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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154481/bayesian-word-learning-in-multiple-language-environments
#1
Benjamin D Zinszer, Sebi V Rolotti, Fan Li, Ping Li
Infant language learners are faced with the difficult inductive problem of determining how new words map to novel or known objects in their environment. Bayesian inference models have been successful at using the sparse information available in natural child-directed speech to build candidate lexicons and infer speakers' referential intentions. We begin by asking how a Bayesian model optimized for monolingual input (the Intentional Model; Frank et al., 2009) generalizes to new monolingual or bilingual corpora and find that, especially in the case of the bilingual input, the model shows a significant decrease in performance...
November 20, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154312/significant-mri-indicators-of-malignancy-for-breast-non-mass-enhancement
#2
Quan-Xin Yang, Xing Ji, Lin-Lin Feng, Long Zheng, Xiao-Qian Zhou, Qian Wu, Xin Chen
OBJECTIVE: To explore and evaluate new malignant predictors of breast non-mass enhancement lesions using the new BI-RADS MRI lexicon. METHODS: A dataset involving 422 consecutive women underwent breast 3.0 T MRI between January 2014 and July 2016 was assembled for this study. Each case was retrospectively reviewed by 3 radiologists. Eighty-four lesions that present non-mass enhancement in 79 patients were identified in the study. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses to identify significant indicators of malignancy...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151131/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-of-the-liver-technical-and-lexicon-recommendations-from-the-acr-ceus-li-rads-working-group
#3
Andrej Lyshchik, Yuko Kono, Christoph F Dietrich, Hyun-Jung Jang, Tae Kyoung Kim, Fabio Piscaglia, Alexander Vezeridis, Juergen K Willmann, Stephanie R Wilson
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a specific form of ultrasound imaging performed with intravenous administration of microbubble contrast agents. It has been extensively used for liver tumor characterization and was recently added to the American College of Radiology Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (CEUS LI-RADS). This paper describes technical recommendations for successful liver CEUS lesion characterization, and provides imaging protocol and Lexicon of imaging findings.
November 18, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135046/quimp-quality-of-life-impairment-an-addition-to-the-quality-of-life-lexicon
#4
P V Chernyshov, M D Linder, N Pustišek, L Manolache, J C Szepietowski, L Tomas-Aragones, S E Marron, F Poot, M Augustin, A Bewley, O D van Cranenburgh, G B Jemec, Salek, F Sampogna, A Svensson
There has been a constant growth in the number of publications each year concerning "quality of life (QoL)" and "dermatology," since the publication of the Dermatology Life Quality Index in 1994. Numerous dermatology and disease-specific QoL instruments have since been created. Quality of life is frequently assessed in clinical trials, educational activities and epidemiologic studies. QoL assessment is included in many national guidelines in dermatology. QoL assessment scores, together with disease severity measures, are used as guideline criteria for the use of biologics in dermatology and other clinical fields in many countries, and even for treatment reimbursement decisions...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131018/next-generation-sequencing-in-diagnostic-pathology
#5
Mohammad Ilyas
Interrogation of tissue informs on patient management through delivery of a diagnosis together with associated clinically relevant data. The diagnostic pathologist will usually evaluate the morphological appearances of a tissue sample and, occasionally, the pattern of expression of a limited number of biomarkers. Recent developments in sequencing technology mean that DNA and RNA from tissue samples can now be interrogated in great detail. These new technologies, collectively known as next-generation sequencing (NGS), generate huge amounts of data which can be used to support patient management...
October 31, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124719/morpholex-a-derivational-morphological-database-for-70-000-english-words
#6
Claudia H Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Hugo Mailhot, S Hélène Deacon, Maximiliano A Wilson
Most of the new words a reader will find are morphologically complex. Also, theoretical models of language processing propose that morphology plays an important role in visual word processing. Nevertheless, studies on the subject show contradicting results that are difficult to reconcile. One factor that may explain this is the lack of a sizeable and reliable morphological database. As a consequence, there are enormous methodological differences in the way the values for morphological variables are calculated across studies...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122763/prediction-of-idh1-mutation-and-1p-19q-codeletion-status-using-preoperative-mr-imaging-phenotypes-in-lower-grade-gliomas
#7
Y W Park, K Han, S S Ahn, S Bae, Y S Choi, J H Chang, S H Kim, S-G Kang, S-K Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: WHO grade II gliomas are divided into three classes: isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype, IDH-mutant and no 1p/19q codeletion, and IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted. Different molecular subtypes have been reported to have prognostic differences and different chemosensitivity. Our aim was to evaluate the predictive value of imaging phenotypes assessed with the Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images lexicon for molecular classification of lower grade gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging scans of 175 patients with lower grade gliomas with known IDH1 mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion status were included (78 grade II and 97 grade III) in the discovery set...
