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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732293/investigation-of-the-wash-off-process-using-an-innovative-portable-rainfall-simulator-allowing-continuous-monitoring-of-flow-and-turbidity-at-the-urban-surface-outlet
#1
Saja Al Ali, Céline Bonhomme, Philippe Dubois, Ghassan Chebbo
Development of appropriate models, based on an in-depth understanding of the wash-off process, is essential to accurately estimating pollutant loads transported by stormwater, thereby minimizing environmental contamination. To this end, we developed an innovative rainfall simulator, which simulated an intense rainfall (120mm/h) and permitted the acquisition of runoff samples as well as the in situ monitoring of continuous flow and turbidity dynamics. Relationships between deposited sediments and total suspended solids in simulated runoff were thus investigated on two different types of surfaces within the Paris region in terms of loads and particle size distribution...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732264/insights-into-plant-phosphate-sensing-and-signaling
#2
REVIEW
Byung-Kook Ham, Jieyu Chen, Yan Yan, William J Lucas
Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient essential for plant growth, therefore, soil P level is critical to crop yield potential in agriculture. As Pi levels limit crop yield under many soil conditions, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms by which plants adapt to low-phosphate (Pi) soil conditions and interact with their soil microbiome to improve crop P use efficiency, in order to ensure global food security. Recent advances have been made towards achieving this goal through advancing our understanding of the plant's response to limiting Pi conditions to maintain P homeostasis...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732043/investigation-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-of-pathogenicity-islands-in-escherichia-coli-using-next-generation-sequencing
#3
Maxim Messerer, Wolfgang Fischer, Sören Schubert
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) contributes to the evolution of bacteria. All extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) harbour pathogenicity islands (PAIs), however relatively little is known about the acquisition of these PAIs. Due to these islands, ExPEC have properties to colonize and invade its hosts efficiently. Even though these PAIs are known to be acquired by HGT, only very few PAIs do carry mobilization and transfer genes required for the transmission by HGT. In this study, we apply for the first time next-generation sequencing (NGS) and in silico analyses in combination with in vitro experiments to decipher the mechanisms of PAI acquisition in ExPEC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732035/vaccine-induced-immune-responses-against-both-gag-and-env-improve-control-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-replication-in-rectally-challenged-rhesus-macaques
#4
Mauricio A Martins, Young C Shin, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Aline Domingues, Martin J Gutman, Helen S Maxwell, Iris Castro, Diogo M Magnani, Michael Ricciardi, Nuria Pedreño-Lopez, Varian Bailey, Dillon Betancourt, John D Altman, Matthias Pauthner, Dennis R Burton, Benjamin von Bredow, David T Evans, Maoli Yuan, Christopher L Parks, Keisuke Ejima, David B Allison, Eva Rakasz, Glen N Barber, Saverio Capuano, Jeffrey D Lifson, Ronald C Desrosiers, David I Watkins
The ability to control lentivirus replication may be determined, in part, by the extent to which individual viral proteins are targeted by the immune system. Consequently, defining the antigens that elicit the most protective immune responses may facilitate the design of effective HIV-1 vaccines. Here we vaccinated four groups of rhesus macaques with a heterologous vector prime/boost/boost/boost (PBBB) regimen expressing the following simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) genes: env, gag, vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 1); env, vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 2); gag, vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 3); or vif, rev, tat, and nef (Group 4)...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731795/plant-size-and-competitive-dynamics-along-nutrient-gradients
#5
Deborah E Goldberg, Jason P Martina, Kenneth J Elgersma, William S Currie
Resource competition theory in plants has focused largely on resource acquisition traits that are independent of size, such as traits of individual leaves or roots or proportional allocation to different functions. However, plants also differ in maximum potential size, which could outweigh differences in module-level traits. We used a community ecosystem model called mondrian to investigate whether larger size inevitably increases competitive ability and how size interacts with nitrogen supply. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that bigger is better, we found that invader success and competitive ability are unimodal functions of maximum potential size, such that plants that are too large (or too small) are disproportionately suppressed by competition...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731512/fast-and-simultaneous-determination-of-1-h-1-h-and-1-h-19-f-scalar-couplings-in-complex-spin-systems-application-of-psyche-homonuclear-broadband-decoupling
#6
Veera Mohana Rao Kakita, Kavitha Rachineni, Ramakrishna V Hosur
The present manuscript focuses on fast and simultaneous determination of (1) H-(1) H and (1) H-(19) F scalar couplings in fluorinated complex steroid molecules. Incorporation of broadband PSYCHE homonuclear decoupling in the indirect dimension of zero-quantum filtered diagonal experiments (F1-PSYCHE-DIAG) suppresses (1) H-(1) H scalar couplings, however it retains (1) H-(19) F scalar couplings (along F1-dimension) for the (19) F coupled protons while preserving the pure-shift nature for (1) H resonances uncoupled to (19) F...
