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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646750/phonological-and-orthographic-coding-in-deaf-skilled-readers
#1
Noemi Fariña, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Manuel Carreiras
Written language is very important in daily life. However, most deaf people do not achieve good reading levels compared to their hearing peers. Previous research has mainly focused on their difficulties when reading in a language with an opaque orthography such as English. In the present study, we investigated visual word recognition of deaf adult skilled readers while reading in Spanish, a language with a transparent orthography, for which obligatory phonological mediation has been claimed. Experiment 1 showed a pseudohomophone inhibitory effect in hearing but not in deaf people...
June 21, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646270/release-from-pi-an-analysis-and-a-model
#2
D J K Mewhort, Kevin D Shabahang, D R J Franklin
Recall decreases across a series of subspan immediate-recall trials but rebounds if the semantic category of the words is changed, an example of release from proactive interference (RPI). The size of the rebound depends on the semantic categories used and ranges from 0% to 95%. We used a corpus of novels to create vectors representing the meaning of about 40,000 words using the BEAGLE algorithm. The distance between categories and spread within categories jointly predicted the size of the RPI. We used a holographic model for recall equipped with a lexicon of BEAGLE vectors representing the meaning of words...
June 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638329/the-contribution-of-cognitive-factors-to-individual-differences-in-understanding-noise-vocoded-speech-in-young-and-older-adults
#3
Stephanie Rosemann, Carsten Gießing, Jale Özyurt, Rebecca Carroll, Sebastian Puschmann, Christiane M Thiel
Noise-vocoded speech is commonly used to simulate the sensation after cochlear implantation as it consists of spectrally degraded speech. High individual variability exists in learning to understand both noise-vocoded speech and speech perceived through a cochlear implant (CI). This variability is partly ascribed to differing cognitive abilities like working memory, verbal skills or attention. Although clinically highly relevant, up to now, no consensus has been achieved about which cognitive factors exactly predict the intelligibility of speech in noise-vocoded situations in healthy subjects or in patients after cochlear implantation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628952/seeking-comfort-in-an-uncomfortable-chair
#4
Elena Molinari
The author explores the concept of comfort in relation to the setting. The concept of comfort, an unusual word in the psychoanalytic lexicon, describes the intuitive and complex experience of patient and analyst being together in the analytic office. The couch and the chair are not the only tools of the setting, but they are potential instruments with which to study the therapeutic process, both in high-frequency therapy and in lower-frequency treatments. To describe the transformations that an alternative experience of comfort can promote, the author looks at the intersection of this concept with the body-mind relationship and with the Bionian concept of binocular vision...
April 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618771/logistic-lasso-regression-for-the-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-using-clinical-demographic-data-and-the-bi-rads-lexicon-for-ultrasonography
#5
Sun Mi Kim, Yongdai Kim, Kuhwan Jeong, Heeyeong Jeong, Jiyoung Kim
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the performance of image analysis for predicting breast cancer using two distinct regression models and to evaluate the usefulness of incorporating clinical and demographic data (CDD) into the image analysis in order to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: This study included 139 solid masses from 139 patients who underwent a ultrasonography-guided core biopsy and had available CDD between June 2009 and April 2010...
