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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440461/the-role-of-mir-451-in-the-switching-between-proliferation-and-migration-in-malignant-glioma-cells-ampk-signaling-mtor-modulation-and-rac1-activation-required
#1
Kai Zhao, Leilei Wang, Tao Li, Meng Zhu, Chen Zhang, Lei Chen, Pengfei Zhao, Hua Zhou, Shengping Yu, Xuejun Yang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), WHO grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common primary neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS) and has the highest malignancy and mortality rates. The invasive nature of GBM complicates surgical resection and restricts chemotherapeutic access, contributing to poor patient prognosis. The migration of tumor cells is closely related to the tumor cell proliferation. The acquisition of migratory capability, in addition to intracellular factors, is proposed to be a crucial mechanism during the progression of invasion...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440448/modified-panax-ginseng-extract-regulates-autophagy-by-ampk-signaling-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cells
#2
Hwa-Seung Yoo, Jung Min Kim, Eunbi Jo, Chong-Kwan Cho, Seung-Yeul Lee, Hwan Su Kang, Min-Goo Lee, Pei-Ying Yang, Ik-Soon Jang
Panax ginseng has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The antiproliferative activity of ginseng has been increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin, which may result in the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh2, Rg3, compound K and protopanaxatriol type (PPT) in modified regular ginseng extract (MRGX). In the present study, the anticancer activity and the associated mechanisms of MRGX were investigated using A549 human lung cancer cells...
April 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440057/overcoming-linsitinib-intrinsic-resistance-through-inhibition-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#3
Junzhou Wu, Kaiyan Chen, Fanrong Zhang, Jiaoyue Jin, Nan Zhang, Dan Li, Lisha Ying, Wei Chen, Herbert Yu, Weimin Mao, Dan Su
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor Linsitinib, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and to characterize special biomarker to screen Linsitinib-sensitive patients as well as explore the molecular-resistant mechanism to Linsitinib in ESCC. Our study evaluated the sensitivity of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor, Linsitinib in ESCC cells with MTT assay. After Linsitinib treatment, the expressions of downstream signaling molecules and apoptosis pathways were measured by western blot...
April 24, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439198/assessment-of-tumors-in-children-with-tuberous-sclerosis-a-single-centre-s-experience
#4
Suna Emir, Şadan Hacısalihoğlu, Derya Özyörük, Filiz Ekici, Aydan Değerliyurt, Alev Güven, İlker Çetin
AIM: As a result of mutations in TSC1 (9q34) and TSC2 (16p13.3) tumor supressor genes, the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTor) signaling pathway is overactivated in patients with tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal cell proliferation and differentiation is responsible for the growth several different tumors. The aim of this study was to review tumors in our patients with tuberous sclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with tuberous sclerosis were reviewed retrospectively in terms of age, sex, family history, clinical findings, presence of tumors, and treatments...
March 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437835/pten-downregulation-promotes-%C3%AE-oxidation-to-fuel-hypertrophic-liver-growth-after-hepatectomy-in-mice
#5
Ekaterina Kachaylo, Christoph Tschuor, Nicolas Calo, Nathalie Borgeaud, Perparim Limani, Anne-Christine Piguet, Jean-Francois Dufour, Michelangelo Foti, Rolf Graf, Pierre A Clavien, Bostjan Humar
In regenerating liver, hepatocytes accumulate lipids before the major wave of parenchymal growth. This transient, regeneration-associated steatosis (TRAS) is required for liver recovery, but its purpose is unclear. The tumor suppressor PTEN is a key inhibitor of the AKT-mTOR axis that regulates growth and metabolic adaptations after hepatectomy. In quiescent liver, PTEN causes pathological steatosis when lost, while its role in regenerating liver remains unknown. Here, we show that PTEN downregulation promotes liver growth in a TRAS-dependent way...
April 24, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437526/prominin-1-is-a-novel-regulator-of-autophagy-in-the-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#6
Sujoy Bhattacharya, Jinggang Yin, Christina S Winborn, Qiuhua Zhang, Junming Yue, Edward Chaum
Purpose: Prominin-1 (Prom1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in stem cell lineages, and has recently been implicated in cancer stem cell survival. Mutations in the Prom1 gene have been shown to disrupt photoreceptor disk morphogenesis and cause an autosomal dominant form of Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD4). Despite the apparent structural role of Prom1 in photoreceptors, its role in other cells of the retina is unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of Prom1 in the highly metabolically active cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436750/emap-ii-sensitize-u87mg-and-glioma-stem-like-cells-to-temozolomide-via-induction-of-autophagy-mediated-cell-death-and-g2-m-arrest
#7
Qi Yu, Libo Liu, Ping Wang, Yilong Yao, Yixue Xue, Yunhui Liu
Despite the fact that temozolomide (TMZ) has been widely accepted as the key chemotherapeutic agent to prolong the survival of patients with glioblastoma, failure and recurrence cases can still be observed in clinics. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are thought to be responsible for the drug resistance. In this study, we investigate whether endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, can enhance TMZ cytotoxicity on U87MG and GSCs or not. As described in prior research, GSCs have been isolated from U87MG and maintained in the serum-free DMEM/F12 medium containing EGF, b-FGF, and B27...
