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anatomy knee

Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Jeong-Ku Ha, Dhong-Won Lee, Jin-Goo Kim
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have elucidated the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), as a result, double-bundle (DB) ACL reconstruction has received much attention and has become a popular choice because it gives better rotational stability. Many other studies, however, found no differences with respect to stability, and/or other clinical outcomes between the DB and single-bundle (SB) techniques. There is still not enough evidence as to whether the anatomical DB anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is superior to anatomical SB reconstruction...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Timothy I Alves, Gandikota Girish, Monica Kalume Brigido, Jon A Jacobson
Pain and other disorders of the knee are a common presenting complaint in the ambulatory setting. Although the cornerstones of imaging evaluation of the knee are radiographs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, ultrasonography (US) is less expensive than MR imaging, easily available, and of comparable accuracy in the evaluation of certain pathologic conditions of the knee. The benefits of US include portability, low cost, high spatial resolution, dynamic imaging, and ability to guide percutaneous interventions when indicated...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
M Cody O'Dell, Diego Jaramillo, Laura Bancroft, Laura Varich, Gregory Logsdon, Sabah Servaes
With increasing participation and intensity of training in youth sports in the United States, the incidence of sports-related injuries is increasing, and the types of injuries are shifting. In this article, the authors review sports injuries of the lower extremity, including both acute and overuse injuries, that are common in or specific to the pediatric population. Common traumatic injuries that occur in individuals of all ages (eg, tears of the acetabular labrum and anterior cruciate ligament) are not addressed, although these occur routinely in pediatric sports...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Humberto G Rosas
Although rare, posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries can result in sustained instability and failed cruciate ligament reconstruction if they are not diagnosed. The anatomy of the PLC was once thought to be perplexing and esoteric-in part because of the varying nomenclature applied to this region in the literature, which added unnecessary complexity. More recently, three major structures have been described as the primary stabilizers of the PLC on the basis of biomechanical study findings: the lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteofibular ligament...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Oui Sik Yoo, Yong Seuk Lee, Myung Chul Lee, Jae Hong Park, Jae Won Kim, Doo Hoon Sun
BACKGROUND: After open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO), the proximal fragment resembles the anatomy of the proximal tibia that is aligned in the anterior-posterior direction and the distal fragment resembles the anatomy of the mid shaft that is aligned in the proximal-distal direction. In addition, the medial portion of the proximal fragment becomes aligned medially and the medial portion of the distal fragment, laterally, depending on the magnitude of the posterior opening gap. Therefore, there would be a mismatch between the post-correction bony surface and the previous pre-contoured plate geometry...
October 10, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
(no author information available yet)
Part of a series of free medical apps, Knee Decide provides health professionals with an aid for communicating basic knee anatomy to patients.
October 6, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Camila Cohen Kaleka, Leandro Jun Aihara, Anderson Rodrigues, Sebastião Ferreira de Medeiros, Victor Marques de Oliveira, Ricardo de Paula Leite Cury
PURPOSE: To detail the anatomy of the medial patella stabilizers, medial patellotibial (MPTL), and medial patellomeniscal ligaments (MPML), focusing on the points of origin and insertion, length, thickness, width, and fibres orientation to study the frequency of anatomical variations and the anatomy of these ligaments, thereby improving surgical techniques. METHODS: Thirty dissected knees were analysed. A digital caliper was used to measure the length, thickness, and width, as well as the mid-point of the ligaments insertion and the distance from the MPTL insertion to the articular surface of the tibia...
October 8, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
T K Kim, Mark Phillips, Mohit Bhandari, John Watson, Rajesh Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Most TKA prostheses are designed based on the anatomy of white patients. Individual studies have identified key anthropometric differences between the knees of the white population and other major ethnic groups, yet there is limited understanding of what these findings may indicate if analyzed collectively. QUESTION/PURPOSE: What are the differences in morphologic features of the distal femur and proximal tibia among and within various ethnicities? METHODS: A systematic review of the PubMed database and a hand-search of article bibliographies identified 235 potentially eligible English-language studies...
October 4, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Etienne Cavaignac, David Ancelin, Philippe Chiron, Jean-Louis Tricoire, Karine Wytrykowski, Marie Faruch, Elodie Chantalat
: There is a lively debate about the existence, origins and discoverer of the anterolateral ligament of the knee. The complex anatomy of the lateral aspect of the knee has made it difficult to differentiate between various structures such as the iliotibial band, capsulo-osseous layer, Kaplan's fibres and the anterolateral capsule. The "discovery" of a new anterolateral structure in 2013 was the culmination of many historical studies. In 1879, Paul Ferdinand Segond described a tibial plateau fracture in which he noted a pearly band reinforcing the joint capsule...