April 14, 2017: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618754/evaluation-and-comparison-of-radiologic-pathologic-findings-in-invasive-cribriform-carcinoma-of-the-breast
#6
Pınar Balci, Işıl Başara Akin, Nevin Köremezli, Merih Güray Durak, Canan Altay, Naciye Sinem Gezer, Ali İbrahim Sevinç
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to report invasive cribriform carcinoma (ICC) with radiological and histopathologic correlations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy patients with ICC were classified into two groups; pure ICC patients and patients with >50% cribriform carcinoma component were included in group 1, while patients with <50% cribriform carcinoma component were included in group 2. All patients were reviewed according to American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon of mammography (MG), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 12, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613915/inter-country-analysis-of-breast-density-classification-using-visual-grading
#7
Christine N Damases, Peter Hogg, Mark F McEntee
OBJECTIVE: Disagreement in mammographic breast density (MBD) assessment can impact breast cancer risk stratification, choices of further breast cancer screening intervals and pathways. This study examines whether inter-country MBD expectations and assessment approaches are associated with differences in MBD assessment. METHODS: Twenty American Board of Radiology (ABR) examiners and 24 United Kingdom (UK) practitioners using the 4(th) edition BI-RADS(®) lexicon assessed 40 mammogram cases of 20 women...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608924/sensory-texture-analysis-of-thickened-liquids-during-ingestion
#8
Edgar Chambers, Alicia Jenkins, Jane Mertz Garcia
Practitioners support the use of thickened liquids for many patients with disordered swallowing. Although physical measures have highlighted differences among products there are questions about the ability of the measures to fully explain the sensory texture effects during swallowing of thickened liquids. This study used a trained sensory panel to describe the textural aspects of liquids during ingestion and swallowing. The lexicon was able to characterize differences in beverages, thickeners, and thickness levels with the most important attribute being viscosity, which loaded heavily in the almost one-dimensional space that resulted from the sensory analysis of these beverages...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606010/orthographic-input-and-the-acquisition-of-german-final-devoicing-by-native-speakers-of-english
#9
Rachel Hayes-Harb, Kelsey Brown, Bruce L Smith
We present an artificial lexicon study designed to test the hypothesis that native English speakers experience interference from written input when acquiring surface voicing in German words. Native English speakers were exposed to German-like words (e.g., /ʃtɑit/ and /ʃtɑid/, both pronounced [ʃtɑit]) along with pictured meanings, and in some cases, their written forms (e.g., <Steit> and <Steid>). At test, participants whose input included the written forms were more likely to produce final voiced obstruents when naming the pictures, indicating that access to the written forms in the input interfered with their acquisition of target-like surface forms...
June 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601710/evolution-of-word-meanings-through-metaphorical-mapping-systematicity-over-the-past-millennium
#10
Yang Xu, Barbara C Malt, Mahesh Srinivasan
One way that languages are able to communicate a potentially infinite set of ideas through a finite lexicon is by compressing emerging meanings into words, such that over time, individual words come to express multiple, related senses of meaning. We propose that overarching communicative and cognitive pressures have created systematic directionality in how new metaphorical senses have developed from existing word senses over the history of English. Given a large set of pairs of semantic domains, we used computational models to test which domains have been more commonly the starting points (source domains) and which the ending points (target domains) of metaphorical mappings over the past millennium...
June 8, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576620/sonographic-phenotypes-of-molecular-subtypes-of-invasive-ductal-cancer-in-automated-3-d-breast-ultrasound
#11
Jan C M van Zelst, Maschenka Balkenhol, Tao Tan, Matthieu Rutten, Mechli Imhof-Tas, Peter Bult, Nico Karssemeijer, Ritse M Mann
Our aim was to investigate whether Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System-Ultrasound (BI-RADS-US) lexicon descriptors can be used as imaging biomarkers to differentiate molecular subtypes (MS) of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in automated breast ultrasound (ABUS). We included 125 IDCs diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 and imaged with ABUS at two institutes retrospectively. IDCs were classified as luminal A or B, HER2 enriched or triple negative based on reports of histopathologic analysis of surgical specimens...