November 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116479/contrasting-grammatical-and-lexical-determiners
#8
Violaine Michel Lange, Maria Messerschmidt, Kasper Boye
This paper investigates the difference between the production of grammatical determiners and lexical determiners in the production of adjective-noun phrases (NPs) in Danish. Models of sentence processing (Garrett in Psychology of learning and motivation, Academic press, New York, pp 133-177, 1975; Bock in J Mem Lang 26(2):119-137, 1987) suggest that the phonological encoding stage of grammatical items can only be specified once lexical items have been phonologically encoded. In their usage-based linguistic theory of the grammar-lexicon distinction, Boye and Harder (Lang 88(1):1-44, 2012) propose that this later encoding of grammatical elements is motivated by two specific features of grammatical elements...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096575/token-frequency-effects-in-homophone-production-an-elicitation-study
#9
Erin Conwell
In natural production, adults differentiate homophones prosodically as a function of the frequency of their intended meaning. This study compares adult and child productions of homophones to determine whether prosodic differentiation of homophones changes over development. Using a picture-based story-completion paradigm, isolated tokens of homophones were elicited from English-learning children and adult native English speakers. These tokens were measured for duration, vowel duration, pitch, pitch range, and vowel quality...
November 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094759/taxonomy-and-structure-of-the-romanian-personality-lexicon
#10
Vlad Burtăverde, Boele De Raad
We identified 1746 personality-relevant trait-adjectives in a Romanian dictionary, of which 412 were classified as descriptors of dispositions by 10 judges. Self-ratings were collected from 515 participants on those 412 adjectives, and the ratings were factored using principal components analysis. Solutions with different numbers of factors were analysed. The two- and three-factor solutions, respectively, confirmed the Big Two and Big Three of personality traits. A five-factor solution reflected the Big Five model with a fifth factor emphasising Rebelliousness versus Conventionality...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092604/specificity-for-coarticulatory-vowel-nasality-in-lexical-representations
#11
Georgia Zellou
Surface-level phonetic details are used during word recognition. Yet, questions remain about how these details are encoded in lexical representations and the role of memory and attention during this process. The current study utilizes lexical repetition priming to examine the effect of a delay between hearing a word repeated with either the same or different coarticulatory patterns on lexical recognition. Listeners were faster to recognize repeated words with the same patterns of coarticulatory nasality, confirming that subphonemic information is encoded in the lexicon...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091940/planning-and-production-of-grammatical-and-lexical-verbs-in-multi-word-messages
#12
Violaine Michel Lange, Maria Messerschmidt, Peter Harder, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Kasper Boye
Grammatical words represent the part of grammar that can be most directly contrasted with the lexicon. Aphasiological studies, linguistic theories and psycholinguistic studies suggest that their processing is operated at different stages in speech production. Models of sentence production propose that at the formulation stage, lexical words are processed at the functional level while grammatical words are processed at a later positional level. In this study we consider proposals made by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models to derive two predictions for the processing of grammatical words compared to lexical words...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091009/evidence-based-reporting-a-method-to-optimize-prostate-mri-communications-with-referring-physicians
#13
Michael J Magnetta, Ashley L Donovan, Bruce L Jacobs, Benjamin J Davies, Alessandro Furlan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based method to optimize prostate MRI reports that would improve communication between urologists and radiologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This quality improvement initiative was approved by the institutional Quality Improvement Review Committee. A structured report was developed containing essential components defined by local practice norms and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) lexicon version 2...
