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anatomy leg

Alyssa R Golas, Jamie P Levine, Justin Ream, Eduardo D Rodriguez
An accurate and comprehensive understanding of lower extremity arterial anatomy is essential for the successful harvest and transfer of a free fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap (FFF). Minimum preoperative evaluation includes detailed history and physical including lower extremity pulse examination. Controversy exists regarding whether preoperative angiographic imaging should be performed for all patients. Elevation of an FFF necessitates division of the peroneal artery in the proximal lower leg and eradicates its downstream flow...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Erik Smistad, Daniel Høyer Iversen, Linda Leidig, Janne Beate Lervik Bakeng, Kaj Fredrik Johansen, Frank Lindseth
Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia can be challenging, especially for inexperienced physicians. The goal of the proposed methods is to create a system that can assist a user in performing ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blocks. The system indicates in which direction the user should move the ultrasound probe to investigate the region of interest and to reach the target site for needle insertion. Additionally, the system provides automatic real-time segmentation of the femoral artery, the femoral nerve and the two layers fascia lata and fascia iliaca...
October 7, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Urszula Bogacka, Dawid Dziedzic, Iulian Komarnitki, Bogdan Ciszek
BACKGROUND: The aim of the work was to perform a morphometric analysis of the long peroneal muscle of the leg and explore the relationship between muscle belly and tendon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten lower limbs (8 right and 2 left) were fixed in formaldehyde and dissected using standard technique. The long peroneal muscle was exposed from the proximal attachment to the top of a lateral malleolus. RESULTS: The tendon was subsequently freed and various measurements were taken...
October 7, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Henry C Astley
Anuran jumping is a model system for linking muscle physiology to organismal performance. However, anuran species display substantial diversity in their locomotion, with some species performing powerful leaps from riverbanks or tree branches, while other species move predominantly via swimming, short hops or even diagonal-sequence gaits. Furthermore, many anurans with similar locomotion and morphology are actually convergent (e.g. multiple independent evolutions of 'tree frogs'), while closely related species may differ drastically, as with the walking toad (Melanophryniscus stelzneri) and bullfrog-like river toad (Phrynoides aspera) compared with other Bufonid toads...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mehdi H Shishehbor, Christopher J White, Bruce H Gray, Matthew T Menard, Robert Lookstein, Kenneth Rosenfield, Michael R Jaff
Critical limb ischemia (CLI), the most advanced form of peripheral artery disease, is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care resource utilization. It is also associated with physical, as well as psychosocial, consequences such as amputation and depression. Importantly, after a major amputation, patients are at heightened risk of amputation on the contralateral leg. However, despite the technological advances to manage CLI with minimally invasive technologies, this condition often remains untreated, with significant disparities in revascularization and amputation rates according to race, socioeconomic status, and geographic region...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Gwang-Pil Jung, Kyu-Jin Cho
To improve the maneuverability and agility of jumping robots, several researchers have studied steerable jumping mechanisms. This steering ability enables robots to reach a particular target by controlling their jumping direction. To this end, we propose a novel direction-changing concept for miniature jumping robots. The proposed concept allows robots to be steerable while exerting minimal effects on jumping performance. The key design principles were adopted from the froghopper's power-producing hind legs and the moment cancellation accomplished by synchronized leg operation...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Xi-Guang Sun, Xu Gong, Liang-Song Song, Jian-Li Cui, Xin Yu, Bin Liu, Lai-Jin Lu
Surgical repair of soft tissue defects of the knee and leg remains challenging. Using a case study approach, the anatomy of the popliteo-posterior intermediate cutaneous artery was examined, and a reverse island flap method was developed and implemented. After obtaining informed consent, 5 patients (1 woman, 4 men, age range 31 to 57 years) underwent the experimental use of a reverse island flap with a posterior thigh flap pedicled on the cutaneous vessels arising from the popliteo-posterior intermediate artery to repair soft-tissue defects of the knee and leg...
August 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Lisa J Gould, Garima Dosi, Kara Couch, Gary W Gibbons, Raelina S Howell, Harold Brem, Marjana Tomic-Canic
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) represent the most common ulcers of the lower extremity. VLUs are notorious for delayed and prolonged healing with high rates of recurrence. Most patients with VLUs also have significant comorbidities that interfere with primary wound healing. Thus, caring for patients with VLUs requires an interdisciplinary approach that addresses the abnormal venous anatomy and the downstream effects that lead to inflammation, ulceration, and a hostile wound microenvironment...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
D Mazzaccaro, M Sciarrini, G Nano
AIM: One of the technical problems which can be encountered during the endovascular repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms, is represented by the challenge of cannulation of the contralateral gate after the opening of the main body of the endograft, especially in case of tortuous aorta-iliac anatomy. Aim of this work is to propose a hypothesis of simplification, verifying the possibility to maximize the area available for the cannulation of the contralateral gate by simulating an oblique distal end of the leg of the most used devices, without affecting the correct sealing between the main body and the iliac extension...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Izabela Mróz, Stanislas Kielczewski, Dominik Pawlicki, Wojciech Kurzydło, Piotr Bachul, Monika Konarska, Tomasz Bereza, Klaudia Walocha, Lourdes Niroja Kaythampillai, Paweł Depukat, Artur Pasternak, Tomasz Bonczar, Przemysław Chmielewski, Ewa Mizia, Janusz Skrzat, Małgorzata Mazur, Łukasz Warchoł, Krzysztof Tomaszewski
Injuries of the lower leg are rather frequent in every day orthopedic routine. Process of healing takes quite a long time and is commonly dependent on the proper vasculature. e study was carried out on 50 human lower legs obtained during autopsies. The anatomy of the vascular system of the leg was studied using classical anatomical dissection methods. Based also on literature we have reviewed the current knowledge on the vascularization of the lower leg and its embryological background.
