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anatomy knee

Levi Reina Fernandes, Herve Ouanezar, Adnan Saithna, Bertrand Sonnery-Cottet
The Segond fracture (SF) is considered pathognomonic of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. However, the anatomy of the soft-tissue attachments responsible for the avulsion of SFs has been a cause of controversy. A 31-year-old male patient presented with an injury to his right knee that resulted in ACL tear and a SF. Open SF fixation and arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were performed. The anatomical dissection demonstrated that the avulsion of SFs had occurred because of the tibial attachment of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) with an intact Iliotibial band...
March 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Kadir Buyukdogan, Michael S Laidlaw, Mark D Miller
The management of multiligament knee injury is a complex process starting with the adequate identification of the injury. A detailed physical and radiographic examination with a thorough understanding of knee anatomy is crucial to assess all damaged structures: anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, posteromedial corner including the medial collateral ligament, and posterolateral corner including the lateral collateral ligament. Several surgical techniques have been developed throughout the years to adequately address these ligament insufficiencies...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Robert W Irwin, Jeffrey Smith, S Barry Issenberg
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (ABPMR) developed milestones for evaluation of resident physicians that include proper musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) examination of major joints. To date, there have been no published data demonstrating acquisition and retention of these skills and correlation with the milestone evaluation. The investigators developed and implemented a curriculum in musculoskeletal ultrasound examination for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) residents at a large academic medical center...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
John J Elias, Kerwyn C Jones, S Cyrus Rezvanifar, Joseph N Gabra, Melanie A Morscher, Andrew J Cosgarea
BACKGROUND: Continued patellar instability can occur following medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Computational simulation of function was used to investigate the influence of the lateral position of the tibial tuberosity, trochlear dysplasia and patella alta on lateral patellar tracking following MPFL reconstruction. METHODS: Multibody dynamic simulation models were developed to represent nine knees being treated for recurrent patellar instability...
March 12, 2018: Knee
Michael Day, Michael Ryan, Eric Strauss
The management of meniscal root injuries has changed as biomechanical studies have demonstrated the importance of meniscal integrity in load distribution across the knee joint. Meniscal injury causes altered joint mechanics, which is postulated to be related to the onset of arthrosis. Arthroscopic meniscal root repair has been shown to restore more normal joint mechanics and is considered a treatment option in the appropriately indicated patient. Short- and midterm clinical results of meniscal root repair are promising, but long-term results are yet to be established...
March 2018: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
Volker Musahl, Elmar Herbst, Jeremy M Burnham, Freddie H Fu
The anterolateral structures of the knee have recently garnered considerable interest regarding their role in rotatory knee instability related to anterior cruciate ligament tears. Isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may not always restore rotatory stability of the knee. In these patients, additional procedures, such as lateral reconstruction or tenodesis, may be indicated. The anatomy of the anterolateral structures of the knee has been well described. Histologic and anatomic studies have reported conflicting findings regarding the presence of a discrete ligament...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Craig J Della Valle, Tyler E Calkins, Joshua J Jacobs
There has been an increasing use of modularity at the head-neck junction in total hip arthroplasty to more closely mimic the native anatomy, allowing for optimal leg length and stability. Corrosion at this junction in metal-on-polyethylene bearings can lead to an adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR). This increasingly prevalent condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hip pain and difficulty ambulating. A recent symposium by the American Academy of Hip and Knee Surgeons described the diagnosis, etiology, management, and prevention of taper corrosion...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Steven Slotkin, Andrew Thome, Cassandra Ricketts, Andrew Georgiadis, Aristides Cruz, Mark Seeley
Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a common presenting complaint for pediatricians and orthopaedic surgeons and is often seen in young athletes. AKP is multifactorial and has a broad differential diagnosis. The growth changes, biomechanics, and anatomy around the knee add to the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of AKP. Common causes of AKP include Osgood-Schlatter's disease, patellar tendinitis, and patellofemoral instability. In the diagnosis of AKP, it is important to rule out serious and morbid causes of pain, including infection and tumor...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Julio Brandao Guimaraes, Luca Facchetti, Benedikt J Schwaiger, Alexandra S Gersing, Xiaojuan Li, Thomas M Link
OBJECTIVES: To assess (i) normal imaging anatomy of the popliteomeniscal fascicles, (ii) prevalence and natural evolution of popliteomeniscal fascicle tears (PMFT) in subjects with traumatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears over 2 years and (iii) compare knee cartilage degeneration in subjects with and without PMFT longitudinally. METHODS: 57 subjects with ACL tears were screened for PMFT. Morphological (high-resolution 3D fast spin-echo) and compositional (T1ρ and T2 mapping) MR imaging was performed prior to and 2 years after ACL reconstruction...
February 23, 2018: European Radiology
Ke Li, Etienne Cavaignac, Wei Xu, Qiang Cheng, Nobert Telmon, Wei Huang
PURPOSE: Morphologic data of the knee is very important in the design of total knee prostheses. Generally, the designs of the total knee prostheses are based on the knee anatomy of Caucasian population. Moreover, in forensic medicine, a person's age and sex might be estimated by the shape of their knees. The aim of this study is to utilize three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the knee in Chinese population to reveal sexual dimorphism and age-related differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sexually dimorphic differences and age-related differences of the distal femur were studied by using geometric morphometric analysis of ten osteometric landmarks on three-dimensional reconstructions of 259 knees in Chinese population...
