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Sung Kwan Kim, Donghyun Kim, Sun Joo Lee, Hye Jung Choo, Minkyung Oh, Yohan Son, MunYoung Paek
PURPOSE: The purpose was to evaluate the clinical value of PETRA sequence for the diagnosis of internal derangement of the knee. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The major structures of the knee in 34 patients were evaluated and compared among conventional MRI findings, PETRA images, and arthroscopic findings. RESULTS: The specificities of PETRA with 2D FSE sequence were higher for meniscal lesions than those obtained when using 2D FSE alone. CONCLUSION: Using PETRA images along with conventional 2D FSE images can increase the accuracy of assessing internal derangements of the knee and, specifically, meniscal lesions...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Amber C Bonds, Nicole S Sampson
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the epitome of persistent. Mtb is the pathogen that causes tuberculosis, the leading cause of death by infection worldwide. The success of this pathogen is due in part to its clever ability to adapt to its host environment and its effective manipulation of the host immune system. A major contributing factor to the survival and virulence of Mtb is its acquisition and metabolism of host derived lipids including cholesterol. Accumulating evidence suggests that the catabolism of cholesterol during infection is highly regulated by cholesterol catabolites...
June 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Man Shun Fu, Carolina Coelho, Carlos M De Leon-Rodriguez, Diego C P Rossi, Emma Camacho, Eric H Jung, Madhura Kulkarni, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and its interaction with macrophages is a key event determining the outcome of infection. Urease is a major virulence factor in C. neoformans but its role during macrophage interaction has not been characterized. Consequently, we analyzed the effect of urease on fungal-macrophage interaction using wild-type, urease-deficient and urease-complemented strains of C. neoformans. The frequency of non-lytic exocytosis events was reduced in the absence of urease...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Sadeq Al-Murshedi, Peter Hogg, Andrew England
OBJECTIVES: To determine if a relationship exists between low contrast detail (LCD) detectability using the CDRAD 2.0 phantom, visual measures of image quality (IQ) and simulated lesion visibility (LV) when performing digital chest radiography (CXR). METHODS: Using a range of acquisition parameters, a CDRAD 2.0 phantom was used to acquire a set of images with different levels of image quality. LCD detectability using the CDRAD 2.0 phantom, represented by an image quality figure inverse (IQFinv ) metric, was determined using the phantom analyser software...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Jihee Choe, Jeremy R Wortman, Aaron D Sodickson, Bharti Khurana, Jennifer W Uyeda
A wide range of acute conditions can affect the perineum, from self-limited disease to conditions that are potentially life threatening or contribute to substantial patient morbidity if not promptly diagnosed and appropriately treated. Imaging is essential in the clinical management of perineal disease because it allows accurate anatomic localization of the origin and extent of the disease to be determined. Familiarity with complex perineal anatomy, appropriate use of imaging modalities, and the spectrum of imaging findings seen in acute perineal conditions is crucial for radiologists to make a rapid and accurate diagnosis...
June 15, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Aileen Y Chang, Edith C Tonui, Douglas Momanyi, Alex R Mills, Paul Wasike, Rakhi Karwa, Toby A Maurer, Sonak D Pastakia
INTRODUCTION: Compression therapy is well-established standard of care for chronic leg ulcers from venous disease and lymphedema. Chronic leg ulcers and lymphedema have a significant impact on quality of life, driven by pain, foul odor, and restricted mobility. Provision of layered compression therapy in resource-limited settings, as in Western Kenya and other regions of sub-Saharan Africa, is a major challenge due to several barriers: availability, affordability, and access to healthcare facilities...
June 15, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
Xiao Chen, Jinling Lu, Pengcheng Li
Elastography is an attractive technique for quantifying the mechanical properties of biological tissue. Here, we report an elastography method with low-frame-rate laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) using the aliasing effect. This method needs only one excitation source, a low-frame-rate camera, and no synchronization between excitation and acquisition. The accuracy of the elasticity measurement was validated on tissue-mimicking phantoms by comparing the value with the elasticity measured by a high-frame-rate LSCI and by the rheometer...