2016: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
D Musil, J Stehlík, K Abrman, M Held, P Sadovský
UNLABELLED: PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate, at one year of follow-up, radiographic and clinical results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed with use of Zimmer® Patient Specific Instruments (PSIs) which allow for planning and customising each patient's TKA. MATERIAL AND METHODS Of the patients with knee arthritis who were eligible for joint replacement, 23 were randomly selected and included in this study. There were 11 men and 12 women, with 11 right and 12 left knee joints...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
Jeffrey A Strakowski
Ultrasound guidance allows real-time visualization of the needle in peripheral nerve procedures, improving accuracy and safety. Sonographic visualization of the peripheral nerve and surrounding anatomy can provide valuable information for diagnostic purposes and procedure enhancement. Common procedures discussed are the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch, deep branch of the radial nerve at the supinator, median nerve at the pronator teres and carpal tunnel, lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, superficial fibular nerve at the leg, tibial nerve at the ankle, and interdigital neuroma...
August 2016: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Christopher G Finkemeier, Rafael Neiman
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the technical aspects of a reverse sural artery (RSA) flap. DESIGN: Video case presentation. SETTING: Community Level 2 Trauma Center. PATIENTS: Single patient with a full thickness soft tissue loss over the posterior calcaneal tuberosity requiring soft tissue coverage. METHOD: Video demonstration of the stepwise planning and technical aspects of performing an RSA flap...
August 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Márton Tóth, László Ruskó, Balázs Csébfalvi
This paper presents a method that detects anatomy regions in three-dimensional medical images. The method labels each axial slice of the image according to the anatomy region it belongs to. The detected regions are the head (and neck), the chest, the abdomen, the pelvis, and the legs. The proposed method consists of two main parts. The core of the algorithm is based on a two-dimensional feature extraction that is followed by a random forest classification. This recognition process achieves an overall accuracy of 91...
September 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Nicolas W Shammas, Mary F Knowles, W John Shammas, William Hauber, Gail A Shammas, Melissa J Green, Julie Dokas
BACKGROUND: The optimal technique to detect venous reflux requires a patient to be standing with weight on one leg while the other leg is scanned for superficial venous reflux (standing position [SP] technique). This represents a significant hardship for a subset of patients who are unable to stand and adequately maintain their balance. This study examines the predictability of identifying venous reflux using a reverse Trendelenburg 60° (RT-60) when compared with the SP in the great saphenous vein (GSV) and small saphenous vein (SSV)...
September 2016: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
Ryan Khanna, Joseph L McDevitt, Zachary A Abecassis, Zachary A Smith, Tyler R Koski, Richard G Fessler, Nader S Dahdaleh
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) has undergone significant evolution since its conception as a fusion technique to treat lumbar spondylosis. MIS-TLIF is commonly performed using intraoperative two-dimensional fluoroscopic x-rays. However, intraoperative CT based navigation during MIS-TLIF is gaining popularity for improvements in visualizing anatomy and reducing intraoperative radiation to surgeons and operating room staff. This is the first study to compare clinical outcomes and cost between these two imaging techniques during MIS- TILF...
July 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
P O E Nelzén, J Skoog, C Lassvik, T Länne, H Zachrisson
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether the outcome of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence may be predicted using strain-gauge plethysmography (SGP) with selective occlusion of the superficial venous system. METHODS: Seventeen patients (20 limbs) underwent endovenous RFA treatment for GSV incompetence (Clinical Etiology Anatomy Pathophysiology classification C2-C5; "C-group"). Duplex ultrasound (DUS) and SGP were performed with selective occlusion of superficial veins before and after RFA...
September 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Konstantin Nadein, Oliver Betz
The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
J P Chavoin, B Chaput, I Garrido, B Moreno, M Dahan, J L Grolleau
INTRODUCTION: Modern techniques of computer-aided design and tridimensional prototyping for manufacturing silicone elastomer custom implants are growing. They have widely modified the surgical indications in our unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By presenting their experience of 611 cases managed between 1993 and 2016, the authors describe the method of conception from CT-scans, the virtual image of the body and the manufacture of the custom-made implant perfectly adapted to the anatomy of each one...
July 1, 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Mutsuaki Edama, Masayoshi Kubo, Hideaki Onishi, Tomoya Takabayashi, Erika Yokoyama, Takuma Inai, Hiroshi Watanabe, Satoshi Nashimoto, Ikuo Kageyama
Findings on the twisting structure and insertional location of the AT on the calcaneal tuberosity are inconsistent. Therefore, to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying insertional Achilles tendinopathy, clarification of the anatomy of the twisting structure and location of the AT insertion onto the calcaneal tuberosity is important. The purpose of this study was to reveal the twisted structure of the AT and the location of its insertion onto the calcaneal tuberosity using Japanese cadavers...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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