February 20, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Bin Yuan, Bao-Jian Ge, Bai-Yi Meng
Dislocation of proximal tibiofibular joint(PTFJ) is relatively infrequent in clinic, it can be either isolated or associated with tibia fracture, fibular fracture and ankle injury and so on. Chronic symptomatic PTFJ instability are easily mixed with meniscal tears. It was easily neglected because of the mild clinical presentation and atypical change on radiography. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent chronic knee pain and instability. The paper concluded the anatomy, classification, complication, diagnosis, treatment, clinical effect and insufficient of the dislocation of PTFJ, to direct the diagnosis and treatment of proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation in clinical work...
October 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Lin Xu, Wei-Kun Hou, Peng Xu
Fabella is a common sesamoid bone. In recent years, people have paid more attention to its anatomic location, distribution characteristics in crow, importance in stabilizing knee joint and related diseases. This article reviews the anatomy, distribution and the relationship between the calf bone and the knee joint diseases, so as to strengthen the attention of the bones in the diagnosis and treatment of knee diseases.
November 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Innocent Ouko, James Kigera, Kevin Ongeti, Anne Pulei
PURPOSE: Meniscal tears are common in Kenya, with prevalence rates ranging from 45 to 78% of intracapsular knee pathology. Diagnosis of these injuries relies on the use of both clinical signs and symptoms as well as radiological investigations. In a few instances, radiological detection could be difficult, partly because of variant attachment patterns of the medial meniscal anterior horn. Some of these unusual attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus could even be mistaken for meniscal tears...
February 16, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Gang Ji, Yifei Sun, Jiangfeng Lu, Yingzhen Niu, Fei Wang
The purpose of this study was to explore the anatomy and discuss functional regions of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Twelve fresh-frozen knees specimens were dissected. All medial surfaces of knees were intact and did not have indication of injury. General feature of the MPFL were observed. All anatomical landmarks were carefully identified and marked. The length of the two functional regions were conducted and recorded. All data were obtained, described, and analyzed in the form of mean ± standard deviation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Brian Grawe, Amanda J Schroeder, Rafael Kakazu, Malynda S Messer
The lateral collateral ligament is the primary varus stabilizer of the tibiofemoral joint. Diagnosing an injury to this ligament can be challenging in the setting of multiligamentous trauma; however, failure to recognize these injuries can result in instability of the knee and unsatisfactory outcomes after cruciate ligament reconstruction. Recent literature exploring the anatomy and biomechanics of the lateral collateral ligament has enhanced our understanding and improved diagnosis and management of these injuries...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Santiago Pache, Zachary S Aman, Mitchell Kennedy, Gilberto Yoshinobu Nakama, Gilbert Moatshe, Connor Ziegler, Robert F LaPrade
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is the largest and strongest ligament in the human knee, and the primary posterior stabilizer. Recent anatomy and biomechanical studies have provided an improved understanding of PCL function. PCL injuries are typically combined with other ligamentous, meniscal and chondral injuries. Stress radiography has become an important and validated objective measure in surgical decision making and post-operative assessment. Isolated grade I or II PCL injuries can usually be treated non-operatively...
January 2018: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Alexander E Weber, William Zuke, Erik N Mayer, Brian Forsythe, Alan Getgood, Nikhil N Verma, Bernard R Bach, Asheesh Bedi, Brian J Cole
BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing interest in lateral-based soft tissue reconstructive techniques as augments to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The objective of these procedures is to minimize anterolateral rotational instability of the knee after surgery. Despite the relatively rapid increase in surgical application of these techniques, many clinical questions remain. PURPOSE: To provide a comprehensive update on the current state of these lateral-based augmentation procedures by reviewing the origins of the surgical techniques, the biomechanical data to support their use, and the clinical results to date...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
T Vaillant, J Steelandt, A-L Cordonnier, S Haghighat, P Anract, P Paubel, C Duhamel
OBJECTIVES: Single use patient-specific instruments (PSI) for total knee prosthesis are introduced as a new alternative to conventional ancillaries and computer assisted surgery by improving implants positioning. An exhaustive review was carried out to identify their specific characteristics, with their advantages and disadvantages. METHODS: Medical devices suppliers were consulted in 2015 for reviewing their PSI. Their technical, clinical and economic data were compared...
February 2, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Michael L Redondo, Adam J Beer, Adam B Yanke
The treatment of patellofemoral cartilage defects presents several distinct challenges when compared with cartilage restoration techniques used for other compartments of the knee due to the unique anatomy and distribution of forces. The etiologies of patellofemoral articular cartilage lesions include acute traumatic instability injuries, such as dislocation and subluxation, osteochondritis dissecans, and chronic degenerative changes. Regardless of the etiology, untreated patellofemoral cartilage lesions can contribute to activity-limiting anterior knee pain...
March 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Hamidreza Yazdi, Ara Nazarian, John Y Kwon, Mary G Hochman, Reza Pakdaman, Poopak Hafezi, Morteza Ghahremani, Samad Joudi, Mohammad Ghorbanhoseini
BACKGROUND: The anatomical axis of the femur is crucial for determining the correct alignment in corrective osteotomies of the knee, total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and retrograde and antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing (IMN). The aim of this study was to propose the concept of different anatomical axes for the proximal and distal parts of the femur; compare these axes in normally aligned subjects and also to propose the clinical application of these axes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the horizontal distances between the anatomical axis of the proximal and distal halves of the femur and the center of the intercondylar notch were measured in 100 normally aligned femurs using standard full length alignment view X-rays...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
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