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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198793/proximity-and-risks-of-the-anterior-neurovascular-and-tendinous-anatomy-of-the-distal-leg-relative-to-anteriorly-applied-distal-locking-screws-for-tibia-nailing-a-plea-for-open-insertion
#1
Phillip M Mitchell, Cory A Collinge, Eric Barcak, Edward Perez, Kostas Triantafillou
PURPOSE: To determine the proximity and potential risks to distal leg anatomy from anterior to posteriorly (A-P) applied distal tibia locking screws for tibial nailing. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: ACS level I trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Twenty consecutive adult patients undergoing computed tomograms with intravenous contrast (CTAs) on uninjured legs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Simulated 5 mm distal interlocking screws placed in the A-P axis of an ideally placed tibial nail at 10 mm increments from the tibial plafond (10 to 40mm) were studied in relation to the distal leg's anterior anatomy...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194353/labia-majora-share
#2
Hanjing Lee, Yan Lin Yap, Jeffrey Jen Hui Low, Jane Lim
Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema...
January 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193637/jumping-performance-of-flea-hoppers-and-other-mirid-bugs-hemiptera-miridae
#3
M Burrows, M Dorosenko
The order Hemiptera includes jumping insects with the fastest take-off velocities, all generated by catapult mechanisms. It also contains the large family Miridae or plant bugs. Here we analysed the jumping strategies and mechanisms of six mirid species from high speed videos and from the anatomy of their propulsive legs and conclude that they use a different mechanism in which jumps are powered by the direct contractions of muscles. Three strategies were identified. First, jumping was propelled only by movements of the middle and hind legs which were respectively 140% and 190% longer than the front legs...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166907/practice-makes-perfect-performance-optimisation-in-arboreal-parkour-athletes-illuminates-the-evolutionary-ecology-of-great-ape-anatomy
#4
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Robin H Crompton, Susannah K S Thorpe
An animal's size is central to its ecology, yet remarkably little is known about the selective pressures that drive this trait. A particularly compelling example is how ancestral apes evolved large body mass in such a physically and energetically challenging environment as the forest canopy, where weight-bearing branches and lianas are flexible, irregular and discontinuous, and the majority of preferred foods are situated on the most flexible branches at the periphery of tree crowns. To date the issue has been intractable due to a lack of relevant fossil material, the limited capacity of the fossil record to reconstruct an animal's behavioural ecology and the inability to measure energy consumption in freely moving apes...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078394/kinematics-of-a-bicruciate-retaining-total-knee-arthroplasty
#5
Thomas J Heyse, Joshua Slane, Geert Peersman, Margo Dirckx, Arne van de Vyver, Philipp Dworschak, Susanne Fuchs-Winkelmann, Lennart Scheys
PURPOSE: The recently reintroduced bicruciate-retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty (BCR TKA) is an interesting approach in the quest for close replication of knee joint biomechanics and kinematics closer to the native knee. Therefore, this study aimed at providing a detailed biomechanical view on the functional resemblance of BCR TKA to the native knee joint. METHODS: Seven fresh-frozen full leg cadaver specimens (76 ± 10 year) were mounted in a 6 degrees-of-freedom kinematic rig that applied a dynamic squatting motion knee flexion...
January 11, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005769/aberrant-lower-extremity-arterial-anatomy-in-microvascular-free-fibula-flap-candidates-management-algorithm-and-case-presentations
#6
Alyssa R Golas, Jamie P Levine, Justin Ream, Eduardo D Rodriguez
An accurate and comprehensive understanding of lower extremity arterial anatomy is essential for the successful harvest and transfer of a free fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap (FFF). Minimum preoperative evaluation includes detailed history and physical including lower extremity pulse examination. Controversy exists regarding whether preoperative angiographic imaging should be performed for all patients. Elevation of an FFF necessitates division of the peroneal artery in the proximal lower leg and eradicates its downstream flow...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005626/vulvar-varicosities-a-review
#7
Anna S Kim, Laura A Greyling, Loretta S Davis
BACKGROUND: Vulvar varicosities (VV) are dilated and tortuous veins occurring within the external female genitalia. Patients may seek treatment of these varices for both medical and cosmetic purposes. In some patients, VV may be associated with a chronic pelvic pain syndrome called pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS). OBJECTIVE: To review the English language literature on VV in both pregnant and nonpregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search pertaining to vulvar varicosities and PCS was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar databases...
