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Avital Deutsch, Hadas Velan, Tamar Michaly
Complex words in Hebrew are composed of two non-concatenated morphemes: a consonantal root embedded in a nominal or verbal word-pattern morpho-phonological unit made up of vowels or vowels and consonants. The root carries the core meaning of the word, whereas the word-pattern creates variations on this meaning, determines the word's grammatical characteristics, and carries segmental and suprasegmental information about the word's structure. Research on written-word recognition has revealed a robust effect of the roots and the verbal-patterns, but not of the nominal-patterns, on word recognition...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
James V Fiorica
This article is an overview of the modalities available for breast cancer screening. The modalities discussed include digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, breast ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical breast examination. There is a review of pertinent randomized controlled trials, studies and meta-analyses which contributed to the evolution of screening guidelines. Ultimately, 5 major medical organizations formulated the current screening guidelines in the United States. The lack of consensus in these guidelines represents an ongoing controversy about the optimal timing and method for breast cancer screening in women...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
John Kingston, Joshua Levy, Amanda Rysling, Adrian Staub
Listeners tend to categorize an ambiguous speech sound so that it forms a word with its context (Ganong, 1980). This effect could reflect feedback from the lexicon to phonemic activation (McClelland & Elman, 1986), or the operation of a task-specific phonemic decision system (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2000). Because the former account involves feedback between lexical and phonemic levels, it predicts that the lexicon's influence on phonemic decisions should be delayed and should gradually increase in strength...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
C R Macchi, Rodger Kessler, Andrea Auxier, Juvena R Hitt, Daniel Mullin, Constance van Eeghen, Benjamin Littenberg
Insufficient knowledge exists regarding how to measure the presence and degree of integrated care. Prior estimates of integration levels are neither grounded in theory nor psychometrically validated. They provide scant guidance to inform improvement activities, compare integration efforts, discriminate among practices by degree of integration, measure the effect of integration on quadruple aim outcomes, or address the needs of clinicians, regulators, and policymakers seeking new models of health care delivery and funding...
October 13, 2016: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Rodger S Kessler, Andrea Auxier, Juvena R Hitt, C R Macchi, Daniel Mullin, Constance van Eeghen, Benjamin Littenberg
Introduction: We developed the Practice Integration Profile (PIP) to measure the degree of behavioral health integration in clinical practices with a focus on primary care (PC). Its 30 items, completed by providers, managers, and staff, provide an overall score and 6 domain scores derived from the Lexicon of Collaborative Care. We describe its history and psychometric properties. Method: The PIP was tested in a convenience sample of practices. Linear regression compared scores across integration exemplars, PC with behavioral services, PC without behavioral services, and community mental health centers without PC...
October 13, 2016: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Chi-Shing Tse, Melvin J Yap, Yuen-Lai Chan, Wei Ping Sze, Cyrus Shaoul, Dan Lin
Using a megastudy approach, we developed a database of lexical variables and lexical decision reaction times and accuracy rates for more than 25,000 traditional Chinese two-character compound words. Each word was responded to by about 33 native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. This resource provides a valuable adjunct to influential mega-databases, such as the Chinese single-character, English, French, and Dutch Lexicon Projects. Three analyses were conducted to illustrate the potential uses of the database...
