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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335557/ros-production-and-erk-activity-are-involved-in-the-effects-of-d-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-metformin-in-a-glucose-deficient-condition
#1
Santosh Lamichhane, Tonking Bastola, Ramesh Pariyar, Eun-Sol Lee, Ho-Sub Lee, Dae Ho Lee, Jungwon Seo
Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB) using SH-SY5Y cells. The cytotoxic mechanism of metformin under glucose deficiency was also examined. Cell viability under 1 mM glucose (glucose deficiency) was significantly decreased which was accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3β)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285645/treatment-of-reactive-hypoglycemia-with-the-macrobiotic-ma-pi-2-diet-as-assessed-by-continuous-glucose-monitoring-the-mahyp-randomized-crossover-trial
#2
Andreea Soare, Yeganeh Manon Khazrai, Lucia Fontana, Rossella Del Toro, Maria Concetta Lazzaro, Claudia Di Rosa, Antonia Buldo, Elvira Fioriti, Ernesto Maddaloni, Silvia Angeletti, Antonio Di Mauro, Rosaria Gesuita, Edlira Skrami, Dario Tuccinardi, Sara Fallucca, Mario Pianesi, Paolo Pozzilli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nutritional therapy is recommended for management of reactive hypoglycemia (RH), a condition characterized by hypoglycemia that occurs within four hours after a meal. The macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet improves glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes. We explored the effect of this diet on outcomes in non-diabetic individuals with RH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve subjects with RH were randomized to the Ma-Pi 2 diet for three days and a control diet for three days in a randomized crossover design...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249917/hba1c-and-glycated-albumin-levels-are-high-in-gastrectomized-subjects-with-iron-deficiency-anemia
#3
Shinya Inada, Masafumi Koga
We report that glycated albumin (GA) is higher relative to HbA1c in non-diabetic, gastrectomized subjects without anemia, and thus is a sign of oxyhyperglycemia. It is known that gastrectomized subjects are prone to iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), and that the HbA1c levels of subjects with IDA are falsely high. In the present study, the HbA1c and GA levels of gastrectomized subjects with IDA were compared with gastrectomized subjects without anemia. Seven non-diabetic gastrectomized subjects with IDA were enrolled in the present study...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235848/patients-with-long-qt-syndrome-due-to-impaired-herg-encoded-kv11-1-potassium-channel-have-exaggerated-endocrine-pancreatic-and-incretin-function-associated-with-reactive-hypoglycemia
#4
Louise Hyltén-Cavallius, Eva W Iepsen, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Mathilde Svendstrup, Anniek F Lubberding, Bolette Hartmann, Thomas Jespersen, Allan Linneberg, Michael Christiansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Oluf Pedersen, Jens J Holst, Jørgen K Kanters, Torben Hansen, Signe S Torekov
Background -Loss-of-function mutations in hERG (encoding the Kv11.1 voltage-gated potassium channel) cause long QT syndrome (LQT2) due to prolonged cardiac repolarization. However, Kv11.1 is also present in pancreatic α and β cells and intestinal L and K cells, secreting glucagon, insulin, and the incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), respectively. These hormones are crucial for glucose regulation and LQTS may cause disturbed glucose regulation. We measured secretion of these hormones and cardiac repolarization in response to glucose ingestion in LQT2 patients with functional mutations in hERG and matched healthy participants, testing the hypothesis that LQT2 patients have increased incretin and β cell- and decreased α cell function and thus lower glucose levels...
February 24, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137792/cardiac-autonomic-regulation-and-repolarization-during-acute-experimental-hypoglycemia-in-type-2-diabetes
#5
Elaine Chow, Alan Bernjak, Emma Walkinshaw, Alexandra Lubina-Solomon, Jenny Freeman, Ian A Macdonald, Paul J Sheridan, Simon R Heller
Hypoglycemia is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in trials of intensive therapy in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We previously observed an increase in arrhythmias during spontaneous prolonged hypoglycemia in T2DM patients. Our aim was to examine changes in cardiac autonomic function and repolarization during sustained experimental hypoglycemia.Twelve adults with T2DM and eleven age, BMI-matched nondiabetic controls underwent paired hyperinsulinemic clamps separated by 4 weeks. Glucose was maintained at euglycemia (6...