July 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731470/a-genomic-perspective-on-stoichiometric-regulation-of-soil-carbon-cycling
#7
Wyatt H Hartman, Rongzhong Ye, William R Horwath, Susannah G Tringe
Similar to plant growth, soil carbon (C) cycling is constrained by the availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). We hypothesized that stoichiometric control over soil microbial C cycling may be shaped by functional guilds with distinct nutrient substrate preferences. Across a series of rice fields spanning 5-25% soil C (N:P from 1:12 to 1:70), C turnover was best correlated with P availability and increased with experimental N addition only in lower C (mineral) soils with N:P⩽16. Microbial community membership also varied with soil stoichiometry but not with N addition...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731285/plant-infection-by-two-different-viruses-induce-contrasting-changes-of-vectors-fitness-and-behavior
#8
Quentin Chesnais, Aude Couty, Maryline Uzest, Véronique Brault, Arnaud Ameline
Insect-vectored plant viruses can induce changes in plant phenotypes, thus influencing plant-vector interactions in a way that may promote their dispersal according to their mode of transmission (i.e. circulative vs. non-circulative). This indirect vector manipulation requires host-virus-vector co-evolution and would thus be effective solely in very specific plant-virus-vector species associations. Some studies suggest this manipulation may depend on multiple factors relative to various intrinsic characteristics of vectors such as transmission efficiency...
July 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731125/n-peptide-of-vmip-%C3%A2-reverses-paclitaxel-resistance-by-regulating-mirna-335-in-breast-cancer
#9
Yangyang Wang, Haifeng Wang, Yongxing Ding, Yu Li, Sulian Chen, Lingyu Zhang, Haihua Wu, Jihong Zhou, Kecai Duan, Wenrui Wang, Changjie Chen, Qingling Yang
Acquisition of resistance to paclitaxel is one of the most important problems in treatment of breast cancer patients, but the molecular mechanisms underlying sensitivity to paclitaxel remains elusive. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of cell growth, migration and invasion through inhibiting the expression of its target genes. In our previous studies, we have shown that microRNA-335 (miR‑335) decreased obviously between paclitaxel-resistant (PR) and parental breast cancer cells through miRNA microarray...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730805/integrating-discovery-driven-proteomics-and-selected-reaction-monitoring-to-develop-a-non-invasive-assay-for-geoduck-reproductive-maturation
#10
Emma B Timmins-Schiffman, Grace A Crandall, Brent Vadopalas, Michael E Riffle, Brook L Nunn, Steven Roberts
Geoduck clams (Panopea generosa) are an increasingly important fishery and aquaculture product along the eastern Pacific coast from Baja California, Mexico to Alaska. These long-lived clams are highly fecund, though sustainable hatchery production of genetically diverse larvae is hindered by the lack of sexual dimorphism, resulting in asynchronous spawning of broodstock, unequal sex ratios, and low numbers of breeders. Development of assays of gonad physiology could indicate sex and maturation stage, as well as be used to assess the status of natural populations...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730560/impairment-of-ntca-gene-revealed-its-role-in-regulating-iron-homeostasis-ros-production-and-cellular-phenotype-under-iron-deficiency-in-cyanobacterium-anabaena-sp-pcc-7120
#12
Manish Singh Kaushik, Meenakshi Srivastava, Anumeha Singh, Arun Kumar Mishra
Iron deficiency ends up into several unavoidable consequences including damaging oxidative stress in cyanobacteria. NtcA is a global nitrogen regulator controls wide range of metabolisms in addition to regulation of nitrogen metabolism. In present communication, NtcA based regulation of iron homeostasis, ROS production and cellular phenotype under iron deficiency in Anabaena 7120 has been investigated. NtcA regulates the concentration dependent iron uptake by controlling the expression of furA gene. NtcA also regulated pigment synthesis and phenotypic alterations in Anabaena 7120...
