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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098948/phosphorus-acquisition-efficiency-in-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-maize-is-correlated-with-the-abundance-of-root-external-hyphae-and-the-accumulation-of-transcripts-encoding-pht1-phosphate-transporters
#1
Ruairidh J H Sawers, Simon F Svane, Clement Quan, Mette Grønlund, Barbara Wozniak, Mesfin-Nigussie Gebreselassie, Eliécer González-Muñoz, Ricardo A Chávez Montes, Ivan Baxter, Jerome Goudet, Iver Jakobsen, Uta Paszkowski
Plant interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have long attracted interest for their potential to promote more efficient use of mineral resources in agriculture. Their use, however, remains limited by a lack of understanding of the processes that determine the outcome of the symbiosis. In this study, the impact of host genotype on growth response to mycorrhizal inoculation was investigated in a panel of diverse maize lines. A panel of 30 maize lines was evaluated with and without inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi...
January 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098570/preferential-localization-of-met-expression-at-the-invasion-front-and-in-spreading-cells-through-air-spaces-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinomas
#2
Camille Lapère, Alexis B Cortot, Valérie Grégoire, Vincent Cockenpot, David Tulasne, Marie-Christine Copin
The involvement of the HGF/MET pathway in acquisition of an invasive phenotype in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) suggests that MET inhibitors might prove effective against these cancers, but clinical trials have yielded conflicting results. The aim of our study was to evaluate how intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of MET staining affects the determination of MET status for therapeutic purposes. We analyzed 64 NSCLC samples, including 33 adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and 31 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). We used immunohistochemistry to detect MET and phospho-MET on whole slides and determined the MET SP44 immunoscore and the H-score...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098418/investigation-of-the-variability-of-anterior-chamber-scan-protocol-with-cirrus-high-definition-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
Tin A Tun, Shayne S Tan, Eray Atalay, Sushma Verma, Monisha E Nongpiur, Mani Baskaran, Tin Aung, Rahat Husain
IMPORTANCE: The evaluation of anterior chamber scan (ACS) of Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for routine clinical use BACKGROUND: To assess the variability of anterior chamber angle (ACA) measurements using the ACS DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study PARTICIPANTS: Forty subjects aged 40-80 years METHODS: One randomly selected eye from 40 subjects was imaged with Cirrus OCT (model 5000, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) by two different operators (expert vs non-expert) with a 15-minute interval for inter- and intra-observer variability of image acquisition...
January 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097738/enhanced-predictive-signalling-in-schizophrenia
#4
Katharina Schmack, Marcus Rothkirch, Josef Priller, Philipp Sterzer
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations are thought to arise from an alteration in predictive mechanisms of the brain. Here, we empirically tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an enhanced signalling of higher-level predictions that shape perception into conformity with acquired beliefs. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls matched for age and gender took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that assessed the effect of an experimental manipulation of cognitive beliefs on the perception of an ambiguous visual motion stimulus...
January 18, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097689/investigating-magnetic-susceptibility-of-human-knee-joint-at-7-tesla
#5
Hongjiang Wei, Russell Dibb, Kyle Decker, Nian Wang, Yuyao Zhang, Xiaopeng Zong, Weili Lin, Daniel B Nissman, Chunlei Liu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the magnetic susceptibility properties of different anatomical structures within the knee joint using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). METHODS: A collagen tissue model was simulated and ex vivo animal cartilage experiments were conducted at 9.4 Tesla (T) to evaluate the B0 orientation-dependent magnetic susceptibility contrast observed in cartilage. Furthermore, nine volunteers (six healthy subjects without knee pain history and three patients with known knee injury, between 29 and 58 years old) were scanned using gradient-echo acquisitions on a high-field 7T MR scanner...
January 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097632/acquisition-and-adaptation-of-the-airway-microbiota-in-the-early-life-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#6
REVIEW
Sébastien Boutin, Alexander H Dalpke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease in which bacterial infections of the airways play a major role in the long-term clinical outcome. In recent years, a number of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies aimed at deciphering the structure and composition of the airways' microbiota. It was shown that the nasal cavity of CF patients displays dysbiosis early in life indicating a failure in the first establishment of a healthy microbiota. In contrast, within the conducting and lower airways, the establishment occurs normally first, but is sensitive to future dysbiosis including chronic infections with classical pathogens in later life...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097426/functional-diversity-increases-ecological-stability-in-a-grazed-grassland
#7
Lauren M Hallett, Claudia Stein, Katharine N Suding
Understanding the factors governing ecological stability in variable environments is a central focus of ecology. Functional diversity can stabilize ecosystem function over time if one group of species compensates for an environmentally driven decline in another. Although intuitively appealing, evidence for this pattern is mixed. We hypothesized that diverse functional responses to rainfall will increase the stability of vegetation cover and biomass across rainfall conditions, but that this effect depends on land-use legacies that maintain functional diversity...