January 30, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115020/cerebral-ischemic-damage-in-diabetes-an-inflammatory-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Vibha Shukla, Akhalesh Kumar Shakya, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon, Kunjan R Dave
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A strong inflammatory response characterized by activation and release of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and proteolytic enzymes contributes to brain damage following stroke. Stroke outcomes are worse among diabetics, resulting in increased mortality and disabilities. Diabetes involves chronic inflammation manifested by reactive oxygen species generation, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and activation/expression of other inflammatory mediators...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923790/dynamin-related-protein-1-mediates-low-glucose-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-arterioles
#7
Michael John Tanner, Jingli Wang, Rong Ying, Tisha B Suboc, Mobin Malik, Allison Couillard, Amberly Branum, Venkata Puppala, Michael Eric Widlansky
Intensive glycemic regulation has resulted in an increased incidence of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemic burden correlates with adverse cardiovascular complications and contributes acutely and chronically to endothelial dysfunction. Prior data indicate mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to hypoglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction, but the mechanisms behind this linkage remain unknown. We attempt to determine whether clinically relevant low glucose (LG) exposures acutely induce endothelial dysfunction through activation of the mitochondrial fission process...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748835/mechanisms-through-which-diabetes-mellitus-influences-renal-cell-carcinoma-development-and-treatment-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Dominika Labochka, Barbara Moszczuk, Wojciech Kukwa, Cezary Szczylik, Anna M Czarnecka
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) comprises 2‑3% of all malignant tumors in adults. Many studies have established the key roles of smoking, hypertension and other components of metabolic syndrome in the occurrence of RCC. Diabetes mellitus (DM), one of the main consequences of metabolic syndrome, appears much more often in patients with RCC. The prognosis for patients suffering from both diabetes and RCC is worse than for those with kidney cancer only. Diabetes is linked to higher rate of recurrence and a greater number of distant metastases...
December 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740870/intracerebroventricular-catalase-reduces-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-and-increases-responses-to-hypoglycemia-in-rats
#9
S Pauliina Markkula, David Lyons, Chen-Yu Yueh, Christine Riches, Paul Hurst, Barbara Fielding, Lora K Heisler, Mark L Evans
Specialized metabolic sensors in the hypothalamus regulate blood glucose levels by influencing hepatic glucose output and hypoglycemic counterregulatory responses. Hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) may act as a metabolic signal-mediating responses to changes in glucose, other substrates and hormones. The role of ROS in the brain's control of glucose homeostasis remains unclear. We hypothesized that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a relatively stable form of ROS, acts as a sensor of neuronal glucose consumption and availability and that lowering brain H2O2 with the enzyme catalase would lead to systemic responses increasing blood glucose...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725372/diagnosis-of-insulinoma-using-the-ratios-of-serum-concentrations-of-insulin-and-c-peptide-to-glucose-during-a-5-hour-oral-glucose-tolerance-test
#10
Xu Li, Feng Zhang, Haibing Chen, Haoyong Yu, Jian Zhou, Ming Li, Qing Li, Lianxi Li, Jun Yin, Fang Liu, Yuqian Bao, Junfeng Han, Weiping Jia
The 72-hour fast test is the current standard for the diagnosis of insulinoma. However, to conduct this test patients require hospitalization due to the chance of severe hypoglycemic episodes. Thus, it is costly and stressful for the patient. An out-patient test would serve the patient better and be more economical. Our aim was to evaluate the value of insulin to glucose and C-peptide to glucose ratios during a prolonged 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (5-hour OGTT) in qualitative diagnosis of insulinoma, and to identify the optimal threshold for clinical screening...
October 1, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537577/the-effect-of-alogliptin-on-pulmonary-function-in-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-inadequately-controlled-by-metformin-monotherapy
#11
He Tai, Ming-Yue Wang, Yue-Ping Zhao, Ling-Bing Li, Qian-Yan Dong, Xin-Guang Liu, Jin-Song Kuang
BACKGROUND: To observe the effect of alogliptin combined with metformin on pulmonary function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin monotherapy (500 mg, bid po, for at least 3 months), and evaluate its efficacy and safety. METHODS: After a 2-week screening period, adult patients (aged 36-72 years) entered a 4-week run-in/stabilization period. Then, patients were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 55) or the control group (n = 50) for 26 weeks...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409331/blood-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-during-an-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-in-patients-with-symptoms-suggesting-reactive-hypoglycemia
#12
W Eik, S S Marcon, T Krupek, I T S Previdelli, O C N Pereira, M A R C P Silva, R B Bazotte
We evaluated the impact of postprandial glycemia on blood levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines during an oral glucose tolerance test in non-diabetic patients with symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia. Eleven patients with clinical symptoms suggesting reactive hypoglycemia received an oral glucose solution (75 g) Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after glucose ingestion and the plasma concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin 13 (IL-13), interleukin 15 (IL-15), interleukin 17 (IL-17), IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-basic), eotaxin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and 1β (MIP-1β) were evaluated...
July 11, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362938/control-of-insulin-secretion-by-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-study-performed-in-pancreatic-islets-from-fed-and-48-hour-fasted-wistar-rats
#13
Ana Cláudia Munhoz, Patrícia Riva, Daniel Simões, Rui Curi, Angelo Rafael Carpinelli
Mitochondria and NADPH oxidase are important sources of reactive oxygen species in particular the superoxide radical (ROS) in pancreatic islets. These molecules derived from molecular oxygen are involved in pancreatic β-cells signaling and control of insulin secretion. We examined the involvement of ROS produced through NADPH oxidase in the leucine- and/or glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets from fed or 48-hour fasted rats. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated islets was evaluated at low (2...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345307/a-comparison-between-the-equine-and-bovine-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis
#14
J H van der Kolk, N Fouché, J J Gross, V Gerber, R M Bruckmaier
In this review, we address the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis with special emphasis on the comparison between the bovine and equine species. The pars intermedia of the pituitary gland is particularly well developed in horses and cattle. However, its function is not well appreciated in cattle yet. The Wulzen's cone of the adenohypophysis is a special feature of ruminants. Total basal cortisol concentration is much higher in horses than that in cows with similar free cortisol fractions...
