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Scottish gaelic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120179/novelty-challenge-and-practice-the-impact-of-intensive-language-learning-on-attentional-functions
#1
Thomas H Bak, Madeleine R Long, Mariana Vega-Mendoza, Antonella Sorace
We investigated the impact of a short intensive language course on attentional functions. We examined 33 participants of a one-week Scottish Gaelic course and compared them to 34 controls: 16 active controls who participated in courses of comparable duration and intensity but not involving foreign language learning and 18 passive controls who followed their usual routines. Participants completed auditory tests of attentional inhibition and switching. There was no difference between the groups in any measures at the beginning of the course...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21041210/language-shift-bilingualism-and-the-future-of-britain-s-celtic-languages
#2
Anne Kandler, Roman Unger, James Steele
'Language shift' is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100-120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift...
December 12, 2010: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12837934/toward-a-phylogenetic-chronology-of-ancient-gaulish-celtic-and-indo-european
#3
Peter Forster, Alfred Toth
Indo-European is the largest and best-documented language family in the world, yet the reconstruction of the Indo-European tree, first proposed in 1863, has remained controversial. Complications may include ascertainment bias when choosing the linguistic data, and disregard for the wave model of 1872 when attempting to reconstruct the tree. Essentially analogous problems were solved in evolutionary genetics by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic network methods, respectively. We now adapt these tools to linguistics, and analyze Indo-European language data, focusing on Celtic and in particular on the ancient Celtic language of Gaul (modern France), by using bilingual Gaulish-Latin inscriptions...
July 22, 2003: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11179019/mtdna-and-the-islands-of-the-north-atlantic-estimating-the-proportions-of-norse-and-gaelic-ancestry
#4
A Helgason, E Hickey, S Goodacre, V Bosnes, K Stefánsson, R Ward, B Sykes
A total of 1,664 new mtDNA control-region sequences were analyzed in order to estimate Gaelic and Scandinavian matrilineal ancestry in the populations of Iceland, Orkney, the Western Isles, and the Isle of Skye and to investigate other aspects of their genetic history. A relative excess of private lineages in the Icelanders is indicative of isolation, whereas the scarcity of private lineages in Scottish island populations may be explained by recent gene flow and population decline. Differences in the frequencies of lineage clusters are observed between the Scandinavian and the Gaelic source mtDNA pools, and, on a continent-wide basis, such differences between populations seem to be associated with geography...
March 2001: American Journal of Human Genetics
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