October 3, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Daniel Norman, Andrew J Metcalfe, Timothy Barlow, Charles E Hutchinson, Peter J M Thompson, Timothy J W Spalding, Mark A Williams
BACKGROUND: The anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has become the subject of much debate. There has been extensive study into attachment points of the native ligament, especially regarding the femoral attachment. Some of these studies have suggested that fibers in the ACL are of differing functional importance. Fibers with higher functional importance would be expected to exert larger mechanical stress on the bone. According to Wolff's law, cortical thickening would be expected in these areas...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Ali M Naraghi, Lawrence M White
Acute knee injuries are a common source of morbidity in athletes and if overlooked may result in chronic functional impairment. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the knee has become the most commonly performed musculoskeletal MR examination and is an indispensable tool in the appropriate management of the injured athlete. Meniscal and ligamentous tearing are the most frequent indications for surgical intervention in sports injuries and an understanding of the anatomy, biomechanics, mechanisms of injury, and patterns of injury are all critical to accurate diagnosis and appropriate management...
October 2016: Radiology
Verena U Fenner, Henrik Behrend, Markus S Kuster
BACKGROUND: Modern knee designs do not fully restore the anatomy and kinematics of the natural knee. This study evaluates the kinematic and kinetic changes of well-functioning patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in comparison to a healthy age-matched control group while descending stairs and level walking. The aim was to have a baseline for further investigations of TKA patients with problems. METHODS: Fifteen patients satisfied with TKA (8♀/7♂; 66.8 ± 7...
August 13, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Christophe Sauret, Hélène Pillet, Wafa Skalli, Morgan Sangeux
Accurate calibration of the medio-lateral axis of the femur is crucial for clinical decision making based on gait analysis. This study proposes a protocol utilizing biplanar radiographs to provide a reference medio-lateral axis based on the anatomy of the femur. The biplanar radiographs allowed 3D modelling of the bones of the lower limbs and the markers used for motion capture, in the standing posture. A comprehensive analysis was performed and results from biplanar radiographs were reliable for 3D marker localization (±0...
September 12, 2016: Gait & Posture
Camilo Partezani Helito, Julio Augusto do Prado Torres, Marcelo Batista Bonadio, José Aderval Aragão, Lucas Nogueira de Oliveira, Renato José Mendonça Natalino, José Ricardo Pécora, Gilberto Luis Camanho, Marco Kawamura Demange
BACKGROUND: The anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee has recently been described in detail. Most studies of the ALL have been conducted in adults; therefore, little is known about the anatomy and histology of the ALL in younger patients, and nothing is known about the fetal presence of the ALL. PURPOSE: To evaluate the ALL in human fetuses to determine its presence or absence and to describe its microscopic anatomy and histological features compared with the findings of studies conducted in adults...
September 13, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Thomas Tampere, Tom Van Hoof, Michiel Cromheecke, Hans Van der Bracht, Jorge Chahla, Peter Verdonk, Jan Victor
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to visualize both the tibial and femoral bony insertion surfaces and second, to describe the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) geometrically, using novel 3D CT imaging. In addition, new concepts of best-fit cylinder and central axis are introduced and evaluated. METHODS: Eight unpaired knees of embalmed cadavers were used in this study. Following the dissection process, the ACL was injected with a contrast medium for CT imaging...
September 13, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Blaine T Manning, Rachel M Frank, Nathan G Wetters, Bernard R Bach, Aaron G Rosenberg, Brett R Levine
Knee-related complaints are among the most commonly encountered conditions by orthopaedic surgeons. Knee pathology varies widely and includes arthritis, deformities, fractures, infections, neuromuscular disorders, oncologic diseases, and soft-tissue injury. While nonoperative treatment modalities (activity modification, medications, injections, and physical therapy) are typically used as primary interventions, surgical treatment may ultimately become necessary. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most common open approaches to the knee, with an emphasis on surgically relevant anatomy for each approach...
September 2016: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
Hirotaka Takahashi, Goro Tajima, Shuhei Kikuchi, Jun Yan, Yoichi Kamei, Moritaka Maruyama, Atsushi Sugawara, Takaaki Saigo, Minoru Doita
PURPOSE: To clarify the fibular head insertion of the fibular collateral ligament (FCL), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), and biceps femoris tendon and related osseous landmarks on three-dimensional (3-D) images. METHODS: Twenty-one non-paired, formalin-fixed human cadaveric knees were evaluated in this study. The fibular head insertions of the FCL, PFL and biceps femoris tendon were identified and marked. 3-D images were created, and the surface area, location, positional relationships, and morphology of the fibular insertions of the FCL, PFL, and biceps femoris tendon and related osseous structures were analysed...
September 12, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Rhianna M Little, Matthew D Milewski
While some fractures may be managed similarly in adults and children, physeal fractures are uniquely limited to the pediatric population and require special consideration. Although physeal fractures about the knee are relatively rare, they are occurring more frequently due to increasing youth participation in sports and high-energy recreational activities. The evaluation and management of distal femoral and proximal tibial physeal fractures are similar to one another, but fractures of the tibial spine and tibial tubercle are approached somewhat differently...
September 7, 2016: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Shuntaro Yoshida, Koichiro Ichimura, Tatsuo Sakai
INTRODUCTION: The quadriceps femoris (QF), a major extensor of the knee joint, plays an important role in human movement. However, descriptions of the three vastus muscles of the QF in anatomy textbooks remain confusing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 33 QFs by a novel approach, using isolated muscle specimens to clarify the structures of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus intermedius (VI) origins. RESULTS: The origins of the VL and VM were quite constant in shape and location, but the VI was much more structurally diverse...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
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