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Isabelle Dautriche, Laia Fibla, Anne-Caroline Fievet, Anne Christophe
Even though ambiguous words are common in languages, children find it hard to learn homophones, where a single label applies to several distinct meanings (e.g., Mazzocco, 1997). The present work addresses this apparent discrepancy between learning abilities and typological pattern, with respect to homophony in the lexicon. In a series of five experiments, 20-month-old French children easily learnt a pair of homophones if the two meanings associated with the phonological form belonged to different syntactic categories, or to different semantic categories...
May 16, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
Ray Jackendoff, Jenny Audring
Framed in psychological terms, the basic question of linguistic theory is what is stored in memory, and in what form. Traditionally, what is stored is divided into grammar and lexicon, where grammar contains the rules and the lexicon is an unstructured list of exceptions. We develop an alternative view in which rules of grammar are simply lexical items that contain variables, and in which rules have two functions. In their generative function, they are used to build novel structures, just as in traditional generative linguistics...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Seung Min Lee, Kyung Jin Nam, Ki Seok Choo, Jin You Kim, Dong Wook Jeong, Hyun Yul Kim, Jee Yeon Kim
Background Non-mass enhancements (NME) with invasive components account for 10-42% of total malignant NMEs. The factors associated with invasiveness on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be useful for clinical assessment and treatment. Purpose To evaluate the clinical significances of the distributions and internal enhancement patterns (IEP) of malignant NMEs on 3-T breast MRI. Material and Methods A total of 448 consecutive women with newly diagnosed breast cancer that had undergone preoperative MRI and surgery between February 2013 and March 2016 were identified...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Anat R Tambur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A renaissance for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing emerged with the understanding that donor-specific HLA antibodies play a significant role in long-term allograft survival. This renewed focus on donor/recipient histocompatibility led to a recent quest to decipher antibody responses or, as introduced into the transplantation lexicon, 'HLA-epitope matching'. RECENT FINDINGS: Whether matching is at the antigen or the epitope level, in-depth understanding of how histo-incompatibility leads to activation of an immune response is required...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Amanda M Gutierrez, Jill O Robinson, Emily E Statham, Sarah Scollon, Katie L Bergstrom, Melody J Slashinski, Donald W Parsons, Sharon E Plon, Amy L McGuire, Richard L Street
AIM: Describe modifications to technical genomic terminology made by interpreters during disclosure of whole exome sequencing (WES) results. PATIENTS & METHODS: Using discourse analysis, we identified and categorized interpretations of genomic terminology in 42 disclosure sessions where Spanish-speaking parents received their child's WES results either from a clinician using a medical interpreter, or directly from a bilingual physician. RESULTS: Overall, 76% of genomic terms were interpreted accordantly, 11% were misinterpreted and 13% were omitted...
November 2017: Personalized Medicine
A López-López, A H Sánchez-Gómez, A Montaño, A Cortés-Delgado, A Garrido-Fernández
This work studies the influence of cultivar and farming area on the sensory profile of green Spanish-style table olives, using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The lexicon developed was subsequently applied to samples of Gordal (G), Manzanilla (M), and Hojiblanca (H) from different origins: Arahal (A), Utrera (U), Alameda (Al), Estepa (E), Casariche (C), Alcalá de Guadaira (AG), Posadas (P), and Almendralejo (Am). The analysis of the data by ANOVA, considering the effect of the sample as fixed and those of the panelists and the sessions as random, showed good repeatability (no significant effect of the session)...
June 2018: Food Research International
Sibel Kul, Yavuz Metin, Musa Kul, Nurgul Metin, Ilker Eyuboglu, Oguzhan Ozdemir
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a noncontrast-enhanced MRI technique. There are new promising studies on the use of DWI as a part of the enhanced or unenhanced abbreviated breast MRI protocols. PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of breast DWI in the assessment of mass morphology and determine the contribution of this morphologic evaluation in their characterization. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: In all, 213 consecutive women were breast MR imaged and had a later confirmed diagnosis...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Claire Goriot, Mirjam Broersma, James M McQueen, Sharon Unsworth, Roeland van Hout
This study investigated whether relative lexical proficiency in Dutch and English in child second language (L2) learners is related to executive functioning. Participants were Dutch primary school pupils of three different age groups (4-5, 8-9, and 11-12 years) who either were enrolled in an early-English schooling program or were age-matched controls not on that early-English program. Participants performed tasks that measured switching, inhibition, and working memory. Early-English program pupils had greater knowledge of English vocabulary and more balanced Dutch-English lexicons...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Majidah Bukhari, Thomas Kowalski, Jose Nieto, Rastislav Kunda, Nitin K Ahuja, Shayan Irani, Apeksha Shah, David Loren, Olaya Brewer, Omid Sanaei, Lea Fayad, Yen-I Chen, Saowanee Ngamruengphong, Vivek Kumbhari, Vikesh Singh, Hanaa Dakour Aridi, Mouen A Khashab
BACKGROUND & AIMS: ERCP is challenging in patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) anatomy. EUS-guided gastrogastrostomy (GG) creation is a promising novel technique to access the excluded stomach in order to facilitate conventional ERCP. We aimed to compare procedural outcomes and adverse events (AEs) between EUS-guided gastrogastrostomy-assisted ERCP (EUS-GG-ERCP) and enteroscopy assisted ERCP (e-ERCP) in patients with RYGB. METHODS: Patients with RYGB anatomy who underwent EUS-GG-ERCP or e-ERCP between 2014 and 2016 at 5 tertiary centers were included...