December 21, 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925702/quantitative-elastosonography-of-the-myotendinous-junction-normal-behavior-and-correlation-with-a-standard-measurement-system-during-functional-tests
#8
Paolo Minafra, Chandra Bortolotto, Ermanno Rampinini, Fabrizio Calliada, Giuseppe Monetti
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, an increasing need to use imaging to assess normal and adaptive muscle function, in addition to its anatomy and structure, has emerged. We evaluated the myotendinous junction's elastosonographic behavior in light of the most recent literature on its physiologic behavior. The elastosonographic studies were compared with the results obtained from a standard measurement system to ensure a correlation with maximal muscle contraction. METHODS: Nineteen male professional soccer players were assessed during functional tests...
January 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921154/peripheral-stent-thrombosis-leading-to-acute-limb-ischemia-and-major-amputation-incidence-and-risk-factors-in-the-aortoiliac-and-femoropopliteal-arteries
#9
Konstantinos Katsanos, Said A M Al-Lamki, Aneeta Parthipun, Stavros Spiliopoulos, Sanjay Dhanji Patel, Ioannis Paraskevopoulos, Hany Zayed, Athanasios Diamantopoulos
PURPOSE: To report the real-world incidence and risk factors of stent thrombosis in the aortoiliac and femoropopliteal arteries in case of bare nitinol stent (BNS) or covered nitinol stent (CNS) placement from a single-centre retrospective audit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of consecutive patients treated with peripheral stent placement for claudication or critical limb ischemia were audited for definite stent thrombosis defined as imaging confirmed stent thrombosis that presented as acute limb-threatening ischemia...
March 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906945/ganglion-cyst-at-the-proximal-tibiofibular-joint-in-a-patient-with-painless-foot-drop
#10
Abdulmuhsen Alsahhaf, Waleed Renno
Entrapment neuropathies of the fibular nerve and its branches are often underdiagnosed due to the lack of reliable diagnosis using clinical examination and electrophysiologic evaluation. Most fibular nerve compressions may be classified into 2 broad categories: (a) mechanical causes, which occur at fibrous or fibro-osseous tunnels, and (b) dynamic causes related to nerve injury during specific limb positioning. Foot drop resulting from weakness of the dorsiflexor muscles of the foot is a relatively uncommon presentation and closely related to L5 neuropathy caused by a disc herniation...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904980/a-resolved-two-way-coupled-cfd-6-dof-approach-for-predicting-embolus-transport-and-the-embolus-trapping-efficiency-of-ivc-filters
#11
Kenneth I Aycock, Robert L Campbell, Keefe B Manning, Brent A Craven
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are medical devices designed to provide a mechanical barrier to the passage of emboli from the deep veins of the legs to the heart and lungs. Despite decades of development and clinical use, IVC filters still fail to prevent the passage of all hazardous emboli. The objective of this study is to (1) develop a resolved two-way computational model of embolus transport, (2) provide verification and validation evidence for the model, and (3) demonstrate the ability of the model to predict the embolus-trapping efficiency of an IVC filter...
November 30, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896394/the-orientation-of-the-surgical-epicondylar-axis-varies-in-varus-and-non-varus-knees-in-the-coronal-plane
#12
Yunjie Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang, Yunchao Shao, Qing Xia
PURPOSE: To investigate the orientations of the surgical epicondylar axis (SEA) of varus and non-varus knees in the coronal plane. METHODS: One-hundred and sixty-two knees from 81 Chinese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively investigated. The angle between the medial side of the femoral mechanical axis and the SEA (MA-SEA), as well as the physiological valgus angle, was measured in the coronal plane using three-dimensional reconstruction...
November 28, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874150/the-radiological-research-for-pelvis-asymmetry-of-unilateral-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-in-adult
#13
Ya-Min Li, Jue-Hong Li, Bin Li, Jia-Xing Wang, Yun-Su Chen
To investigate whether adult patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (UDDH) have pelvic asymmetry and what correlation existing between them. Methods: A total of 100 adult patients with UDDH were enrolled in the retrospective observational study in Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China, between January 2012 and February 2014. The anteroposterior pelvic radiographs were reviewed and the pelvic heights and ischium heights were measured and compared between the affected and non-affected sides to find out the relationship between the pelvic morphology and hip dysplasia...