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Nastaren Abad, Jens T Rosenberg, David C Hike, Michael G Harrington, Samuel C Grant
Under the hypothesis that increased extracellular sodium induces sustained neuronal excitability with the onset and progression of migraine, this study evaluates dynamic in vivo Na fluxes in the brain of a preclinical rodent analogue of migraine. Ultra-high field Na MRI at 21.1 T has demonstrated potential to quantify sodium concentrations with good spatial and temporal resolution following the onset of central sensitization. Sprague-Dawley male rats with implanted intraperitoneal (IP) lines were studied by MRI before and after an in situ injection of 10 mg/kg of nitroglycerin (NTG) versus vehicle and saline controls...
June 12, 2018: Pain
Jessica L Booth, Emily E Sharpe, Timothy T Houle, Lynnette Harris, Regina S Curry, Carol A Aschenbrenner, James C Eisenach
We know very little about the change in pain in the first 2 months after surgery. To address this gap, we studied 530 women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery who completed daily pain diaries for two months after surgery via text messaging. Over 82% of subjects missed fewer than 10 diary entries and were included in the analysis. Completers were more likely to be Caucasian, non-smokers, and with fewer previous pregnancies than non-completers. Daily worst pain intensity ratings for the previous 24 hours were fit to a log(time) function and allowed to change to a different function up to 3 times according to a Bayesian criterion...
June 13, 2018: Pain
Linden Lalley-Chareczko, Devon Clark, S Caitlin Conyngham, Athena Zuppa, Ganesh Moorthy, Karam Mounzer, Helen Koenig
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis(PrEP) for HIV prevention with daily TDF/FTC is effective when taken consistently. Currently, there is no objective way to monitor PrEP adherence. Urine has been shown to be highly correlated with plasma tenofovir levels, with urine tenofovir levels >1000ng/mL demonstrating recent(1-2 days) adherence to PrEP. SETTING: The present study was conducted at an urban community health center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. METHODS: PrEP was administered to 50 young men who have sex with men and transgender women of color using weekly, biweekly, and/or monthly dispensation schedules...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Zin Z Khaing, Lindsay N Cates, Dane M DeWees, Alexander Hannah, Pierre Mourad, Matthew Bruce, Christoph P Hofstetter
OBJECTIVE Traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) causes an almost complete loss of blood flow at the site of injury (primary injury) as well as significant hypoperfusion in the penumbra of the injury. Hypoperfusion in the penumbra progresses after injury to the spinal cord and is likely to be a major contributor to progressive cell death of spinal cord tissue that was initially viable (secondary injury). Neuroprotective treatment strategies seek to limit secondary injury. Clinical monitoring of the temporal and spatial patterns of blood flow within the contused spinal cord is currently not feasible...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Peter Abrahamian, Sujan Timilsina, Gerald V Minsavage, Sushmita Kc, Erica M Goss, Jeffrey B Jones, Gary E Vallad
Type III secretion system effectors contribute to pathogenicity through various mechanisms. Recent surveys showed an increasing prevalence of the type III secretion effector, avrBsT, among Xanthomonas perforans (Xp). We hypothesized that the acquisition of avrBsT has a fitness advantage for the pathogen. The contribution of avrBsT to fitness on tomato was evaluated based on disease severity, in planta growth, competition and recovery rates of wild-type (WT) and avrBsT mutant strains in greenhouse and field plants...
June 15, 2018: Phytopathology
Yasaman Rafat, Ryan A Stevenson
Recent studies have provided evidence for both a positive and a negative effect of orthography on second language speech learning. However, not much is known about whether orthography can trigger a McGurk-like effect (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976) in second language speech learning. This study examined whether exposure to auditory and orthographic input may lead to a McGurk-like effect in naïve English-speaking participants learning a second language with Spanish phonology and orthography. Specifically, it reports on (a) production of non-target-like combinations such as [lj] as in [poljo] for <pollo>-[pojo], where the auditory Spanish [j] and the first language English [l] that correspond to the shared digraph <ll> are integrated, and (b) fusion quantified in terms of [z] devoicing such as [z̥apito] for <zapito>-[zapito]...
June 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Na Yang, Yanping Ding, Yinlong Zhang, Bin Wang, Xiao Zhao, Keman Cheng, Yixin Huang, Mohammad Taleb, Jing Zhao, Wen-Fei Dong, Lirong Zhang, Guangjun Nie
Multiple cell plasma membranes have been utilized for surface functionalization of synthetic nanomaterials and construction of biomimetic drug delivery systems for cancer treatment. The natural characters and facile isolation of original cells facilitate the biomedical applications of plasma membranes in functionalizing nanocarriers. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been identified to show tropism towards malignant lesions and have great advantages in ease of acquisition, low immunogenicity, and high proliferative ability...