May 3, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Kenneth C Wang
Standard clinical terms, codes, and ontologies promote clarity and interoperability. Within radiology, there is a variety of relevant content resources, tools and technologies. These provide the basis for fundamental imaging workflows such as reporting and billing, and also facilitate a range of applications in quality improvement and research. This article reviews the key characteristics of lexicons, coding systems, and ontologies. A number of standards are described, including International Classification of Diseases-10-Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC), and RadLex...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Bene Bassetti, Annie Clarke, Danijela Trenkic
Calendar calculations - e.g., calculating the nth month after a certain month - are an important component of temporal cognition, and can vary cross-linguistically. English speakers rely on a verbal list representation-processing system. Chinese speakers - whose calendar terms are numerically transparent - rely on a more efficient numerical system. Does knowing a numerically transparent calendar lexicon facilitate calendar calculations in an opaque second language? Late Chinese-English bilinguals and English native speakers performed a Month and a Weekday Calculation Task in English...
April 30, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Simon Sundström, Ulrika Löfkvist, Björn Lyxell, Christina Samuelsson
Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) are at an increased risk of speech and language deficits. Nonword repetition (NWR) is a potential predictor of problems with phonology, grammar and lexicon in DHH children. The aim of the present study was to examine repetition of prosodic features and segments in nonwords by DHH children compared to children with normal hearing (NH) and to relate NWR performance to measures of language ability and background variables. In this cross-sectional study, 14 Swedish-speaking children with mild-profound sensorineural hearing loss, aged 4-6 years, and 29 age-matched controls with NH and typical language development participated...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Jenny K Hoang, William D Middleton, Alfredo E Farjat, Sharlene A Teefey, Nicole Abinanti, Fernando J Boschini, Abraham J Bronner, Nirvikar Dahiya, Barbara S Hertzberg, Justin R Newman, Daniel Scanga, Robert C Vogler, Franklin N Tessler
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess interobserver variability in assigning features in the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS) lexicon and in making recommendations for thyroid nodule biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort comprised 100 nodules in 92 patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration with definitive cytologic results (Bethesda category II or VI) or diagnostic lobectomy between April 2009 and May 2010...
April 27, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Su Min Ha, Joo Hee Cha, Hee Jung Shin, Eun Young Chae, Woo Jung Choi, Hak Hee Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to investigate the radiologic and clinicopathologic findings of mucocelelike lesions (MLLs) and the rate of pathologic upgrade with factors predicting it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed our institution's database from January 2006 to December 2012 and enrolled 89 women with 89 MLLs. The pathologic findings from the initial biopsies identified 71 lesions without and 18 lesions with associated high-risk lesions. Images were reviewed according to the BI-RADS lexicon...
April 27, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Zeshu Shao, Jeroen van Paridon, Fenna Poletiek, Antje S Meyer
There is mounting evidence that the ease of producing and understanding language depends not only on the frequencies of individual words but also on the frequencies of word combinations. However, in two picture description experiments, Janssen and Barber (2012) found that French and Spanish speakers' speech onset latencies for short phrases depended exclusively on the frequencies of the phrases but not on the frequencies of the individual words. They suggested that speakers retrieved phrase-sized units from the mental lexicon...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Jingjing Guo, Tiantian Zou, Danling Peng
Many researchers realize that it's unrealistic to isolate language learning and processing from emotions. However, few studies on language learning have taken emotions into consideration so far, so that the probable influences of emotions on language learning are unclear. The current study thereby aimed to examine the effects of emotional states on novel word learning and their dynamic changes with learning continuing and task varying. Positive, negative or neutral pictures were employed to induce a given emotional state, and then participants learned the novel words through association with line-drawing pictures in four successive learning phases...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Grégoire Python, Raphaël Fargier, Marina Laganaro
Background : Producing a word in referential naming requires to select the right word in our mental lexicon among co-activated semantically related words. The mechanisms underlying semantic context effects during speech planning are still controversial, particularly for semantic facilitation which investigation remains under-represented in contrast to the plethora of studies dealing with interference. Our aim is to study the time-course of semantic facilitation in picture naming, using a picture-word "interference" paradigm and event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Salud María Jiménez-Zafra, M Teresa Martín-Valdivia, M Dolores Molina-González, L Alfonso Ureña-López
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study is to examine how people express their opinion in medical forums. We analyze the language used in order to determine the best way to tackle sentiment analysis in this domain. METHODS: We have applied supervised learning and lexicon-based sentiment analysis approaches over two different corpora extracted from social web. Specifically, we have focused on two aspects: drugs and doctors. We have selected two forums and we have collected corpora for each one: (i) DOS, a Spanish corpus of drug reviews and (ii) COPOS, a Spanish corpus of patients' opinions about physicians...
April 20, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Ahmed Al-Saffar, Suryanti Awang, Hai Tao, Nazlia Omar, Wafaa Al-Saiagh, Mohammed Al-Bared
Sentiment analysis techniques are increasingly exploited to categorize the opinion text to one or more predefined sentiment classes for the creation and automated maintenance of review-aggregation websites. In this paper, a Malay sentiment analysis classification model is proposed to improve classification performances based on the semantic orientation and machine learning approaches. First, a total of 2,478 Malay sentiment-lexicon phrases and words are assigned with a synonym and stored with the help of more than one Malay native speaker, and the polarity is manually allotted with a score...
2018: PloS One
Mariko Nakayama, Stephen J Lupker
The present research examined whether a lexical competition process operates when different-script bilinguals process L2 words. In masked priming lexical decision experiments (67 ms prime duration), word neighbor primes facilitated target identification for Japanese-English bilinguals (Experiment 1) although the same primes produced inhibitory effects for L1 English readers (Experiment 2). Subsequent experiments confirmed that the facilitory priming effects are reliable (Experiment 4), and are not due to bilinguals' inability to process masked L2 primes to the lexical level (Experiments 3 and 4) or bilinguals relying on sublexical activation from neighbor primes in responding to upper-case English targets (Experiment 5)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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