and finding out the pathway involved in the microglial death...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571884/mri-monitoring-of-monocytes-to-detect-immune-stimulating-treatment-response-in-brain-tumor
#18
Runze Yang, Susobhan Sarkar, Daniel J Korchinski, Ying Wu, V Wee Yong, Jeff F Dunn
Background.: Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer with a poor prognosis. The use of immune therapies to treat GBM has become a promising avenue of research. It was shown that amphotericin B (Amp B) can stimulate the innate immune system and suppress the growth of brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). However, it is not feasible to use histopathology to determine immune activation in patients. We developed an MRI technique that can rapidly detect a therapeutic response in animals treated with drugs that stimulate innate immunity...
March 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462904/surface-assembly-configurations-and-packing-preferences-of-fibrinogen-mediated-by-the-periodicity-and-alignment-control-of-block-copolymer-nanodomains
#19
Tian Xie, Ankit Vora, Patrick J Mulcahey, Sonia E Nanescu, Manpreet Singh, Daniel S Choi, Jeffrey K Huang, Chi-Chun Liu, Daniel P Sanders, Jong-In Hahm
The ability to control the specific adsorption and packing behaviors of biomedically important proteins by effectively guiding their preferred surface adsorption configuration and packing orientation on polymeric surfaces may have utility in many applications such as biomaterials, medical implants, and tissue engineering. Herein, we investigate the distinct adhesion configurations of fibrinogen (Fg) proteins and the different organization behaviors between single Fg molecules that are mediated by the changes in the periodicity and alignment of chemically alternating nanodomains in thin films of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer (BCP)...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416019/application-of-nanomedicine-for-crossing-the-blood-brain-barrier-theranostic-opportunities-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Ghasem Ghalamfarsa, Mohammad Hojjat-Farsangi, Mousa Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Enayat Anvari, Shohreh Farhadi, Mehdi Yousefi, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurodegenerative disease characterized with immunopathobiological events, including lymphocytic infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS), microglia activation, demyelination and axonal degeneration. Although several neuroprotective drugs have been designed for the treatment of MS, complete remission is yet matter of debate. Therefore, development of novel therapeutic approaches for MS is of a high priority in immunological research. Nanomedicine is a recently developed novel medical field, which is applicable in both diagnosis and treatment of several cancers and autoimmune diseases...
September 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
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