July 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330731/hypoglycemia-and-glycemic-variability-are-associated-with-mortality-in-non-intensive-care-unit-hospitalized-infectious-disease-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Soichi Takeishi, Akihiro Mori, Hiroki Hachiya, Takayuki Yumura, Shun Ito, Takashi Shibuya, Shintaro Hayashi, Nobutoshi Fushimi, Noritsugu Ohashi, Hiromi Kawai
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: We aimed to identify factors - glycemic control, reactive inflammatory biomarkers or vital signs - associated with mortality in diabetic patients admitted to hospital for various infections (non-intensive care unit). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 620 diabetic patients admitted to hospital for various infections (non-intensive care unit) who underwent glucose monitoring >3 times per day. We extracted data regarding reactive inflammatory biomarkers and vital signs recorded on day 1 of hospital stay, and data on bacteremia and hypoglycemia status, glycemic variability (GV; coefficient of variation and standard deviation) and mean glucose concentrations during the entire hospital stay...
May 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280852/proinsulin-transferrin-fusion-protein-exhibits-a-prolonged-and-selective-effect-on-the-control-of-hepatic-glucose-production-in-an-experimental-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#16
Juntang Shao, Jennica L Zaro, Wei-Chiang Shen
An ideal basal insulin (INS) replacement therapy requires the distribution or action of exogenous INS to more closely mimic physiological INS in terms of its preferential hepatic action. In this paper, we introduce a novel strategy to exert liver-specific INS action by hepatic activation of INS's precursor, proinsulin (ProINS). We demonstrated the conversion of human ProINS-transferrin (Tf) fusion protein, ProINS-Tf, into an active and immuno-reactive form of INS-Tf in the liver via the slow Tf receptor mediated recycling pathway...
August 1, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272220/inhibition-of-porcine-pancreatic-amylase-activity-by-sulfamethoxazole-structural-and-functional-aspect
#17
Sujan Maity, Koel Mukherjee, Amrita Banerjee, Suman Mukherjee, Dipak Dasgupta, Suvroma Gupta
Combating Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a pivotal challenge in front of the present world. Several lines of therapy are in practice for resisting this deadly disease which often culminates with cardiovascular complexities, neuropathy and retinopathy. Among various therapies, administration of alpha glucosidase inhibitors is common and widely practiced. Sulfonylurea category of anti diabetic drug often suffers from cross reactivity with sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a common drug in use to treat a handful of microbial infections...
June 2016: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150868/concurrent-therapy-with-a-low-carbohydrate-diet-and-miglitol-remarkably-improved-the-postprandial-blood-glucose-and-insulin-levels-in-a-patient-with-reactive-hypoglycemia-due-to-late-dumping-syndrome
#18
Sachie Hirose, Yasuyuki Iwahashi, Akane Seo, Michitaka Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya Takahashi, Yoshikazu Tamori
Reactive hypoglycemia induced by late dumping syndrome is often observed after gastrectomy. However, no effective therapy has yet been fully established. We herein describe a case in which concurrent therapy with a low-carbohydrate diet using low-glycemic-index food and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, miglitol, very effectively ameliorated the postprandial fluctuations in the blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in a patient with reactive hypoglycemia due to late dumping syndrome following total gastrectomy...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138601/no-islet-cell-hyperfunction-but-altered-gut-islet-regulation-and-postprandial-hypoglycemia-in-glucose-tolerant-patients-3%C3%A2-years-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#19
Carsten Dirksen, Aleksander Eiken, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Maria S Svane, Christoffer Martinussen, Nils B Jørgensen, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad
Postprandial hyperinsulinemia characterizes Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sometimes leads to reactive hypoglycemia. We prospectively evaluated changes in beta cell function in seven RYGB-operated patients with a median follow-up of 2.9 years with hyperglycemic clamps and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Three years after RYGB, weight loss was 26 % and insulin sensitivity had improved. Insulin secretion during clamp experiments was largely unchanged compared to before surgery. In contrast, insulin secretion in response to the OGTTs doubled when evaluated by the disposition index and 2-h plasma glucose declined to a mean of 3...
September 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27135190/a-difficult-case-of-recurrent-hypoglycaemia-role-of-insulin-assays-in-establishing-the-diagnosis
#20
T Joshi, A Caswell, S Acharya
BACKGROUND: Insulin assays are designed to detect endogenous insulin, however, insulin assays produced by different manufacturers may detect exogenous recombinant insulin, with varying degrees of cross-reactivity between different assays. We report a fascinating and difficult case of recurrent hypoglycaemia, where the final diagnosis was established with the help of insulin assays using different platforms. CASE REPORT: A 24-year-old female presented with recurrent hypoglycaemic episodes on a background of Type 1 diabetes mellitus and a completely resected synovial sarcoma of the right hip several years previously...
December 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
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