December 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845481/unilateral-variation-in-extensor-digitorum-longus-muscle
#14
A Banerje, S Singh, K Raza, N Rani, S Kaler
During a routine dissection of an adult embalmed male cadaver for educational purpose in the department of anatomy at AIIMS, New Delhi, India, a rare unilateral variation of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) was found which is a muscle of anterior compartment of the leg. There was a split tendon of EDL muscle in the anterior compartment of left leg which became a common tendon in front of the ankle joint. This common tendon of EDL muscle again divided into four slips and were inserted in to the lateral four toes...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755444/aberrant-lower-extremity-arterial-anatomy-in-microvascular-free-fibula-flap-candidates-management-algorithm-and-case-presentations
#15
Alyssa R Golas, Jamie P Levine, Justin Ream, Eduardo D Rodriguez
An accurate and comprehensive understanding of lower extremity arterial anatomy is essential for the successful harvest and transfer of a free fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap (FFF). Minimum preoperative evaluation includes detailed history and physical including lower extremity pulse examination. Controversy exists regarding whether preoperative angiographic imaging should be performed for all patients. Elevation of an FFF necessitates division of the peroneal artery in the proximal lower leg and eradicates its downstream flow...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727021/automatic-segmentation-and-probe-guidance-for-real-time-assistance-of-ultrasound-guided-femoral-nerve-blocks
#16
Erik Smistad, Daniel Høyer Iversen, Linda Leidig, Janne Beate Lervik Bakeng, Kaj Fredrik Johansen, Frank Lindseth
Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia can be challenging, especially for inexperienced physicians. The goal of the proposed methods is to create a system that can assist a user in performing ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blocks. The system indicates in which direction the user should move the ultrasound probe to investigate the region of interest and to reach the target site for needle insertion. Additionally, the system provides automatic real-time segmentation of the femoral artery, the femoral nerve and the two layers fascia lata and fascia iliaca...
January 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714727/anatomy-of-the-long-peroneal-muscle-of-the-leg
#17
Urszula Bogacka, Dawid Dziedzic, Iulian Komarnitki, Bogdan Ciszek
BACKGROUND: The aim of the work was to perform a morphometric analysis of the long peroneal muscle of the leg and explore the relationship between muscle belly and tendon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten lower limbs (8 right and 2 left) were fixed in formaldehyde and dissected using standard technique. The long peroneal muscle was exposed from the proximal attachment to the top of a lateral malleolus. RESULTS: The tendon was subsequently freed and various measurements were taken...
October 7, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707867/the-diversity-and-evolution-of-locomotor-muscle-properties-in-anurans
#18
Henry C Astley
Anuran jumping is a model system for linking muscle physiology to organismal performance. However, anuran species display substantial diversity in their locomotion, with some species performing powerful leaps from riverbanks or tree branches, while other species move predominantly via swimming, short hops or even diagonal-sequence gaits. Furthermore, many anurans with similar locomotion and morphology are actually convergent (e.g. multiple independent evolutions of 'tree frogs'), while closely related species may differ drastically, as with the walking toad (Melanophryniscus stelzneri) and bullfrog-like river toad (Phrynoides aspera) compared with other Bufonid toads...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692726/critical-limb-ischemia-an-expert-statement
#19
Mehdi H Shishehbor, Christopher J White, Bruce H Gray, Matthew T Menard, Robert Lookstein, Kenneth Rosenfield, Michael R Jaff
Critical limb ischemia (CLI), the most advanced form of peripheral artery disease, is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care resource utilization. It is also associated with physical, as well as psychosocial, consequences such as amputation and depression. Importantly, after a major amputation, patients are at heightened risk of amputation on the contralateral leg. However, despite the technological advances to manage CLI with minimally invasive technologies, this condition often remains untreated, with significant disparities in revascularization and amputation rates according to race, socioeconomic status, and geographic region...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625411/froghopper-inspired-direction-changing-concept-for-miniature-jumping-robots
#20
Gwang-Pil Jung, Kyu-Jin Cho
To improve the maneuverability and agility of jumping robots, several researchers have studied steerable jumping mechanisms. This steering ability enables robots to reach a particular target by controlling their jumping direction. To this end, we propose a novel direction-changing concept for miniature jumping robots. The proposed concept allows robots to be steerable while exerting minimal effects on jumping performance. The key design principles were adopted from the froghopper's power-producing hind legs and the moment cancellation accomplished by synchronized leg operation...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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