January 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097371/high-resolution-diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-solitary-orbital-tumors-3d-turbo-field-echo-with-diffusion-sensitized-driven-equilibrium-dsde-tfe-preparation-technique
#8
Akio Hiwatashi, Osamu Togao, Koji Yamashita, Kazufumi Kikuchi, Hiroshi Yoshikawa, Makoto Obara, Hiroshi Honda
PURPOSE: To differentiate cystic from solid solitary intraorbital tumors using 3D turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation without contrast material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review boards, and written informed consent was waived. A total of 26 patients with intraorbital tumors were studied. Motion probing gradients were conducted at one direction with b‑values of 0 and 500 s/mm(2)...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097212/feasibility-of-reduced-dose-three-dimensional-four-dimensional-digital-subtraction-angiogram-using-a-weighted-edge-preserving-filter
#9
Erick L Oberstar, Michael A Speidel, Brian J Davis, Charles M Strother, Charles A Mistretta
A conventional three-dimensional/four-dimensional (3D/4D) digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) requires two rotational acquisitions (mask and fill) to compute the log-subtracted projections that are used to reconstruct a 3D/4D volume. Since all of the vascular information is contained in the fill acquisition, it is hypothesized that it is possible to reduce the x-ray dose of the mask acquisition substantially and still obtain subtracted projections adequate to reconstruct a 3D/4D volume with noise level comparable to a full-dose acquisition...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096970/inhibition-of-akt-phosphorylation-attenuates-resistance-to-tnf-%C3%AE-cytotoxic-effects-in-mcf-7-cells-but-not-in-their-doxorubicin-resistant-derivatives
#10
Morteza Ghandadi, Atieh Mohammadi, Javad Behravan, Khalil Abnous, Negin Haj-Ali, Melika Ehtesham Gharaee, Fatemeh Mosaffa
OBJECTIVES: Acquisition of TNF-α resistance plays role in the onset and growth of malignant tumors. Previous studies have demonstrated that MCF-7 cell line and its doxorubicin resistant variant MCF-7/Adr are resistant against the cytotoxic effects of TNF-α. In this study, we investigated the role of Akt activation in resistance of MCF-7 and MCF-7/Adr against TNF-α cytotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The role of Akt activation in TNF-α cytotoxicity was investigated by MTT cell viability assay following treatment of the cells with the chemical inhibitor of Akt activation with or without TNF-α treatment...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096505/the-neuropilin-2-isoform-nrp2b-uniquely-supports-tgf%C3%AE-mediated-progression-in-lung-cancer
#11
Robert M Gemmill, Patrick Nasarre, Joyce Nair-Menon, Federico Cappuzzo, Lorenza Landi, Armida D'Incecco, Hidetaka Uramoto, Takeshi Yoshida, Eric B Haura, Kent Armeson, Harry A Drabkin
Neuropilins (NRP1 and NRP2) are co-receptors for heparin-binding growth factors and class 3 semaphorins. Different isoforms of NRP1 and NRP2 are produced by alternative splicing. We found that in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling preferentially increased the abundance of NRP2b. NRP2b and NRP2a differ only in their carboxyl-terminal regions. Although the presence of NRP2b inhibited cultured cell proliferation and primary tumor growth, NRP2b enhanced cellular migration, invasion into Matrigel, and tumorsphere formation in cultured cells in response to TGFβ signaling and promoted metastasis in xenograft mouse models...