April 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435223/efficacy-of-the-dual-pi3k-and-mtor-inhibitor-nvp-bez235-in-combination-with-imatinib-mesylate-against-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-cell-lines
#8
Pengliang Xin, Chuntuan Li, Yan Zheng, Qunyi Peng, Huifang Xiao, Yuanling Huang, Xiongpeng Zhu
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway is a therapy target of cancer. We aimed to confirm the effect of dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 on proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells and sensitivity of tyrosine kinase inhibitor in vitro. METHODS: Two human CML cell lines, K562 and KBM7R (T315I mutant strain), were used. The proliferation of CML cells was detected by MTS (Owen's reagent) assay...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434735/effects-of-graded-removal-of-lysine-from-an-intravenously-infused-amino-acid-mixture-on-lactation-performance-and-mammary-amino-acid-metabolism-in-lactating-goats
#9
C L Guo, Y T Li, X Y Lin, M D Hanigan, Z G Yan, Z Y Hu, Q L Hou, F G Jiang, Z H Wang
To investigate responses of milk protein synthesis and mammary AA metabolism to a graded decrease of postruminal Lys supply, 4 lactating goats fitted with jugular vein, mammary vein, and carotid artery catheters and transonic blood flow detectors on the external pudic artery were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Goats were fasted for 24 h and then received a 9-h intravenous infusion of an AA mixture plus glucose. Milk yield was recorded and samples were taken in h 2 to 8 of the infusion period; a mammary biopsy was performed in the last hour...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434145/mtorc1-signaling-in-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#10
REVIEW
Jinbo Han, Yiguo Wang
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway regulates many metabolic and physiological processes in different organs or tissues. Dysregulation of mTOR signaling has been implicated in many human diseases including obesity, diabetes, cancer, fatty liver diseases, and neuronal disorders. Here we review recent progress in understanding how mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) signaling regulates lipid metabolism in the liver.
April 22, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434143/the-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-myocardial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Tomohiro Suhara, Yuichi Baba, Briana K Shimada, Jason K Higa, Takashi Matsui
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) is a risk factor for heart failure. The mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) is a key mediator of the insulin signaling pathway. We will discuss the role of mTOR in myocardial dysfunction in T2DM. RECENT FINDINGS: In T2DM, chronically activated mTOR induces multiple pathological events, including a negative feedback loop that suppresses IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1. While short-term treatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, is a promising strategy for cardiac diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and cardiac hypertrophy in T2DM, there are many concerns about chronic usage of rapamycin...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433890/il-37-induces-autophagy-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-inhibiting-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#12
Ting-Ting Li, Di Zhu, Tong Mou, Zhen Guo, Jun-Liang Pu, Qing-Song Chen, Xu-Fu Wei, Zhong-Jun Wu
Autophagy is an intracellular "self-eating" process that is closely related to inflammation and cellular immunity. New studies indicate that autophagy is also involved in tumor suppression. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-37 (IL-37) has been shown to have tumor-suppressive abilities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Notably, autophagy appears to play a dual role in the development of HCC and may be involved in both tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. However, the potential role of IL-37 in autophagy is currently unknown...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433710/down-regulation-of-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-expression-induces-death-of-human-annulus-fibrosus-cells-via-mitochondrial-and-death-receptor-pathways
#13
Xinghuo Wu, Kun Wang, Wenbin Hua, Shuai Li, Xianzhe Liu, Wei Liu, Yu Song, Yukun Zhang, Zengwu Shao, Cao Yang
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) exerts its biological effects by participating in the regulation of glucose metabolism and cell apoptosis. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the expression of IAPP in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue and IAPP's modulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) catabolic and anabolic genes in human AF cells. We found that the expression of IAPP, the calcitonin receptor, and receptor activity modifying protein decreased considerably in AF cells during the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD)...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432555/rotundarpene-inhibits-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-activation-of-the-akt-mtor-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-and-the-jnk-and-p38-associated-with-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#14
Arum Kim, Yoon Jeong Nam, Yong Kyoo Shin, Min Sung Lee, Dong Suep Sohn, Chung Soo Lee
Ilex Rotunda Thunb has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In human keratinocytes, we investigated the effect of rotundarpene (4-caffeoyl-3-methyl-but-2-ene-1,4-diol) on the TNF-α-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in relation to the Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways, and the JNK and p38-MAPK. Rotundarpene, Akt inhibitor, Bay 11-7085, rapamycin, and N-acetylcysteine inhibited the TNF-α-stimulated production of cytokines and chemokines, increase in the levels of p-Akt and mTOR, activation of NF-κB, and production of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431975/liposomal-curcumin-alters-chemosensitivity-of-breast-cancer-cells-to-adriamycin-via-regulating-microrna-expression
#15
Siying Zhou, Jian Li, Hanzi Xu, Sijie Zhang, Xiu Chen, Wei Chen, Sujin Yang, Shanliang Zhong, Jianhua Zhao, Jinhai Tang
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies, but poor bioavailability and low absorption have limited its clinical use and the mechanisms remain unclear. Also, Adriamycin (Adr) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in breast cancer; however, the high resistant rate of Adr leads to a poor prognosis. METHODS: We utilized encapsulation in liposomes as a strategy to improve the bioavailability of curcumin and demonstrated that liposomal curcumin altered chemosensitivity of Adr-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer (MCF-7/Adr) by MTT assay...