October 12, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Rachael Milwid, Andreea Steriu, Julien Arino, Jane Heffernan, Ayaz Hyder, Dena Schanzer, Emma Gardner, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Harpa Isfeld-Kiely, Joanne M Langley, Seyed M Moghadas
Disease modeling is increasingly being used to evaluate the effect of health intervention strategies, particularly for infectious diseases. However, the utility and application of such models are hampered by the inconsistent use of infectious disease modeling terms between and within disciplines. We sought to standardize the lexicon of infectious disease modeling terms and develop a glossary of terms commonly used in describing models' assumptions, parameters, variables, and outcomes. We combined a comprehensive literature review of relevant terms with an online forum discussion in a virtual community of practice, mod4PH (Modeling for Public Health)...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Mirjam Broersma, Diana Carter, Daniel J Acheson
This study investigates cross-language lexical competition in the bilingual mental lexicon. It provides evidence for the occurrence of inhibition as well as the commonly reported facilitation during the production of cognates (words with similar phonological form and meaning in two languages) in a mixed picture naming task by highly proficient Welsh-English bilinguals. Previous studies have typically found cognate facilitation. It has previously been proposed (with respect to non-cognates) that cross-language inhibition is limited to low-proficient bilinguals; therefore, we tested highly proficient, early bilinguals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Yvette Kezilas, Saskia Kohnen, Meredith McKague, Serje Robidoux, Anne Castles
Studies have shown that letter position processing changes as reading develops. Whether these changes are driven by the development of the orthographic lexicon is currently unclear. In this study, we administered a novel variant of the Reicher-Wheeler task to children aged 7-12 years (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) to clarify the role of the developing lexicon in letter position processing. The task required participants to report the identity of a letter at a specified position within 3 orthographic contexts: anagram words (e...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Rasika Ann Mathias, Margaret A Taub, Christopher R Gignoux, Wenqing Fu, Shaila Musharoff, Timothy D O'Connor, Candelaria Vergara, Dara G Torgerson, Maria Pino-Yanes, Suyash S Shringarpure, Lili Huang, Nicholas Rafaels, Meher Preethi Boorgula, Henry Richard Johnston, Victor E Ortega, Albert M Levin, Wei Song, Raul Torres, Badri Padhukasahasram, Celeste Eng, Delmy-Aracely Mejia-Mejia, Trevor Ferguson, Zhaohui S Qin, Alan F Scott, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, James G Wilson, Javier Marrugo, Leslie A Lange, Rajesh Kumar, Pedro C Avila, L Keoki Williams, Harold Watson, Lorraine B Ware, Christopher Olopade, Olufunmilayo Olopade, Ricardo Oliveira, Carole Ober, Dan L Nicolae, Deborah Meyers, Alvaro Mayorga, Jennifer Knight-Madden, Tina Hartert, Nadia N Hansel, Marilyn G Foreman, Jean G Ford, Mezbah U Faruque, Georgia M Dunston, Luis Caraballo, Esteban G Burchard, Eugene Bleecker, Maria Ilma Araujo, Edwin Francisco Herrera-Paz, Kimberly Gietzen, Wendy E Grus, Michael Bamshad, Carlos D Bustamante, Eimear E Kenny, Ryan D Hernandez, Terri H Beaty, Ingo Ruczinski, Joshua Akey, Kathleen C Barnes
The African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere represents one of the largest forced migrations in history and had a profound impact on genetic diversity in modern populations. To date, the fine-scale population structure of descendants of the African Diaspora remains largely uncharacterized. Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Kyu Ran Cho, Bo Kyoung Seo, Ok Hee Woo, Sung Eun Song, Jungsoon Choi, Shin Young Whang, Eun Kyung Park, Ah Young Park, Hyeseon Shin, Hwan Hoon Chung
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the detection of breast cancer using full-field digital mammography (FFDM), FFDM with computer-aided detection (FFDM+CAD), ultrasound (US), and FFDM+CAD plus US (FFDM+CAD+US), and to investigate the factors affecting cancer detection. METHODS: In this retrospective study conducted from 2008 to 2012, 48,251 women underwent FFDM and US for cancer screening. One hundred seventy-one breast cancers were detected: 115 invasive cancers and 56 carcinomas in situ...
September 2016: Journal of Breast Cancer
Chae Jung Park, Eun-Kyung Kim, Hee Jung Moon, Jung Hyun Yoon, Min Jung Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the reliability of breast ultrasound (US) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment in mammographically negative patients with pathologic nipple discharge, and to determine the clinical and ultrasonographic variables associated with malignancy in this group of patients. METHODS: A total of 65 patients with 67 mammographically negative breast lesions that were pathologically confirmed through US-guided biopsy were included...