January 17, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096496/a-reminder-of-extinction-reduces-relapse-in-an-animal-model-of-voluntary-behavior
#12
Javier Nieto, Metin Uengoer, Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
One experiment with rats explored whether an extinction-cue prevents the recovery of extinguished lever-pressing responses. Initially, rats were trained to perform one instrumental response (R1) for food in Context A, and a different instrumental response (R2) in Context B. Then, responses were extinguished each in the alternate context (R1 in Context B; R2 in Context A). For one group, extinction of both responses was conducted in the presence of an extinction-cue, whereas in a second group, the extinction-cue only accompanied extinction of R1...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096446/the-rpn-yhga-like-proteins-of-escherichia-coli-k-12-and-their-contribution-to-reca-independent-horizontal-transfer
#13
Anthony W Kingston, Christine Ponkratz, Elisabeth A Raleigh
: Bacteria use a variety of DNA mobilizing enzymes to facilitate environmental niche adaptation via horizontal gene transfer. This has led to real world problems, like the spread of antibiotic resistance, yet many mobilization proteins remain undefined. Here, we investigate the uncharacterized family of YhgA-like "transposase_31" proteins (PF04754). Our primary focus was the genetic and biochemical properties of the five E. coli K-12 members of this family, which we designate RpnA-RpnE for recombination promoting nuclease...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096390/modification-of-host-dendritic-cells-by-microchimerism-derived-extracellular-vesicles-generates-split-tolerance
#14
William Bracamonte-Baran, Jonathan Florentin, Ying Zhou, Ewa Jankowska-Gan, W John Haynes, Weixiong Zhong, Todd V Brennan, Partha Dutta, Frans H J Claas, Jon J van Rood, William J Burlingham
Maternal microchimerism (MMc) has been associated with development of allospecific transplant tolerance, antitumor immunity, and cross-generational reproductive fitness, but its mode of action is unknown. We found in a murine model that MMc caused exposure to the noninherited maternal antigens in all offspring, but in some, MMc magnitude was enough to cause membrane alloantigen acquisition (mAAQ; "cross-dressing") of host dendritic cells (DCs). Extracellular vesicle (EV)-enriched serum fractions from mAAQ(+), but not from non-mAAQ, mice reproduced the DC cross-dressing phenomenon in vitro...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096389/ontogenetic-and-life-history-trait-changes-associated-with-convergent-ecological-specializations-in-extinct-ungulate-mammals
#15
Helder Gomes Rodrigues, Anthony Herrel, Guillaume Billet
Investigating life history traits in mammals is crucial to understand their survival in changing environments. However, these parameters are hard to estimate in a macroevolutionary context. Here we show that the use of dental ontogenetic parameters can provide clues to better understand the adaptive nature of phenotypic traits in extinct species such as South American notoungulates. This recently extinct order of mammals evolved in a context of important geological, climatic, and environmental variations. Interestingly, notoungulates were mostly herbivorous and acquired high-crowned teeth very early in their evolutionary history...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096247/order-matters-the-order-of-somatic-mutations-influences-cancer-evolution
#16
David G Kent, Anthony R Green
Cancers evolve as a consequence of multiple somatic lesions, with competition between subclones and sequential subclonal evolution. Some driver mutations arise either early or late in the evolution of different individual tumors, suggesting that the final malignant properties of a subclone reflect the sum of mutations acquired rather than the order in which they arose. However, very little is known about the cellular consequences of altering the order in which mutations are acquired. Recent studies of human myeloproliferative neoplasms show that the order in which individual mutations are acquired has a dramatic impact on the cell biological and molecular properties of tumor-initiating cells...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096049/monoenergetic-reconstructions-for-imaging-of-coronary-artery-stents-using-spectral-detector-ct-in-vitro-experience-and-comparison-to-conventional-images
#17
Tilman Hickethier, Bettina Baeßler, Jan Robert Kroeger, Jonas Doerner, Gregor Pahn, David Maintz, Guido Michels, Alexander C Bunck
PURPOSE: Accurate assessment of coronary stents using non-invasive CT imaging remains challenging despite new stent materials and improvements in CT technology. Virtual monoenergetic (monoE) images reconstructed from dual energy CT acquisitions potentially decrease artifacts caused by coronary stents. A novel spectral detector technology provides monoE and conventional images simultaneously for all conducted scans. The purpose of our study was to systematically investigate the influence of different monoE reconstructions on the visualization of coronary stent lumen in comparison to conventional images...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095947/an-evaluation-of-food-as-a-potential-source-for-clostridium-difficile-acquisition-in-hospitalized-patients-corrigendum
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095919/ancient-bacteria-of-the-%C3%A3-tzi-s-microbiome-a-genomic-tale-from-the-copper-age
#19
Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Christian Milani, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Sabrina Duranti, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
BACKGROUND: Ancient microbiota information represents an important resource to evaluate bacterial evolution and to explore the biological spread of infectious diseases in history. The soft tissue of frozen mummified humans, such as the Tyrolean Iceman, has been shown to contain bacterial DNA that is suitable for population profiling of the prehistoric bacteria that colonized such ancient human hosts. RESULTS: Here, we performed a microbial cataloging of the distal gut microbiota of the Tyrolean Iceman, which highlights a predominant abundance of Clostridium and Pseudomonas species...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095886/the-dynamics-of-hiv-transmission-in-out-of-school-young-heterosexual-men-in-south-africa-a-systematic-scoping-review-protocol
#20
Nonzwakazi Ntombela, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Andile Mtshali, Anna Voce, Ayesha B M Kharsany
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, gender inequality dominated by males and heterosexual HIV epidemic are associated with high HIV infection. Underlying epidemiological and social determinants driving HIV acquisition and transmission are critical to understand the extent and complexity of sexual networks as primary mechanisms through which HIV is likely to spread. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of empiric evidence that links the complex interaction of risk of HIV infection in men...
January 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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