June 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jonathan D Allred, Jeremy Niedbala, Justin K Mikell, Dawn Owen, Kirk A Frey, Yuni K Dewaraja
BACKGROUND: A major toxicity concern in radioembolization therapy of hepatic malignancies is radiation-induced pneumonitis and sclerosis due to hepatopulmonary shunting of 90 Y microspheres. Currently, 99m Tc macroaggregated albumin (99m Tc-MAA) imaging is used to estimate the lung shunt fraction (LSF) prior to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy/precision of LSF estimated from 99m Tc planar and SPECT/CT phantom imaging, and within this context, to compare the corresponding LSF and lung-absorbed dose values from 99m Tc-MAA patient studies...
June 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Yang Zhang, Sicheng Tang, Ek Raj Thapaliya, Lorenzo Sansalone, Françisco M Raymo
The identification of operating principles to activate fluorescence under the influence of external stimulations is essential to enable the implementation of imaging strategies requiring the spatiotemporal control of emission. In this context, our laboratories designed mechanisms to switch fluorescence with either light or pH based on the unique photochemical and photophysical properties of either photoresponsive or halochromic oxazines respectively. These heterocycles can be connected covalently to fluorescent chromophores and opened with either light or pH to impose a significant bathochromic shift on the main absorption of the emissive appendage...
June 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Tony Ly, Aki Endo, Alejandro Brenes, Marek Gierlinski, Vackar Afzal, Andrea Pawellek, Angus I Lamond
Background : Viral oncogenes and mutated proto-oncogenes are potent drivers of cancer malignancy. Downstream of the oncogenic trigger are alterations in protein properties that give rise to cellular transformation and the acquisition of malignant cellular phenotypes. Developments in mass spectrometry enable large-scale, multidimensional characterisation of proteomes. Such techniques could provide an unprecedented, unbiased view of how oncogene activation remodels a human cell proteome. Methods : Using quantitative MS-based proteomics and cellular assays, we analysed how transformation induced by activating v-Src kinase remodels the proteome and cellular phenotypes of breast epithelial (MCF10A) cells...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Murooj Nadhom, Pavel Loskot
The Internet research is mainly driven by data. Obtaining such data by planning and launching measurement campaigns is rather time consuming and costly. Much more efficient, and in many cases, sufficient data acquisition strategy is to exploit the existing datasets available in public databases, repositories, and documents. Hence, the public data sources related to the Internet usage and other Internet statistics are systematically surveyed and categorized to make the search for the Internet data much easier and faster...
June 2018: Data in Brief
John Popovich, Michelle Stephens, Holly Celaya, Serena Suwarno, Shizuka Barclay, Emily Yee, David A Dean, Megan Farris, Shelley E Haydel
"Building and breaking the cell wall" is designed to review the bacterial cell envelope, previously learned in lower-division biology classes, while introducing new topics such as antibiotics and bacterial antibiotic resistance mechanisms. We developed a kinesthetic and tactile modeling activity where students act as cellular components and construct the cell wall. In the first two acts, students model a portion of the gram-positive bacterial cell envelope and then demonstrate in detail how the peptidoglycan is formed...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Hirokazu Saito, Kana Noda, Koji Ogasawara, Shutaro Atsuji, Hiroko Takaoka, Hiroo Kajihara, Jiro Nasu, Mitsuhiko Kitaoka, Shoji Morishita, Ikuo Matsushita, Kazuhiro Katahira
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography using iodinated contrast media is useful for diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases. However, contrast-induced nephropathy remains problematic for kidney diseases patients. Although current guidelines recommended the use of a minimal dose of contrast media necessary to obtain adequate images for diagnosis, obtaining adequate images with sufficient contrast enhancement is difficult with conventional computed tomography using reduced contrast media. Dual-layer spectral detector computed tomography enables the simultaneous acquisition of low- and high-energy data and the reconstruction of virtual monochromatic images ranging from 40 to 200 keV, retrospectively...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
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