August 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730493/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-mrs-based-methods-for-examining-cancer-metabolism-in-response-to-oncogenic-kinase-drug-treatment
#13
Yuen-Li Chung
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an analytical technique that has been extensively used to examine reprogrammed metabolism and treatment response in cancer cells and solid tumors both in vivo and ex vivo. High-resolution MRS (HR-MRS) is one of the best methods for metabolic profiling, as it is highly quantitative, robust, and reproducible. The protocols for dual-phase extraction of cancer cells and tumors and sample preparations for high-resolution (1)H and (31)P HR-MRS analysis are described here. Descriptions of spectra acquisition and analysis are also included in this chapter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730492/analysis-of-signaling-networks-at-the-single-cell-level-using-mass-cytometry
#14
Shovik Bandyopadhyay, Daniel A C Fisher, Olga Malkova, Stephen T Oh
Mass cytometry is a powerful technology that enables the measurement of >40 parameters at the single-cell level. The inherent spectral limitations of fluorescent flow cytometry are circumvented by the use of antibodies conjugated to metal isotope reporters, which are measured quantitatively using a CyTOF mass cytometer. The high dimensionality of mass cytometry is particularly useful for the analysis of cell signaling networks in complex biological samples. We describe here methods for cell preparation, antibody staining, data acquisition, and analysis of multidimensional data from a mass cytometry experiment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730483/characterization-of-the-phospho-adhesome-by-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#15
Joseph Robertson, Jonathan D Humphries, Nikki R Paul, Stacey Warwood, David Knight, Adam Byron, Martin J Humphries
Integrin adhesion receptors engage with their extracellular matrix (ECM) ligands, initiating intracellular signaling pathways that regulate a range of fundamental cell functions. Protein kinases and phosphatases play an integral role in integrin adhesion-mediated signaling. However, until recently, knowledge of the phosphorylation sites regulated downstream of integrin ligation was limited to candidate-based approaches and did not support a system-level understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which ECM engagement influences cell behavior...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730338/jagged1-promotes-aromatase-inhibitor-resistance-by-modulating-tumor-associated-macrophage-differentiation-in-breast-cancer-patients
#16
Hang Liu, Jingxuan Wang, Minghui Zhang, Qijia Xuan, Zhipeng Wang, Xin Lian, Qingyuan Zhang
PURPOSE: Endocrine resistance limits the efficacy of anti-estrogen therapies. Notch signaling is involved in modulating tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) differentiation and is upregulated in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells. Here, we analyzed the role of Jagged1 in the regulation of TAM polarization to investigate whether the Jagged1-Notch pathway promotes the acquisition of aromatase inhibitor (AI) resistance by upregulating TAM infiltration. METHODS: The Jagged1 expression levels and M2 TAM infiltration density, in 203 tumor samples from ER-positive postmenopausal patients, who received AI treatment, were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and the results were compared with clincopathological parameters and survival...
July 20, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729857/nutrient-acquisition-and-the-metabolic-potential-of-photoferrotrophic-chlorobi
#17
Katharine J Thompson, Rachel L Simister, Aria S Hahn, Steven J Hallam, Sean A Crowe
Anoxygenic photosynthesis evolved prior to oxygenic photosynthesis and harnessed energy from sunlight to support biomass production on the early Earth. Models that consider the availability of electron donors predict that anoxygenic photosynthesis using Fe(II), known as photoferrotrophy, would have supported most global primary production before the proliferation of oxygenic phototrophs at approximately 2.3 billion years ago. These photoferrotrophs have also been implicated in the deposition of banded iron formations, the world's largest sedimentary iron ore deposits that formed mostly in late Archean and early Proterozoic Eons...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729854/microbiome-of-trichodesmium-colonies-from-the-north-pacific-subtropical-gyre
#18
Mary R Gradoville, Byron C Crump, Ricardo M Letelier, Matthew J Church, Angelicque E White
Filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium, often found in colonial form, provide an important source of new nitrogen to tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Colonies are composed of several clades of Trichodesmium in association with a diverse community of bacterial and eukaryotic epibionts. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing, carbon (C) and dinitrogen (N2) fixation assays, and metagenomics to describe the diversity and functional potential of the microbiome associated with Trichodesmium colonies collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729702/structure-of-general-population-antibody-titer-distributions-to-influenza-a-virus
#19
Nguyen Thi Duy Nhat, Stacy Todd, Erwin de Bruin, Tran Thi Nhu Thao, Nguyen Ha Thao Vy, Tran Minh Quan, Dao Nguyen Vinh, Janko van Beek, Pham Hong Anh, Ha Minh Lam, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Nguyen Thi Le Thanh, Huynh Le Anh Huy, Vo Thi Hong Ha, Stephen Baker, Guy E Thwaites, Nguyen Thi Nam Lien, Tran Thi Kim Hong, Jeremy Farrar, Cameron P Simmons, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Marion Koopmans, Maciej F Boni
Seroepidemiological studies aim to understand population-level exposure and immunity to infectious diseases. Their results are normally presented as binary outcomes describing the presence or absence of pathogen-specific antibody, despite the fact that many assays measure continuous quantities. A population's natural distribution of antibody titers to an endemic infectious disease may include information on multiple serological states - naiveté, recent infection, non-recent infection, childhood infection - depending on the disease in question and the acquisition and waning patterns of immunity...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729647/neural-determinants-of-human-goal-directed-vs-habitual-action-control-and-their-relation-to-trait-motivation
#20
Hamdi Eryilmaz, Anais Rodriguez-Thompson, Alexandra S Tanner, Madeline Giegold, Franklin C Huntington, Joshua L Roffman
Instrumental learning is mediated by goal-directed and habit systems in the brain. While rodent studies implicate distinct prefrontal/striatal regions in goal-directed and habit learning, neural systems underpinning these two processes in humans remain poorly understood. Here, using a validated discrimination learning task that distinguishes goal-directed learning from habit learning in 72 subjects in fMRI, we investigated the corticostriatal correlates of goal-directed learning and tested whether brain activation during learning is associated with trait motivation and behavioral performance in the post-learning test phase...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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