November 1, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075167/uarizona-at-the-clef-erisk-2017-pilot-task-linear-and-recurrent-models-for-early-depression-detection
#14
Farig Sadeque, Dongfang Xu, Steven Bethard
The 2017 CLEF eRisk pilot task focuses on automatically detecting depression as early as possible from a users' posts to Reddit. In this paper we present the techniques employed for the University of Arizona team's participation in this early risk detection shared task. We leveraged external information beyond the small training set, including a preexisting depression lexicon and concepts from the Unified Medical Language System as features. For prediction, we used both sequential (recurrent neural network) and non-sequential (support vector machine) models...
September 2017: CEUR Workshop Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070983/application-of-bi-rads-descriptors-in-contrast-enhanced-dual-energy-mammography-comparison-with-mri
#15
Thomas Knogler, Peter Homolka, Mathias Hoernig, Robert Leithner, Georg Langs, Martin Waitzbauer, Katja Pinker, Sabine Leitner, Thomas H Helbich
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) BI-RADS descriptors are used in the evaluation of contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDEM) images of mass lesions and are assumed to be applicable. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with suspicious mass lesions on mammography (BI-RADS 4 or 5) were included. CEDEM examinations were performed using a modified prototype unit. CE-MRI was performed using a high temporal and high spatial resolution imaging protocol...
September 2017: Breast Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066139/role-of-bi-rads-ultrasound-subcategories-4a-to-4c-in-predicting-breast-cancer
#16
Miguel Angelo Spinelli Varella, Jackson Teixeira da Cruz, Andrea Rauber, Ivana Santos Varella, James Freitas Fleck, Luis Fernando Moreira
BACKGROUND: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) ultrasound (US) categorization revised in 2013 by the American College of Radiology resulted in unquestionable standardization of reports and confirmed category 3 and 5 as benign and malignant lesions, respectively. In contrast, suspected images (category 4) have subcategorization criteria, although theses have been detailed difficult to apply. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the US 4A to 4C BI-RADS subcategories in predicting malignancy...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059475/incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-severe-adverse-events-in-elderly-patients-taking-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-or-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-after-an-acute-myocardial-infarction
#17
Gang Fang, Izabela E Annis, Joel F Farley, Nirosha Mahendraratnam, Ryan P Hickson, Til Stürmer, Jennifer G Robinson
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of and risk factors associated with severe adverse events in elderly patients who used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. DATA SOURCES: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse (Medicare service claims database), American Community Survey of the U...
October 23, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059066/transition-to-cancer-survivorship-a-concept-analysis
#18
Sylvia K Wood
Transition to cancer survivorship is frequent lexicon denoting the posttreatment phase of cancer treatment. The concept of being in transition to survivorship is not well defined. To critically analyze this concept, data sources (n = 63) (from 1985 to 2016) from nursing, sociology, medicine, and psychology were evaluated employing Rodgers evolutionary method. Transition to cancer survivorship is a turning point with a variable time period one passes through after treatment. It is an individualized experience with degrees of liminality, changes, and challenging consequences...
October 20, 2017: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055272/engaging-psychiatrists-in-the-diagnosis-of-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-what-can-they-contribute
#19
Massimiliano Beghi, Giuseppe Erba, Cesare Maria Cornaggia, Giorgia Giussani, Elisa Bianchi, Gianni Porro, Michela Russo, Ettore Beghi
PURPOSE: To investigate if psychiatrists could predict the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) by reviewing videos of seizures of various types and to compare the accuracy and the criteria leading to the diagnosis used by psychiatrists with those used by epileptologists. METHODS: Four board-certified psychiatrists were asked to review 23 videos capturing representative events of 21 unselected consecutive patients admitted to an epilepsy center for long-term video-EEG monitoring...
October 16, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052167/the-evaluative-lexicon-2-0-the-measurement-of-emotionality-extremity-and-valence-in-language
#20
Matthew D Rocklage, Derek D Rucker, Loran F Nordgren
The rapid expansion of the Internet and the availability of vast repositories of natural text provide researchers with the immense opportunity to study human reactions, opinions, and behavior on a massive scale. To help researchers take advantage of this new frontier, the present work introduces and validates the Evaluative Lexicon 2.0 (EL 2.0)-a quantitative linguistic tool that specializes in the measurement of the emotionality of individuals' evaluations in text. Specifically, the EL 2.0 utilizes natural language to measure the emotionality, extremity, and valence of evaluative reactions and attitudes...
October 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
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