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Louis M Katz, John J Donnelly, Christopher J Gresens, Jerry A Holmberg, James MacPherson, Peter J K Zacharias, Jean Stanley, Christine Bales
On March 24, 2017, more than 90 experts in blood safety and international development from blood centers, industry, government, and international and nongovernmental organizations gathered in Arlington, Virginia, for the Third International Blood Safety Forum, cosponsored by America's Blood Centers and Global Healing. This report summarizes presentations and major conclusions. The meeting explored ways to increase access to affordable, safe blood for low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) in an era when funding from the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund has been redirected from preventing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to diagnosing and treating the 25 million-plus people living with HIV in LMICs...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Attila Kőrösi, Attila Csoma, Gábor Rétvári, Zalán Heszberger, József Bíró, János Tapolcai, István Pelle, Dávid Klajbár, Márton Novák, Valentina Halasi, András Gulyás
Humans are involved in various real-life networked systems. The most obvious examples are social and collaboration networks but the language and the related mental lexicon they use, or the physical map of their territory can also be interpreted as networks. How do they find paths between endpoints in these networks? How do they obtain information about a foreign networked world they find themselves in, how they build mental model for it and how well they succeed in using it? Large, open datasets allowing the exploration of such questions are hard to find...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Data
Mohammed Alsuhaibani, Danushka Bollegala, Takanori Maehara, Ken-Ichi Kawarabayashi
Methods for representing the meaning of words in vector spaces purely using the information distributed in text corpora have proved to be very valuable in various text mining and natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, these methods still disregard the valuable semantic relational structure between words in co-occurring contexts. These beneficial semantic relational structures are contained in manually-created knowledge bases (KBs) such as ontologies and semantic lexicons, where the meanings of words are represented by defining the various relationships that exist among those words...
2018: PloS One
Hiram Shaish, Whitney Feltus, Jonathan Steinman, Elizabeth Hecht, Sven Wenske, Firas Ahmed
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a structured reporting template on adherence to the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 lexicon and on the diagnostic performance of prostate MRI to detect clinically significant prostate cancer (CS-PCa). METHODS: An imaging database was searched for consecutive patients who underwent prostate MRI followed by MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy from October 2015 through October 2017. The initial MRI reporting template used included only subheadings...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Andrew S Griffin, Jason Mitsky, Upma Rawal, Abraham J Bronner, Franklin N Tessler, Jenny K Hoang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the description and management recommendations for thyroid nodules before and after implementing a structured reporting template based on the ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS). METHODS: Thyroid ultrasound reports for seven private practice radiologists were analyzed in three phases. In phase 1, radiologists dictated in a free-text format. In phase 2, they used a structured reporting template based on the ACR TI-RADS lexicon, but without the ACR TI-RADS recommendations for nodule management...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Natalie Russo, Carl Erick Hagmann, Rosemary Andrews, Conner Black, Magenta Silberman, Nicole Shea
Stimulus sets are valuable tools that can facilitate the work of researchers designing experiments. Images of faces, and line drawings of objects have been developed and validated, however, pictures of animals, that do not contain backgrounds, have not been made available. Here we present image agreement and quality ratings for a set of 640 color images of animals on a transparent background, across 60 different basic categories (e.g. cat, dog, frog, bird), some with few, and others with many exemplars. These images were normed on 302 participants...
2018: PloS One
Anick Verpalen, Fons Van de Vijver, Ad Backus
We set out to address the adequacy of dyslexia screening in Dutch and non-western immigrant children, using the Dutch Dyslexia Screening Test (DST-NL) and outcomes of the Dutch dyslexia protocol, both of which are susceptible to cultural bias. Using the protocol as standard, we conducted an ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) analysis in Dutch and immigrant third, fifth, and seventh graders, combining a cross-sectional and longitudinal design. Sensitivity and specificity increased with grade, but were non-significant for various subtests in the lowest grade, suggesting considerable non-convergence between the two measures...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Christian Ramiro, Mahesh Srinivasan, Barbara C Malt, Yang Xu
Human language relies on a finite lexicon to express a potentially infinite set of ideas. A key result of this tension is that words acquire novel senses over time. However, the cognitive processes that underlie the historical emergence of new word senses are poorly understood. Here, we present a computational framework that formalizes competing views of how new senses of a word might emerge by attaching to existing senses of the word. We test the ability of the models to predict the temporal order in which the senses of individual words have emerged, using an historical lexicon of English spanning the past millennium...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kaidi Lõo, Juhani Järvikivi, R Harald Baayen
Estonian is a morphologically rich Finno-Ugric language with nominal paradigms that have at least 28 different inflected forms but sometimes more than 40. For languages with rich inflection, it has been argued that whole-word frequency, as a diagnostic of whole-word representations, should not be predictive for lexical processing. We report a lexical decision experiment, showing that response latencies decrease both with frequency of the inflected form and its inflectional paradigm size. Inflectional paradigm size was also predictive of semantic categorization, indicating it is a semantic effect, similar to the morphological family size effect...