September 2016: Journal of Breast Cancer
Susan Smith, James Fisher, Iain Goff
BACKGROUND: During their training, medical students are expected to acquire the ability to use thousands of new terms that make up the medical lexicon. Clear communication requires knowledge of this lexicon. We developed a simple word game, MediLex, to facilitate the development of these skills. This paper describes the intervention and evaluates students' experiences. METHODS: MediLex is a card-based description game played in small groups. One hundred cards contain 500 medical terms grouped into five categories...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Teacher
Anna Dora Manca, Mirko Grimaldi
Speech sound perception is one of the most fascinating tasks performed by the human brain. It involves a mapping from continuous acoustic waveforms onto the discrete phonological units computed to store words in the mental lexicon. In this article, we review the magnetoencephalographic studies that have explored the timing and morphology of the N1m component to investigate how vowels and consonants are computed and represented within the auditory cortex. The neurons that are involved in the N1m act to construct a sensory memory of the stimulus due to spatially and temporally distributed activation patterns within the auditory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Natasha Warner, Anne Cutler
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Evidence from spoken word recognition suggests that for English listeners, distinguishing full versus reduced vowels is important, but discerning stress differences involving the same full vowel (as in mu- from music or museum) is not. In Dutch, in contrast, the latter distinction is important. This difference arises from the relative frequency of unstressed full vowels in the two vocabularies. The goal of this paper is to determine how this difference in the lexicon influences the perception of stressed versus unstressed vowels...
October 7, 2016: Phonetica
Svetlana V Cook, Nick B Pandža, Alia K Lancaster, Kira Gor
The present paper explores nonnative (L2) phonological encoding of lexical entries and dissociates the difficulties associated with L2 phonological and phonolexical encoding by focusing on similarly sounding L2 words that are not differentiated by difficult phonological contrasts. We test two main claims of the fuzzy lexicon hypothesis: (1) L2 fuzzy phonolexical representations are not fully specified and lack details at both phonological and phonolexical levels of representation (Experiment 1); and (2) fuzzy phonolexical representations can lead to establishing incorrect form-to-meaning mappings (Experiment 2)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Katalin Tamási, Cristina McKean, Adamantios Gafos, Tom Fritzsche, Barbara Höhle
This study introduces a method ideally suited for investigating toddlers' ability to detect mispronunciations in lexical representations: pupillometry. Previous research has established that the magnitude of pupil dilation reflects differing levels of cognitive effort. Building on those findings, we use pupil dilation to study the level of detail encoded in lexical representations with 30-month-old children whose lexicons allow for a featurally balanced stimulus set. In each trial, we present a picture followed by a corresponding auditory label...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Nandita Kachru, Sneha Sura, Satabdi Chatterjee, Rajender R Aparasu
BACKGROUND: Antimuscarinic medications are the first-line pharmacological treatment for overactive bladder (OAB); however, little is known about the utilization pattern of antimuscarinic agents in elderly patients with OAB. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence and predictors of antimuscarinic medication prescribing in elderly patients with OAB, using national ambulatory survey data. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized the 2009-2010 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the outpatient component of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey...
September 28, 2016: Drugs & Aging
Marion Castera, Véronique Kuhn, Franck Medina
OBJECTIVE: Anomia is the second most common disorder after episodic memory loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Our objective was to develop a speech therapy protocol for patients with Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination or MMSE≥15) and suffering from a lack of words, in order to improve access to words. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We stimulated the three stages in the men: - stimulation of lexical selection involved working on the multiple meanings of a word, searching for the relevant and specific features of a word in order to make a guess, and bringing to mind a target word from specific features; - stimulation of morphological encoding involved extracting the meaning of a morpheme by comparing two words, one of which is derived from the other, and then identifying the meaning of an affix by slipping it into a sentence; - phonological encoding was stimulated by the isolation of the initial two-syllable words and merging them to form a third word...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Alfonso Martinez Arias
Single-cell approaches are providing a new lexicon of developmental cell biology by revealing heterogeneities in seemingly uniform cellular populations. By bridging scales, single-cell approaches should, in principle, galvanize our understanding of how individual cells adopt distinct fates as they build complex tissues.
September 26, 2016: Developmental Cell
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