May 30, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575479/the-effect-of-word-frequency-on-phonemic-accuracy-in-children-with-cochlear-implants-and-peers-with-typical-levels-of-hearing
#12
Jolien Faes, Joris Gillis, Steven Gillis
The frequency of occurrence of words and sounds has a pervasive influence on typically developing children's language acquisition. For instance, highly frequent words appear earliest in a child's lexicon, and highly frequent phonemes are produced more accurately. This study evaluates (a) whether word frequency influences word accuracy and (b) whether this is also the case for children with a history of auditory deprivation. More specifically, the influence of word frequency on phonemic accuracy is examined in deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI), and compared to age-matched children with typical hearing, between word onset and age 7...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575411/operationalization-of-sign-language-phonological-similarity-and-its-effects-on-lexical-access
#13
Joshua T Williams, Adam Stone, Sharlene D Newman
Cognitive mechanisms for sign language lexical access are fairly unknown. This study investigated whether phonological similarity facilitates lexical retrieval in sign languages using measures from a new lexical database for American Sign Language. Additionally, it aimed to determine which similarity metric best fits the present data in order to inform theories of how phonological similarity is constructed within the lexicon and to aid in the operationalization of phonological similarity in sign language. Sign repetition latencies and accuracy were obtained when native signers were asked to reproduce a sign displayed on a computer screen...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572774/an-under-the-table-leg-movement-apparatus-and-changes-in-energy-expenditure
#14
Gabriel A Koepp, Graham Moore, James A Levine
Introduction: Deskwork contributes substantially to sedentariness. Here, we evaluated an under-the-table apparatus that was designed to promote leg movement (fidgeting) while seated. Our hypothesis was that the under-the-table apparatus would increase energy expenditure. Methods: We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 26 people while they sat and worked using a standard chair, walked on a treadmill, and sat and worked using an under-the-desk apparatus that encouraged leg movement. Results: Energy expenditure increased significantly while using the under-the-table apparatus when compared to the standard office chair (standard chair, 81 ± 18 kcal/h; under-the-table apparatus, 96 ± 23 kcal/h) (P < 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571889/the-interrelatedness-between-infants-communicative-gestures-and-lexicon-size-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Irene Cadime, Carla Silva, Sandra Santos, Iolanda Ribeiro, Fernanda Leopoldina Viana
Research has shown a close relationship between gestures and language development. In this study, we investigate the cross-lagged relationships between different types of gestures and two lexicon dimensions: number of words produced and comprehended. Information about gestures and lexical development was collected from 48 typically developing infants when these were aged 0;9, 1;0 and 1;3. The European Portuguese version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Gestures (PT CDI:WG) was used...
August 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569517/quantifying-the-structure-of-free-association-networks-across-the-life-span
#16
Haim Dubossarsky, Simon De Deyne, Thomas T Hills
We investigate how the mental lexicon changes over the life span using free association data from over 8,000 individuals, ranging from 10 to 84 years of age, with more than 400 cue words per age group. Using network analysis, with words as nodes and edges defined by the strength of shared associations, we find that associative networks evolve in a nonlinear (U-shaped) fashion over the life span. During early life, the network converges and becomes increasingly structured, with reductions in average path length, entropy, clustering coefficient, and small world index...
June 1, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556296/histological-grade-and-immunohistochemical-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer-correlation-to-ultrasound-features
#17
Frederick Wing-Fai Au, Sandeep Ghai, Fang-I Lu, Hadas Moshonov, Pavel Crystal
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to correlate various features of breast cancers on ultrasound to their histological grade and immunohistochemical biomarkers. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with 77 invasive breast cancers, diagnosed between August 2011 and December 2014, were included in this prospective analysis. Margin, posterior features, shape, and vascularity were determined from ultrasound and classified according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555104/tdcs-over-the-motor-cortex-shows-differential-effects-on-action-and-object-words-in-associative-word-learning-in-healthy-aging
#18
Meret Branscheidt, Julia Hoppe, Nils Freundlieb, Pienie Zwitserlood, Gianpiero Liuzzi
Healthy aging is accompanied by a continuous decline in cognitive functions. For example, the ability to learn languages decreases with age, while the neurobiological underpinnings for the decline in learning abilities are not known exactly. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in combination with appropriate experimental paradigms, is a well-established technique to investigate the mechanisms of learning. Based on previous results in young adults, we tested the suitability of an associative learning paradigm for the acquisition of action- and object-related words in a cohort of older participants...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552197/large-scale-identification-of-common-trait-and-disease-variants-affecting-gene-expression
#19
Mads Engel Hauberg, Wen Zhang, Claudia Giambartolomei, Oscar Franzén, David L Morris, Timothy J Vyse, Arno Ruusalepp, Pamela Sklar, Eric E Schadt, Johan L M Björkegren, Panos Roussos
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a multitude of genetic loci involved with traits and diseases. However, it is often unclear which genes are affected in such loci and whether the associated genetic variants lead to increased or decreased gene function. To mitigate this, we integrated associations of common genetic variants in 57 GWASs with 24 studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) from a broad range of tissues by using a Mendelian randomization approach. We discovered a total of 3,484 instances of gene-trait-associated changes in expression at a false-discovery rate < 0...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551345/time-for-action-striking-unexpected-and-incidental-from-our-lexicon
#20
Paul Armstrong Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
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