February 15, 2018: Cognition
Elisa Donnard, Pranitha Vangala, Shaked Afik, Sean McCauley, Anetta Nowosielska, Alper Kucukural, Barbara Tabak, Xiaopeng Zhu, William Diehl, Patrick McDonel, Nir Yosef, Jeremy Luban, Manuel Garber
Most well-characterized enhancers are deeply conserved. In contrast, genome-wide comparative studies of steady-state systems showed that only a small fraction of active enhancers are conserved. To better understand conservation of enhancer activity, we used a comparative genomics approach that integrates temporal expression and epigenetic profiles in an innate immune system. We found that gene expression programs diverge among mildly induced genes, while being highly conserved for strongly induced genes. The fraction of conserved enhancers varies greatly across gene expression programs, with induced genes and early-response genes, in particular, being regulated by a higher fraction of conserved enhancers...
January 30, 2018: Cell Systems
K Nishinari, Y Fang
There is still a gap between instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation because of the complexity of food texture in spite of many efforts. In sensory evaluation, the terms describing the texture should be well understood by panelists, which poses a problem of establishing lexicons and training panelists. In the instrumental measurement, more efforts are required to understand the large deformation and fracture behaviour of foods. The texture profile analysis (TPA) proposed by Alina Szczesniak, Malcolm Bourne and Sherman has been applied to many foods, and was useful to develop the understanding of textures...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Texture Studies
John Bryden, Shaun P Wright, Vincent A A Jansen
Language transmission, the passing on of language features such as words between people, is the process of inheritance that underlies linguistic evolution. To understand how language transmission works, we need a mechanistic understanding based on empirical evidence of lasting change of language usage. Here, we analysed 200 million online conversations to investigate transmission between individuals. We find that the frequency of word usage is inherited over conversations, rather than only the binary presence or absence of a word in a person's lexicon...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
John L A Huisman, Asifa Majid
People from Western societies generally find it difficult to name odors. In trying to explain this, the olfactory literature has proposed several theories that focus heavily on properties of the odor itself but rarely discuss properties of the label used to describe it. However, recent studies show speakers of languages with dedicated smell lexicons can name odors with relative ease. Has the role of the lexicon been overlooked in the olfactory literature? Word production studies show properties of the label, such as word frequency and semantic context, influence naming; but this field of research focuses heavily on the visual domain...
February 12, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Qinghua Huang, Xianhai Huang, Longzhong Liu, Yidi Lin, Xingzhang Long, Xuelong Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is still considered as the most common form of cancer as well as the leading causes of cancer deaths among women all over the world. We aim to provide a web-based breast ultrasound database for online training inexperienced radiologists and giving computer-assisted diagnostic information for detection and classification of the breast tumor. METHODS: We introduce a web database which stores breast ultrasound images from breast cancer patients as well as their diagnostic information...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Soo Hyun Yeo, Ga Ram Kim, Su Hyun Lee, Woo Kyung Moon
OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of ultrasound elastography and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) in distinguishing small, oval, or round triple-negative breast cancer from fibroadenoma and the influence on the further management decision at US. METHODS: In total, 131 biopsy-proven oval or round fibroadenomas (n = 68) and triple-negative breast cancers (n = 63) smaller than 2 cm were included. Three blinded readers assessed the images from US, elastography, and color Doppler imaging according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon independently...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Jyothsna Giri, Timothy B Curry, Christine M Formea, Wayne T Nicholson, Carolyn R Rohrer Vitek
A number of barriers exist for adoption of pharmacogenomics into practice. Physicians, pharmacists, and nurses report limited knowledge about pharmacogenomics and its use in patient care. Lack of pharmacogenomics education curricula as part of professional schools or postgraduate training programs has been reported as a potential cause. Understanding pharmacogenomics is further complicated by a complex and nonstandard lexicon, limited medication guidelines, rapidly changing evidence, and insufficient awareness of test availability and utility...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Megan Kalambo, Beatriz E Adrada, Modupe M Adeyefa, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Ken Hess, Selin Carkaci, Gary J Whitman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sonographic and histopathologic features distinguishing benign from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ultrasound examinations of women with pathologically proven phyllodes tumors from 2004 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The sonographic features of benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors were compared and analyzed using the American College of Radiology's BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon...
February 7, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Amaya Mendikoetxea, Cristóbal Lozano
This paper shows the need to triangulate different approaches in Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research to fully understand late bilinguals' interlanguage grammars. Methodologically, we show how experimental and corpus data can be (and should be) triangulated by reporting on a corpus study (Lozano and Mendikoetxea in Biling Lang Cognit 13(4):475-497, 2010) and a new follow-up offline experiment investigating Subject-Verb inversion (Subject-Verb/Verb-Subject order) in L1 Spanish-L2 English (n = 417)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Avery N Gilbert, Joseph A DiVerdi
The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado...
2018: PloS One
Massimo Stella, Nicole M Beckage, Markus Brede, Manlio De Domenico
Word similarities affect language acquisition and use in a multi-relational way barely accounted for in the literature. We propose a multiplex network representation of this mental lexicon of word similarities as a natural framework for investigating large-scale cognitive patterns. Our representation accounts for semantic, taxonomic, and phonological interactions and it identifies a cluster of words which are used with greater frequency, are identified, memorised, and learned more easily, and have more meanings than expected at random...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
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