April 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430863/fgfr2-amplification-in-metastatic-hormone-positive-breast-cancer-and-response-to-an-mtor-inhibitor
#16
Lironne Wein, Peter Savas, Courtney Van Geelan, Franco Caramia, Kate Moodie, Sachin Joshi, Sherene Loi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430287/dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumour-insight-into-the-pathology-and-pathogenesis
#17
Iwona Sontowska, Ewa Matyja, Jacek Malejczyk, Wieslawa Grajkowska
<i>Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) is categorized as a benign glioneuronal neoplasm affecting children and young adults with chronic epileptic seizures. It is characterized by predominant intracortical localization and nodular architecture. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour usually demonstrates a distinctive morphological pattern with a specific glioneuronal element but occasionally, its morphological picture is heterogeneous and unspecific. Thus, considering the morphology of DNT, three different histopathological subtypes are distinguished: simple, complex, and non-specific and diffuse...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429995/new-insights-into-the-role-of-dietary-spermine-on-inflammation-immune-function-and-related-signalling-molecules-in-the-thymus-and-spleen-of-piglets
#18
Wei Cao, Xianjian Wu, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Caimei Wu, Jiayong Tang, Jing Wang, Jingyi Cai, Guangmang Liu
This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary spermine supplementation on the inflammatory response and immune function of the thymus and spleen in piglets. Eighty suckling piglets were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrients supplemented with spermine (0.4 mmol/kg body weight) or restricted nutrient intake supplemented with normal saline for 7 h or 3, 6 and 9 days in pairs. Regardless of treatment time, spermine supplementation decreased (p < 0.05, compared with the controls) the following: (1) tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, 2 and 6, and interferon (IFN)-γ levels in serum; (2) gene expression of cluster of differentiation 8 and integrin beta-2 in the thymus and spleen and the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 in the thymus; (3) mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL 1β, 2, 6, and 12, IFN-γ and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the thymus and spleen, as well as IL-8 in the spleen; and (4) eukaryotic IF4E-binding protein 1, Janus kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and nuclear factor-kappa B P65 gene transcriptions in the thymus and spleen...
June 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428627/glucocorticoids-suppress-antimicrobial-autophagy-and-nitric-oxide-production-and-facilitate-mycobacterial-survival-in-macrophages
#19
Jinli Wang, Ruining Wang, Hui Wang, Xiaofan Yang, Jiahui Yang, Wenjing Xiong, Qian Wen, Li Ma
Chronic administration of glucocorticoids has been shown to render individuals highly susceptible to mycobacterial infection and lead to reactivation of latent bacilli. However, the effect of glucocorticoids on innate anti-mycobacterial defense, especially in macrophages remains largely unknown. Here, we found that glucocorticoids inhibited the innate immune response, antimicrobial nitric oxide production and autophagy in mycobacteria-challenged macrophages. Meanwhile, maturation and acidification of mycobacterial phagosomes were attenuated in RAW264...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428083/the-roles-of-subcellularly-located-egfr-in-autophagy
#20
REVIEW
Hongsen Li, Liangkun You, Jiansheng Xie, Hongming Pan, Weidong Han
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a well-studied receptor-tyrosine kinase that serves vital roles in regulation of organ development and cancer progression. EGFR not only exists on the plasma membrane, but also widely expressed in the nucleus, endosomes, and mitochondria. Most recently, several lines of evidences indicated that autophagy is regulated by EGFR in kinase-active and -independent manners. In this review, we summarized recent advances in our understanding of the functions of different subcellularly located EGFR on autophagy...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
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